Career Development in Adolescence Discussion

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Below are your Module 5 Part 1 discussion questions.   You only have to answer ONE of the questions, but please remember to respond to the correct question. Make sure that you cite the textbook. 

If the first letter of your last name begins with:
A-I — Always answer question 1.

J-R — Always answer question 2.

S-Z– Always answer question 3.

Chapter 7:

1.    List and define the three components of moral development according to the textbook. Explain what is meant by the fourth dimension of moral development, and describe the components of this fourth dimension. Which one(s) do you rely on for your moral decisions/actions? Why?

2.    Compare and contrast the three main ways in which schools teach moral development according to your textbook. Were any of these strategies present in your school? If yes, which one (or two, or all of them)? Do you consider that way as effective? Why?

3.    List and describe the three parental discipline techniques that developmentalists have shown to be associated with moral development. Have you experienced either of these from your own parents? Briefly discuss.

Bonus Question (you can answer this one if you do not want to answer one of your assigned questions from above.)

Define prosocial behaviors and discuss the gender differences in prosocial behavior found by recent research (make sure you use scholarly articles and cite them). What is the contemporary perspective of moral development in adolescents?

Below are your Module 5 Part 2 discussion questions. This week, there are two sets of questions. You only have to answer ONE of the questions (either one from set 1 or 2), but please remember to respond to the correct question.

If the first letter of your last name begins with:
A-I — Always answer question 1.

J-R — Always answer question 2.

S-Z– Always answer question 3.

SET 1: Supplemental Reading- Spirituality & PYD Study

1. What is your conceptualization of spirituality? Reflect on how you came up with this notion of what it means to be spiritual.

2. List some of the influential factors that shaped your notion(s) of spirituality. For each, explain how that factor helped shape your notion of spirituality.

3. Do you think spirituality is related to the positive development of emerging adults? Provide some examples to support your claims.

OR (don’t do both)

SET 2: Supplemental Reading- Differences in Conceptions of Spirituality

1. What are some conceptions of spirituality that differ from your own conception of spirituality? Do you believe they are acceptable conceptions of spirituality? Explain why or why not.

2. Reflect on the first time when your notion of spirituality was challenged. Explain the situation and reflect on how, if it affected, your notion of spirituality.

3. How do you think spirituality develops over time for most youth? When does it develop? Also, explain some of the factors/situations that can affect how spirituality develops over time.

Below are your Module 5, Part 3 discussion questions. You only have to answer ONE of the questions, but please remember to respond to the correct question.

If the first letter of your last name begins with:
A-I — Always answer question 1.

J-R — Always answer question 2.

S-Z– Always answer question 3.

Chapter 11

1. Compare and contrast intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Reflect on some of the things you were intrinsically and extrinsically motivated by during your adolescence. Provide 2 examples for each.

2. Describe how the expectations of parents and teachers are linked with the academic achievement of children and adolescents. What were some ways that your teachers and parents communicated their expectations to you, and how did it affect your achievement? Share 3 examples.

3. Discuss the important social contexts that influence career development in adolescence. Name 2. What are some factors that influenced your career development? Name 2.

Bonus Question (If you don’t want to answer your question above, you can answer this one)

Design a program to teach adolescents how to avoid and overcome procrastination. Be specific. You may want to include some of the modules you will use, how you want to execute it, who your target group (and why) is, etc.

hat’s first student

1. List and define the three components of moral development according to the textbook. Explain what is meant by the fourth dimension of moral development, and describe the components of this fourth dimension. Which one(s) do you rely on for your moral decisions/actions? Why?

the three components of moral development are pre-conventional reasoning, conventional reasoning, and post-conventional reasoning. Pre-conventional reasoning is the lowest level, and this is where moral reasoning is influenced by external punishment and reward. “Pre-conventional reasoning is the lowest level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. At this level, moral reasoning is strongly influenced by external punishment and reward” (page 228). Conventional reasoning is the second level, and it’s where people aside by others standards. “Conventional reasoning is the second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standards of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society. In conventional reasoning, individuals develop expectations about social roles” (page 228). Lastly, post-conventional reasoning is the highest level. It’s when people think of different moral courses and explores different moral options and finally decides on a moral code. “Post-conventional reasoning is the highest level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. At this level, morality is more internal. The individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a moral code. In post-conventional reasoning, individuals engage in deliberate checks on their reasoning to ensure that it meets high ethical standards” (page 228.) The fourth dimension of moral development is personality. Our thoughts, feelings and behavior can all be involved in our moral personality. “Recently there has been a surge interest in a fourth dimension: personality. Thoughts, behavior, and feelings can all be involved in an individual’s moral commitment places the integrity of moral personality. In this view, behaving in a manner that violates this of the self at risk” (page 236).

For me personally, I feel like I rely on the pre-conventional reasoning for my moral decisions/actions. I know when I think about doing an action if it’s right or wrong, I know that either something positive or good is going to come, or I can face something negative or a punishment that reflects my actions that I do. It’s really like cause and effect of your actions. So I tend to do more positive actions, because I know maybe I could have ‘good karma’ coming my way because of my positive actions.

Question 3

According to the textbook, the three parental discipline techniques are: “Love withdrawal, Power assertion and Induction.”(Santrock, 2019, p.239) Love withdrawal is a parent’s refusal to pay attention or love to the adolescent, as shown by the parent’s refusal to talk to the adolescent or to express dislike of the adolescent. Power assertion is a parent’s attempt to control adolescent or restrict adolescent resources, including spanking, threats, or revocation of privileges. Induction is a way for parents to use reason and explain to adolescent how their antisocial behavior might affect others. For me, the discipline technique my parents used a lot was Induction. Because on the one hand, my parents can tell me the truth that convinces me, which can effectively make me realize the seriousness of the problem. On the other hand, I am not disgusted with the way of induction by my parents. Under these conditions, the questions raised by the parents are definitely easier for me to accept. At the same time, I agree with the discipline technique of Induction, which parents hope to limit their children to make changes. Induction can teach children to act in the correct way by imparting rational thinking to them, to behave in line with social expectations, and to have good morals and not take detours. These rational thoughts will slowly change the adolescent and make more behaviors that meet the expectations of the parents.

Santrock, J. W. (2019). Adolescence (17th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

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