Indonesia is an important country to examine about human origins and evolution, due to many sites within central Java, such as Sangiran and Ngandong which account for 75 percent of the world’s Homo erectus findings (Frederick & Worden, 2011). Evolution of Homo sapiens in Indonesia has shown Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, which […]

An Exploration of the Kennewick Man Controversy The Kennewick Man controversy is one of the most well known federal court cases dealing with NAGPRA and Anthropological research. The case is influential for Native Americans, Anthropologists, Archaeologists, and federal law makers alike. Though it lasted many years and endured a very bumpy road, the Kennewick Man […]

Introduction In its stages of conception, archaeology was considered to be merely a sub-discipline of both history and anthropology, and, in many cases, was restricted as a rich man’s hobby. Developed during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the initial episode in the history of theoretical archaeology is usually referred to as ‘culture history’, […]

Question #2: Agriculture was one of the greatest advancements in human history as it provided a foundation for the development of social hierarchies or rank societies, population growth, greater access to resources through trade, and power struggles among the elites. The big question, however, is how did the practice of agriculture originate? Hunting and gathering […]

The many cultural and artistic differences between the Pre Columbian societies made the Americas a breeding ground of beauty and fashion. The three famous societies; Aztecs, Mayans and Incans; each had an individual style that reflected their environment, morals and overall way of life. Though these civilizations inhabited the western hemisphere and were able to […]

Roman amphitheatres If one were to ask any person what first comes to mind when they think of Roman civilisation, most people would instantly respond with the Colosseum in Rome, or the Gladiatorial games. The Colosseum in Rome was a symbol of the power and wealth that Rome possessed at the height of her glory, […]

What are the main methods used to discover archaeological sites in the landscape? Critically assess the pros and cons of the methods you identify using relevant examples. The archaeologist uses a range of techniques to actively discover and locate archaeological sites within the landscape; these methods are non-invasive and non-destructive and fall into four broad […]

What contribution do the Linear B archives make to understanding the Mycenaean world in respect of one of the following: social organisation, cult practices, stock breeding and agriculture, warfare, bronze working? The Linear B archives provide us with the earliest primary evidence about Mycenaean palatial civilisations[1] and an unparalleled insight into the nature of Mycenaean […]

How does archaeology interact with Imperialism, Colonialism and Nationalism? Have they contributed to archaeology in any way? Discuss with examples. When we look at the history of the archaeology, it can be said that the archaeology have always been a part of political activities however the most sensational and the conspicuous time of this interaction […]

Assess the evidence for cult practices on Cyprus during the LBA (Late Bronze Age). There is a variety of evidence for cult practices on Cyprus during the LBA although it is often difficult to interpret and scholarly opinion of the significance or meaning of any particular piece of evidence may vary widely.  In absolute terms, […]

Abstract Biological objections are always easily evoked the public concern of ethical issue, especially in human remains. And therefore, museum professionals should treat human remains differently and carefully in curation. The public awareness of ethics is changing from time to time. In the past, audiences did not response the concerns of human remains’ that are […]

Can archaeological excavation of sites not under immediate threat of development or erosion be justified morally? Explore the pros and cons of research (as opposed to rescue and salvage) excavation and non-destructive archaeological research methods using specific examples. Many people believe that archaeology and archaeologists are mainly concerned with excavation – with digging sites.  This […]

The concept of classifying a period of prehistory as the Iron Age was first introduced in the 19th century, and later validated by the massively significant discoveries at Hallstatt and La Tène. Subsequently, the era was broken down into chronological periods, against which the British Iron Age is now defined. For ease of definition, The […]

What are the significant ways in which Classical Greek and Roman houses differ? What can we learn about their households from these differences? It is important to remember that houses in the Classical and Roman periods need to be analysed carefully. Excavations carried out through the ages have had varying degrees of accuracy when interpreting […]

Where and when did the first urban societies appear? Were the earliest cities a prerequisite for the development of civilization or merely by-products of it? These are fundamental questions that are attempted to be answered in studies of the ‘urban revolution’, which is defined as “emergence of urban life and the concomitant transformation of human […]

Role of Bangladesh National Museum to Safeguard Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Review Bangladesh National Museum Abstract This paper aims to investigate the role of Bangladesh National Museum to safeguard intangible cultural heritage which is considered as the fundamental of tangible culture. Unfortunately, for the contentious impact of modernization, our intangible cultural heritages are under serious […]

The science of archaeology has undeniably enriched mankind’s history and has helped to quench the quest to understand our past cultures in a better way. Understanding the age and period of existence of the excavated fossils and other organic objects will help the archaeologist to unravel human history and evolution in a scrupulous manner (Taylor […]

Star Carr is considered to be an important site for understanding the Mesolithic period. Consider why this situation exists and outline what factors limit the available evidence for hunter- gathers in Britain during this period. To understand Star Carr, we most place the site in context with the larger Mesolithic landscape of Britain. Is Star […]

Introduction Population movement may be utilised to reconstruct activities during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. Recent research particularly that relating to genetics and isotopic analysis, has been employed to assist in this tracking of movement, though issues with this process have arisen, as will be discussed below. Generally when analysing the transition archaeologists have tended to focus […]

Can archaeological excavation of sites not under immediate threat of development or erosion be justified morally? Explore the pros and cons of research (as opposed to rescue and salvage) excavation and non-destructive archaeological research methods using specific examples. Many people believe that archaeology and archaeologists are mainly concerned with excavation – with digging sites. This […]

IPPLEPEN FIELDSCHOOL REPORT AN OVERVIEW AND DISCUSSION OF EXCAVATION IN IPPLEPEN 2018 Table of Contents Introduction Aims Context Romano-British History of South West Devon Post Roman History of South West Devon Features and Date Ranges Relationship to Nearby Sites Methods & Results Trench 16 Trench 17 Public Engagement Evaluation Works Cited/Bibliography     Introduction   […]

The date of exodus is specifically referring to the time when Israelites came out of Egypt. When determining the date of exodus, controversy happened among the archaeologists and historians and the biblical scholars. In the ancient time, people passed down their history and information orally to the next generation and written document was rare at […]

Option 2: Both the articles listed below have a similar aim (to provide a largely cognitive explanation for the placement of monuments within a landscape), but they adopt very different theoretical perspectives. Explain whether and, if so, how these different theoretical perspectives are reflected in the actual methods used by the authors Quotation  ”To truly […]

Introduction The sample of animal bones from both early and late Neolithic have increased with more sites being excavated. Some sites have smaller samples due to poor preservation and/or poor recovery. In this report, data from a Neolithic site in England will be analyzed and visualized in graphs. These graphs will then be interpreted, as […]

Was the ‘Dark Age’ of Greece really dark? Evaluate the Kinds of Evidence we have for this Period of Greek Archaeology The aim of this essay is to explore whether the ‘Dark Age’ of Greece was really a dark, bleak time in the nation’s history through considering the archaeological evidence found for conditions during this […]

The mystery of box 9 Introduction Box 9 encompassed a complete skull, articulated pelvis and right femur, all from a single, unknown individual. Sex, age, ethnicity, height and pathology was determined using both metric and morphological forensic anthropological methods. Metric analysis is advantageous because it’s easier to learn and reproduce, relies on standard landmarks, and […]

The expression of civic identity can be interpreted through material remains such as funerary monuments during the Roman period, as they provide material testimony of one’s life as well as facilitating status, recognition, legitimacy and identity amongst the living.[1] The reason for these beliefs is extensive due to being principally connected with a desire for […]

In the Paleolithic period, specifically the middle and upper Paleolithic periods, humans were beginning to advance and culturally develop at an unprecedented rate. The production of food and the creation and implementation of different tools defined these periods as quintessential to growth and the progress of technology. A substantial part of these periods are the […]