Identify a named protein within the Ig family (not an antibody) and a named protein that is involved in gene regulation or DNA transcription and evaluate the importance of the structural motifs that are found in these proteins to the structure and function. You may make reference to the hierarchy of protein structure in the […]

Influenza Virus Human Chapter 1 Introduction Influenza Influenza virus is an important human pathogen. The virus causes epidemics annually resulting in an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide (WHOa). In the USA alone, 5-20% of the population become infected every year resulting in an estimated 200,000 influenza related hospitalisations and 36,000 deaths (CDC). Influenza virus […]

INTRODUCTION The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic structure that contains a complex mixture of molecules, including elastin, collagens, laminins, fibronectin, proteoglycans and other insoluble molecules. The ECM not only provides a structural framework to support cells and divide tissues (Klein et al. 2004a;Mott & Werb 2004), but also acts as a reservoir for biologically […]

Enzyme was introduced by Kiihne in 1878, even though the first observation of enzyme activity in a test tube was done by Payen and Persoz in 1833. Enzymes are specialized proteins that make cellular work possible in all cells by helping chemical reaction to occur. these chemical reaction speed up the chemical activity by increasing […]

A superantigen is defined as a type of antigen which has the ability to cause polyclonal T cell activation via a large, nonspecific activation of T cells. There are three general families of superantigens: endogenous superantigens, exogenous superantigens, and B cell superantigens. Endogenous superantigens are encoded into the genome by different viruses; exogenous superantigens simply […]

Photosynthesis is a physiological process by which green plants, algae and some forms of bacteria utilize energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars. For the process of photosynthesis, plants require light energy from the sun, water and carbon dioxide (Johnson, 2016). This process takes place in two steps, one is light […]

ABSTRACT: In this experiment, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from Micrococcus lysodeikticus, a bacteria with a high guanine and cytosine content. The standard method of chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction was used, and the DNA was solubilized in Tris buffer. The DNA was then quantified and qualified using UV spectrophotometry. The DNA was determined to have been […]

Summary: Cellulose gas ethanol does excellent importance on fixing the strength crisis and lowering natural environment pollution. On the other hand, in the system of industrially degrading cellulose into ethanol, it is tough to straight degrade the cellulose mainly because of the existence of the lignin barrier. Although the aryl alcoholic beverages oxidase is dependable […]