77 PROPERTIES OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE MANUFACTURED WITH FLY ASH, FURNACE BOTTOM ASH, AND LYTAG Yun Bai, Ratiyah Ibrahim, and P. A. Muhammed Basheer Queen’s University, Belfast, U. K. Abstract Fly ash (FA), furnace bottom ash (FBA) and Lytag (LG) were used in the current study to replace ordinary portland cement (OPC), natural sand (NS) and […]

1.1 Problem Statement Construction waste has a major impact on the environment in both develop and developing countries and have a negative effect on the national economy. Tremendous amounts of construction waste have been generated from ongoing new construction works, as well as renovation and demolition works. With the demands in implementing major infrastructure projects […]

Natural Recycling Waste Introduction For many years peoples have been trying to keep the environmental clean and mention the natural balance of life. The scientific studies provide us the information and methods to achieve these objectives and the recycling of waste and by product materials represent the main role in these studies [1-4]. As a […]

India today is the second largest producer of cement in the world after China. With the Government of India giving boost to various infrastructure projects, housing facilities and road networks the cement industry is looking at a potential gold mine and thus the growth rate of an enviable pace. The expected increase in India is […]

India today is the second largest producer of cement in the world after China. With the Government of India giving boost to various infrastructure projects, housing facilities and road networks the cement industry is looking at a potential gold mine and thus the growth rate of an enviable pace. The expected increase in India is […]

A Rational Approach to Flat Slab Design Dissertation submitted as part requireme for the Degrees of Master of Science iStructural Engineering Abstract This dissertation aims at the flexure behaviour of reinforced concrete flat slabs in the elastic range and at the ultimate load. As such, it endeavours to give readers a thorough knowledge of the […]

CHAPTER 1 1 Introduction Pile foundations are used to carry a load and transfer the load of a given structure to the ground bearing, which is found below the ground at a considerable depth. The foundation consists of several piles and pile-caps. Pile foundations are generally long and lean, that transfers the structure load to […]

INTRODUCTION Every carpet with its pattern resembles a collection of messages, beliefs and symbols. They are declaration of wish on which all expectations are enriched. Every pattern that is woven onto carpet is a picture of feelings, desire or a wish. So far as that every carpet represents a living history from early ages to […]

When planning a bridge there are multiples of distinct things that make if operate the right way. From the precise construction of the bridge to the content that is utilised. All of these matters come into perform at some stage. There are lots of unique styles of structures bridges can be individuals are Arch, Girder, […]