Introduction “Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social and emotional well-being of children and youth” (Ginsberg, 2007, p. 182). Play is so important to children’s development is that it has been recognised as being of vital importance by the United Nations (1989), as it makes a contribution to the […]

In the field of international relations, “mutual construction” refers to the idea that over time, interactions influence the ideas, beliefs, and norms that shape the international system through constructivism. It implies that past interactions amongst states give rise to factors, i.e. the pattern of norms, beliefs, and ideas, that will influence future interactions between the […]

Similarities and Differences Piaget and Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget and Vygotsky are considered to be the two main contributors in influencing the development of psychology. The two theories when presented in their own constructivist views on the development of a child; this constructivist theory is a theory that explains that most of the […]

 An individual of society may go through a lot of changes and experiences during their lifetimes. From the moment the person is born, society ends up playing a huge role on shaping their social interactions, their behaviors, their morals and the things that end up driving their decisions; whether it is love, education, success, wealth, […]

Simulation Introduction “Clinical simulation is pretending for the purpose of improving behaviors for someone else’s benefit (Kyle & Murray, 2008, p.xxiv).” All respiratory therapists are trained to manage the airway of an unconscious patient. Endotracheal intubation is the most effective method of securing the airway but is a complex psychomotor skill requiring much practice. Historically, […]

Introduction What is conceptual change? Conceptual change is a process that changes or replaces an existing conception with a new conception. It could be an idea, a belief or a way of thinking [1]. The shift or restructuring of knowledge and beliefs are what distinguishes conceptual change learning from other types of learning. In conceptual […]

2.1 Belief Research In the mid-1970s a new body of research began to emerge that worked to describe teachers’ thoughts, judgments and decisions as the cognitive processes that shaped their behaviors (Calderhead, 1996, Clark and Peterson, 1986; Dann, 1990). As a consequence of this, a surge of interest in the area of teacher belief systems […]