How the French and Indian War Affected the American Revolution Essay

History is what has happened, in act and thought: it also is what historian’s make of it,’ an insight from historian Bernard Bailyn, in The Idea of Atlantic History. Historians continually seek out new perspectives through research resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of a given topic. For example, there are countless military, social, economic, political factors that went in to the start, middle, end and post-war of the Seven Years’ War. These same ingredients combined to stir thoughts of independence and culminated years later into the American Revolutionary War. Every historian who has written on the subject has relayed facts, sited evidence and promoted their own theory on what transpired. Nationalist or Whig historian, George Bancroft, in1834, wrote, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, which was a providential and romantic account about the origins of the United States and its revolution which is in stark contrast to Progressive historian, Charles Beard’s, Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States, written in 1913. With each changing perspective, the reader learns something a bit different and is left to decipher what he wants to take away from it.       

E.H. Carr asked ‘What is history?’ He explained that ‘It is a continuous process of interaction between the historian and his facts, an unending dialogue between the present and past.’1 He believed that the society in which a historian lives, cannot but   influence his writing of the past. Carr carried this argument further by adding he did not believe a historian could objectively write just the facts. ‘The historian will always be subject to his own personal interpretation regardless of the facts.’2 A good example of this is Frederick Turner’s “Frontier Thesis.” He was a product of his time and it influenced his writing. According to Gordon Wood, “For Turner, the New World that the Europeans came to in the seventeenth century was ‘virgin soil,’ an ‘unexploited wilderness’ out of which American distinctiveness was born. The Indians had no place in it. No colonial historian could write that way anymore.” 3 Historiographer, Ernst Breisach describes a historian’s writing as a ‘historical nexus’ in that ‘every important new discovery of the past changes how we think about the present and what we expect of the future: on the other hand, every change in the condition of the present and in the expectations for the future revise our perception of the past.4 He further explains the importance of historiography with, “Once the link between history writing and the human condition is grasped in all its complexity, simple solutions vanish.”5       

All of this is a lot to take in before delving into Seven Years’ War history research. Combine this along with the fact that even the name of this war causes a bit of confusion. It has multiple names, not the least of which is the Seven Years’ War, in spite of it lasting nine years. It is known as the French Indian War, Bancroft refers to it as, The First Phase of the American Revolution, Arthur R. Ropes describes it as, The Great Diplomatic War, Lawrence Henry Gipson refers to it as The Great War for the Empire, Winston Churchill, The First World War and Baugh, The Global Seven Years’ War.  Beyond this multiplicity, it is also prudent to understand the context in which the historians have written. With all of this in mind, this paper will attempt to identify historians within their historiography school and discuss their views on the Seven Years’ War and how it impacted the colonist. In spite of all the different interpretations and perspectives of the who, what and when’s of the war, and its impact, there is one tangential factor that binds them. This particular war set off a chain of events and emotions that somehow culminated into a revolution. In the process of understanding the historiography of Seven Year’s War it became evident that historiography itself mirrors the essence of what the nation actually became: a nonhomogeneous group of people slowly and constantly evolving with different ideas and philosophies that somehow came together to form a community with the liberty to speak and write what they choose.     

Historian George Bancroft is referred to by some as the “father of American history.” He wrote ten-volumes about The Origins of America, over a fifty-year period. Born in the year 1800, Bancroft actually lived with the people who had first and second-hand knowledge of the Seven Years’ War and the American Revolution. For example, he is the only historian who had been able to sit down with James Madison and received a first-hand account of the Continental Convention. Bancroft’s nationalistic narrative held that the colonies looked to and depended on God to help guide them to their destiny. He wrote that the United States was special in that it was capitalizing on freedom, democracy and equality. He believed this model was something the world would emulate. Bancroft wrote that ‘The successes of the Seven Years’ War were the triumphs of Protestantism…Individuality was the groundwork of new theories in politics, ethics and industry.’6 This mindset was coupled with Bancroft’s view that King George III, was a monarch who used the threat of his military to impose tyranny on the colonies for ‘his own measures of aggrandizement.’7  Divine providence and progress, according to Bancroft, facilitated the colonies ability to begin building a new nation, which would then serve as an example for other countries to follow, ‘A new order for the ages, Novus ordo Seclorum.”8 For all of Bancroft’s research and a lifetime spent writing, Federalist historians in the 1890’s immediately criticized his work. John Franklin Jamison, one of the founders of the National Archives and American Historical Association, accused Bancroft of lacking objectivity. Historians regard context as an important factor in judging and understanding history. Bancroft provides both within his work because it is a unique insight into how people felt about their new nation and into the cultural mindsight during that period in spite of its historical shortcomings.     

In contrast to Bancroft, Arthur E. Ropes wrote, The Causes of the Seven Years’ War from a British perspective. He begins his essay describing the 18th century as ‘the Age of Diplomacy.’9 He believed that the Seven Years’ War was one of the most important wars of that century.10 As part of the Imperial School of historiography, written in 1889, two years after Bancroft’s death, Ropes see the war far beyond the American land and Indian disputes and the struggle over colonial dominance. That is just a small part of the war. Ropes looks to the origin of the war as a massive change in Europe’s political system. He characterizes it as ‘a rupture of old friendships and extension of old enmities.”11 Diplomatic friend and foes changed and consummated alliances within a year’s time. Given that the war initially began over the rights to the Ohio River Valley between Britain and France, Ropes believes it was the diplomatic failures that led to a world war. He argues that the French demanded cooperative action from Frederick the Great and from here the dominoes began to fall. Alliances were broken and new ones took their place. The war that was initially between two adversaries became an international diplomatic game of twister. In Ropes version of the war, the new diplomatic order dramatically altered the world and the colonists were a small part of the game.     

Lawrence Henry Gipson, also in the Imperialist school, questions the more nationalistic and patriotic views of the war and its aftermath. Gipson sees the war as an American war caused by the colonists which pitted the French, Indians and British against each other. The Americans feared the Appalachians as a potential barrier to expansion. The French and their Indian allies were strong enough that the colonists could not defend themselves and therefore British had to defend their territory. Gipson named this ‘The Great War for the Empire.’ In his book, American Revolution as an Aftermath of the Great War for the Empire 1754 through 1763, Gipson rejects the term ‘the French and Indian War’ because it underscores the complexities of how great a landscape the war covered, for it was fought ‘over nine years on three oceans.’12 He argued that the colonial war only proved to determine what ‘culture and political institutions’ that would eventually expand throughout America. He explained his view this way; ‘The determination of this crucial issue is perhaps the most momentous event in the life of the English-speaking people in the New World and quite overshadows in importance of the Revolutionary War and the later Civil War events which it is clear were each contingent upon the outcome of the earlier crisis.13 Moreover, Gipson confronts the nationalistic perspective by arguing that the war is really just between the French, Indians and British and concerned the colonies very little. It is his premise that Britain took on the war to protect their colonists. With victory they brought on an unprecedented potential for wealth, land and power. Yes, a nationalistic fervor carried forward to the revolution, but more importantly, Gipson see the colonist’s independence growing because of Britain’s protection.     

Historian Bernard Bailyn adds the Seven Years’ War to the list of cultural persuasions that were accumulating to eventually form a unique ideology. In his book, Ideological Origins of the American Revolution, Bailyn identifies the seeds of this new ideology, dating back to the 1720’s with the book publication of the Cato Letters and fifty- three papers from the Independent Whig Weekly. ‘Undercurrents’ of liberty and independence were simmering in the colonist minds for decades. The colonists were fearful of power and its’ corrupting qualities within a government. Bailyn quotes Reverend Peter Whitney, ‘Like other blessings, power may become scourge, a curse, and severe punishment to a people,’ and then finishes his point with, ‘What turned power into a malignant force was not its own nature so much as the nature of man- his susceptibility to corruption and his lust for self-aggrandizement.’14      

Bailyn argued that the colonists had an inclination to be loyal, but their skepticism of power superseded this and lent a highly discriminating perspective of British policies. After the war, the colonists felt they had proven themselves to the British and therefore deserved equal standing as a people. The British felt otherwise and postwar the colonists faced a British degradation via the heavy burden of taxation with ‘the invasion of customs officers born with long claws like eagles,’ and the oppression of the ‘standing British army.’15 Bailyn believes the ‘pre-war liberty propaganda plus America’s strength during the war combined with their decentralized authority amongst the thirteen colonies’16 all worked together to propel the colonies into adapting, believing, and acting upon a revolutionary ideology. Essentially, the Seven Years’ War and Britain’s poor post-management of it, served to ignite the ideological fuse at the Boston Tea Party. Ultimately, the colonist’s fear of British power sparked them enough to define power on their own terms in the Constitution.        

Historian Jack P. Green asks two questions regarding the colonies and the Seven Years’ War. Did the British ‘metropolitan actions’ spark the revolution or did the war experience set up a colonial revolutionary response to those actions?17 Green argues the colonies originally had the freedom to grow in their own way, however, once Britain recognized the market and wealth potential, they began to reign in colony freedoms in order to exert some control. Because Britain had allowed certain freedoms, the colonists were free to create their own society free of a social caste system. Hard work, not birth rights were rewarded. Americans wanted to govern themselves and were mindful of Britain’s potential encroaching power. As the colonies prosperity increased Britain’s response was to impose more force. The Currency Act of 1751 and the Board of Trade’s actions reflected Lord Granville’s sentiments to Ben Franklin, ‘The colonies had ‘too many and two great privileges’ and that it was ‘not only the interest of the crown, but of the Nation to reduce them to ‘an absolute subjection to orders.’18 Greene’s premise, in his speech, ‘A Posture of Hostility: A Reconciliation of Some Aspects of the Origins of the American Revolution,’ is that between 1748 and 1756 Britain chose to tighten control over the colonies was ultimately lead to ‘the colonial population to resistance, rebellion, and independence.19      

Matthew C. Ward‘s, Breaking the Back Country: The Seven Years’ War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754 to 1765, sheds light not only on the colonist’s strategic and military ambitions, but also on the lives living the war against the French and Indians. As a new Military historian, Ward focuses on both the military and social aspects of the war. Ward connects the dots between the cultural, diplomatic, and political realms. The war exposes what Ward refers to as the ‘intense individualism’ of the back country. This independence of spirit conflicted with the British soldiers, the Indians and French. Once the war began, a deeper sense of fear and survival permeated both the Indians and colonists. After gruesome and fierce raids, a peaceful co-existence was no longer possible between the two. In 1756, Indian raids captured thousands and killed over 1000 backcountry colonists and soldiers. When the war ended, the bloody confrontations between colonists and Indians continued. Ward believes that once the French were defeated and forced out, British behavior towards both the colonists and the Indians created a culture for rebellion. As a result, the Indians rebelled against them in Pontiac’s War. On the other hand, the colonists culture of competition and individualism heightened their animosity toward the British in direct relation to their standing army and post-war policies. Ward ensues a very effective view of both military strategy and actual conflict combined with the social construct of the parties involved to understand the impetus toward rebellion.       

In Fred Anderson‘s, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of the Empire in British North America, 1754 through 1766, he takes on a Revisionist view in that he argues the war did not necessarily lead to the American revolution, rather the colonist’s freedoms had formulated into a concept of limited government inherent to their daily lives. Before and during the war, colonists recognized the British as the ‘freest most enlightened empire in history- in which they shared a common enemy, the French and their Indian allies.’20 Anderson creates the framework where France is always struggling to best Britain in a continual vie for power and strength. He connects military strategy, operation and logistics,21 as well the social and economic interplay between the French, British, Colonists and Indians. Anderson makes the case that the colonists, before, during, and after the war were true loyalists. But it was not until 1766, with the imposition of new taxes, that Britain became a threat to their liberties. The outcome of the Seven Years’ War weakened the British Empire monetarily, which in-turn, led to the ‘event that decisively shaped American history.’22 ‘Our colonial period is something more than a quaint mezzolint prelude to a national history.”23  ‘The war became the necessary precondition,’24 for the development of an American nation- state,’25 and was aided by the French desire for revenge. Anderson astutely argues that ‘war and freedoms are intertwined in our nation’s history.’26     

Revisionist historian, Daniel Baugh, unlike Anderson’s military focus, zeroes in on and the tangled web of the French and British rivalry and diplomatic relations within the framework of a worldwide war. Baugh dives deep into the French perspective. He argues France’s rivalry with Britain combined with the ever-growing market of North American trade pushed France to act in order to preserve their pathways for trade. In 1753, the British received reports that the French had their military in the Ohio Valley and were building forts to use as garrisons. This news pushed the British into action in North America, which led ultimately to a world war. Baugh argues that the British military leadership bested the French, as did their finances. Baugh’s book covers the global event of the war and primarily focuses on the leadership, military, and diplomatic constructs. As such, by omitting the stories of the common man, soldiers, slaves and Indians, a new social historian would feel this book hopelessly incomplete. In Baugh’s conclusion and aftermath chapter, he summarizes the economic foundations as the seeds for a North American revolution. Representative of this issue is Lord Granville‘s belief, ‘We have expanded much in America. Let us now avail ourselves the fruits of that expense.’27 Baugh argues, ‘Fundamentally, the Anglo-French Seven Years’ war had begun because of the importance of the North American market for British exports and the Stamp Act suddenly ruined the market.’28 These acts brought the markets to a halt, ‘creating both a trade recession and unemployment in Britain.”29 The need to control the colonies ultimately led to the revolution and presented an opportunity for French payback against Britain. The combined efforts of France and Spain aiding the Americans led to the British losing North America. In spite of this, Baugh ends his argument with stating, ‘The British were able to recapture the American markets via Britain’s commercial and financial capabilities’ and in turn ‘shape the future of world politics for two centuries.’30         

Historiography, as a subject, is wide ranging and diverse. It offers the reader many different perspectives on any given history topic with no two alike. For the colonists, the Seven Years’ War may or may not have been the stepping stone to war, depending on which historian you read. Perhaps, as Richard Hofstadter, a Consensus historian contended, postwar conflict may have had a more “ad hoc basis” devoid of any deep ideological divide.31 After reading the many different accounts it is difficult not to conclude that the war served as an impetus toward an eventual revolution. However, what I do come back to is Breisach’s historical nexus. The more I consider it the more it makes sense. “History has an inescapable link between the past, present and future, which destroys history’s image as an activity resembling idle rummaging in a bag of dry leaves.”32 When applying this idea to the different perspectives in each historiological school of thought it reveals that the writing of history reflects our society as well as our past and can give insight into the future. “Change and continuity, have always testified to the unbreakable connection between life and historical thought.”33 This is demonstrated within each historian’s perspective. Historiography serves to reflect time and change amongst historians, just as their perspectives reveal an ever-changing narrative of history. When combined, it reflects a similarity with what our country was founded on. The colonists amalgamated to form a country just as historians serve to write their history all stemming from their multiple opinions, strengths and weaknesses, political, military, social and economic ideas. In so doing, both our nation and our history

Three Issues Affected Poverty Among Elderly Americans Essay

In 2015, over 4.2 million people over 65 were below the poverty level (U.S. Census Bureau). Caubanski, Kamo, Damico & Neuman defined poverty to mean that these individuals were living at or below the federal poverty level, which is $11,367 per year for a single person. When elderly reach this poverty level there begins to be a struggle in many areas in their lives. Some of these area include the housings market and cost of mortgages, health care expenses, poor resources of food, a lack of reliable transportation, and diminished savings and pensions. For those above the poverty level, it seems that if there is one major life change or event, the lifestyle they are accustomed to can be pulled out from under them and begin to face struggles to make ends meet. The Census Bureau’s recent poverty report for most age groups in America revealed a trend that poverty among older Americans is on the rise. “Individuals ages 65 and older had the unique distinction of being the only population segment to experience a significant increase in the number of individuals in poverty, with 367,000 more older Americans in poverty in 2016,” (Nicolaci da Costa, 2017).

These facts do not tell the whole story and how these issues affect the elderly population. There are many issues contributing to these struggles. Caubanski, Koma, Damico, & Neuman (2018) state these struggles for seniors will only increase by a number of factors. To get a more complete understanding of poverty, one must consider three key issues affecting elderly Americans: health care, housing, and retirement.

Health care

Today, many older workers under the age of 65 are choosing to delay their retirement due to a decline in employer benefits for health care plans. A large number of these workers are not yet eligible for Medicare and the lack of a health care safety net drastically raises their risk of financial woes and instability. It seems that the elderly Americans already small budgets are stretched even further by higher expenses in health care. Medical spending for those between the ages of 55 and 64 is almost twice the amount spent by those between the ages of 35 and 44 and this trend just continues to escalate (Komisar, 2013). When we look at medical costs, out-of-pocket medical expenses such as prescription drugs, long-term care, and medical supplies rise dramatically with age. These medical expenses are often not covered by health insurance and therefore deplete their savings.

According to a project by Komisar (2013), costly health care expenditures from a serious illness before a patient is will even be eligible for Medicare in addition to the inability to work during and after an illness are becoming all too common factors of a financial crisis among those 60 and older, and there income is significantly reduced. There are other ways poverty has affected healthcare. One is that health care costs have contributed to the large rise in bankruptcy filings among the elderly. Elderly debt has risen faster than any other group because seniors have turned to credit cards and home equity loans to pay for medical expenses and other debts. Also, low-income elderly tend to have more chronic and debilitating health challenges that increase the health care payments. Poverty rates for the elderly have risen much faster than those of other age groups due to their incomes being reduced and squandered and due to the medical out-of-pocket spending that almost doubles for seniors.


In addition to rising health care costs, seniors have been hit the hardest by the housing problems facing this country. When seniors are needing to downsize, many are unable to sell their homes in a diminishing housing market, and thousands of them who need support and care are unable to move into retirement communities and assisted-living facilities. Growing numbers of elderly are essentially stranded in their own homes. Many simply cannot afford the upfront payment it requires to move into senior living environments without their homes selling.” According to data from the National Investment Center for the Seniors Housing and Care Industry (Nicolaci da Costa, 2017), it appears that in many areas of our country where there is a weak economy, the vacancies in Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRC) and other independent and assisted living facilities have been rising.
Thousands of elderly homeowners or renters have faced foreclosure and evictions. Nearly a third of senior homeowners still have a mortgage. Many of those seniors pay more than one-third of their income on housing costs and for older renters, poverty and the burden of housing costs are an all too common issue. In 2015, 78% of older renters spent more than one-third of their income on housing costs (Moody & Sasser, 2018). As seniors age, they tend to also live in older homes and so for elderly homeowners, their income will be drained due to repairs.


In 2010, it was expected that as the first baby boomers reached 60 there would be a sudden leave from the workforce; however, due to a weakened economy and healthcare costs on the rise, those again individuals are delaying retirement (Walls, 2016). Retirement income is often described as a “three-legged stool”: a defined benefit pension, Social Security, and personal savings (Moody & Sasser, 2018). Today, low-income Americans, rarely have a pension or even a sufficient savings and the percentage of those relying on Social Security benefits alone have risen. It was noted that in the last decade the United States has seen a significant shift away from defined benefit pensions and a plunging personal savings rate, essentially shortening two of the stool’s three legs (Ortman, Velkoff and Hogan, 2014).

The first aspect to look at in regards to the retirement struggle among elderly is that the trend over the past ten years has shown that the youth labor rate is nearing an all-time low, but more aging Americans are now in the job market than at any other time since the Great Depression (Edwards, Bee & Fox, 2017). According to Walls (2016) it is projected that the elderly Americans will have its largest increase in the labor market, and estimates that by 2020 the number of workers between the ages of 65 and 74 and those age 75 and older will rise by more than 70 percent. The recession in 2008 has started a trend for these seniors and ended up redefining retirement for aging Americans. Instead of being certain of their retirement dreams, they have instead realized that their 401k have been depleted, along with their IRA and all other forms of investment savings they have worked for over the years. Due to their age, they do not have the luxury to make up for their losses over time. It is this very dilemma that is forcing the blurred lines of the workforce and retirement, and pushing more to stay in employment longer.

The other aspect to look at is that poverty varies by sociodemographic factors and is higher for some groups than for others (Moody & Sasser, 2018.) Aging women, for example, are more likely than older men to need to work because women earn less than men and are more likely to need to funds to live. They will have lower monthly Social Security benefits than men and smaller pensions from their employers. Women tend to live longer than men and this results in them using up their savings and there is a need to stay in the workforce for an extended period of time.

After looking much more closely at health care, housing, and retirement, it seems that weak economic conditions have only increased and created more barriers of financial security for aging Americans. By looking at our baby boomer population, it is evident that this problem will only continue to grow. It is up to the younger generations to give back and find ways to give them a means to live due to their years given in the work field. Older Americans who live in poverty cannot avoid its consequences. They will continue to face that reality every day. Health care, housing and retirement affects show that it is not the cost of living that is the problem, it’s the cost of trying to continue to live and be a functioning member of society. There should always be a place for the retired and policymakers need to find ways and create legislation that support all working adults and continue to help them maintain financial stability throughout their lifetimes, and well into retirement.? ?

How Hurricane Katrina Affected the People of New Orleans Essay

Hurricane Katrina was the storm that wiped New Orleans off the map in 2005. hurricane Katrina starts off as a tropical depression on Tuesday, August 23rd. katrina made two landfalls the first one was on the southeast Florida coast on August 25th as a Category 1 hurricane with 80mph winds and soon after the storm passes over Florida it moved into the Gulf of Mexico where it became a category five. the second landfall was Monday, August 29, 2005, at 6:10 AM CDT. The aftermath of this hurricane was a disaster for the city’s residents. The storm had been a major turning point in the history of New Orleans and the surrounding area because from this day we would have to rebuild everything.

The hurricane killed 1,836 in Southeast Louisiana and Mississippi (mostly in New Orleans) and South Florida. This death toll was caused because of the failed plans to evacuate the city. The state of had to move nearly 1.5 million people before Hurricane Katrina made landfall. for example for the people that couldn’t get out the city, there was a plan to bring them to Texas via buses but the buses were left on the ground level and flooded. A significant part of the city, most of which sits below sea level, was drowned. Damages reached the US $ 81.5 billion, making Katrina the costliest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the U.S. Rebuilding after Hurricane Katrina was one of the most and extraordinary tragedies which shook apart of New Orleans in the United States of America.

The catastrophe left dozens of people dead, rendering thousands of them homeless. The public was weakened after the extreme hurricane because billions of dollars were recorded entirely as losses made that there was not enough money for fixing all those damages. Hurricane Katrina had a significant impact on public health causing elderly people to death because they lost their medicines and people getting sick from unsanitary conditions. Now 13 years after the horrible disaster New Orleans is just now getting back to normal. More than half of the city’s neighborhoods and some small businesses are returning and reaching their pre-storm population levels. One of the most important places that have not returned to the city is jazz land or six flags, it was known as the place to go on the weekends. The place that needs the most help would have to be the infamous Lower Ninth Ward. In the years following Katrina, only about 37 percent of households have returned home to the Ninth.

Black residents who wanted to rebuild simply couldn’t afford to as federal aid was allocated based on home values rather than the cost of construction. This is why the major of the houses in the ninth are abandon because their owners either never returned or couldn’t afford to rebuild so they moved. Till this day the Ninth Ward has not recovered from the hurricane. Hurricane Katrina was one of the biggest natural disasters ever recorded. With fierce winds and high water levels, Katrina struck the city of New Orleans with great force on Monday, Aug 29th, 2005. The water rose so high that it left about 80% of New Orleans underwater. The unfortunate part of this whole situation is how ill-prepared New Orleans was for this disaster.

Work cited

Medlin, Jeffrey, et al. Hurricane Katrina – August 2005. Edited by Morgan Barry et al., National Weather Service, NOAA’s National Weather Service, 29 Nov. 2016,

Institute of Medicine (US) Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. Hurricane Katrina: Challenges for the Community. Environmental Public Health Impacts of Disasters: Hurricane Katrina: Workshop Summary., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1970,

ROSENBERG, JOYCE M. After a Katrina or Harvey, Businesses Suffer Long after Water Recedes – Many Never Recover. The Advocate, The New Orleans Advocate, 6 Sept. 2017, 2:22 pm,

The University of Rhode Island. Katrina Impacts. Hurricanes: Science and Society: Home, The National Science Foundation, 2010,

How the Internet has Affected the Way People Read Essay


In the latest age and time, folks have come to be careless in regards to what they read and feel particularly thanks to the high variety of on-line information resources. Notably, the owners of these sources are out to advertise their rationale which is in most cases created from their possess opinion or experience. Long gone are the times when individuals employed to examine newspaper article content and publications which had been written by perfectly-experienced experts as a result contained correct info. Unfortunately, the present-day world wide web technology has introduced along the increase of blogging platform through which people today seek to crank out income and level of popularity no matter of what they move to the readers. This paper aims at determining how the existing vast use of internet has influenced the way people today examine.

The world wide web Misguides and Misleads Individuals

Without having a question, article content from the world-wide-web can be quite misleading since the author may possibly be passing the data you want to hear rather than that which is proper. As opposed to newspaper and journal writers who have a standing to secure, the present breed of writers cares fewer about their popularity as improper as they get fame and large website traffic to their web sites which interprets to further earnings. A scenario instance is when President Trump tweeted that he had won the well-known vote, which was a lie but it acquired him tens of millions of curious followers on Twitter, most of whom thought the lie to ignorance and laziness of discovering the appropriate data from respected and trusted resources (Herold).

Why is Fake News Popular on the Net?

The main purpose of owning pretend news is to capture the reader’s interest which is why these news has catchy titles and desirable images. This is as opposed to the real information which will have authentic titles and related shots. As these kinds of, a effectively-written write-up from New York Times, which is a credible information source, will be overlooked by most viewers due to the fact it could possibly appear monotonous in contrast to a partisan, poorly-investigated, speculative, redundant, or mundane write-up (Bliss). After studying these kinds of articles, most persons will go ahead and share them with their pals and social media platforms, hence deceptive even much more individuals. The dilemma that occurs then is how can the normal public be taught not to imagine in or propagate fake information?

The Require for Media Literacy

According to advocacy teams and educators, this dilemma can only be rectified if there is a lifestyle of media literacy. As these, people who go through online content articles will get time to analyze, evaluate, and evaluate distinctive resources of facts which will enable in making an educated and liable decision. In so executing, individuals will steer clear of leaving remarks which promote fake news. Notably, there are some techniques which can be introduced in mastering establishments to enable raise the culture of vital wondering. This way students will quickly spot bogus information, and they will have thoughts on wherever to search for credible info.


Without a question, the world wide web has influenced the way people utilised to go through and interpret the news. This can be accredited to the extensive array of unverified articles or blog posts, most of which are partisan or speculative. As these, most men and women finish up staying misled which is predominantly due to their laziness and ignorance when it will come to looking for for credible information.

How the Civil War Affected on Slaves? Essay

The concentrate of this investigation will be “ How the Civil War impacted the life of the Slaves?” This dilemma is demonstrating how significant was the Civil War and did it influence the lives of the slaves ( African-Us citizens) the way we all imagine it did. This will also evaluate did the Civil War genuinely maintain a that means of changing slaves ( African-American) life. In buy to assess the two sides of this issue, I have two principal resources to consider. “Life immediately after slavery for African-Americans” and “What occurred following slavery ended by David Kenneth” This resource is for the academic objective, would actually be major in outlining the affect of African American life following slavery was ended with the Civil War. It talks about the Thirteenth Modification which abolished slavery.

It clarifies in superior information about the Reconstruction period and how lengthy it took and how maybe that reconstruction was continue to going after the Reconstruction period of time ended. How instruction was definitely a robust fundamental for a lot of African Individuals and black churches. Also how a lot of African People in america even now stayed in the south in rural very poor spots for many years following the Civil War finished. The objective of the supply was to teach persons and give them a improved comprehension of the subject. This source is the principal limits is its articles. Though it holds quite very good material it is for instructional use for anyone to have an understanding of so it does not go into as substantially element as you would like it to about daily life following slavery.

When chatting about education and learning which was some thing that slaves preferred the most ( moreover liberty) this resource briefly talked about independence Bureau from 1865 to 1870. this only offers me an concept of what acts they experienced in get just after the Civil War but it doesn’t truly describe what the independence Bureau is. This other resource which is an report that was built by a professor in African American heritage seriously can help reply the query primarily based off of the material. It goes in depth with black codes, how past slave homeowners were to finesse the technique even soon after slavery was banned. The restrictions of the resource are rather impeccable it provides you all the details that you need and much more. This supply worth is beneficial and lots of distinct techniques due to the fact it talks about matters that we normally don’t talk about and provides you a much better standpoint of how it truly was. It also can help due to the fact in the post it lists all the sources of where the author of the post got their sources as well. This secondary supply Major restrictions would be its function.

From what I have an understanding of the author would only compose this for an educational objective. Based off of the author’s track record of getting a background professor and what the author does. A war experienced broken out when the Confederates bombarded Union soldiers at Fort Sumter, South Carolina on April 12, 1861. A war that had lasted till 1865. This war was fought amongst condition rights, north versus the south, no matter whether the institution of slavery need to be permitted. One particular side is the south believed that it should have the ideal to maintain slavery even though the north thought usually. These states fought a very long four-year war that left an impression on most people but to be more unique, the impact that it remaining on the slaves. Even though slavery was above there was continue to rules they had to observe, they still weren’t human in the eyes of lots of whites. Even nevertheless the Thirteenth Modification (1865), finished slavery and gave them hope for a ordinary everyday living. They had points like Black codes, Jim Crow legal guidelines, and the KKK they also experienced some fantastic points like the fourteenth and fifteenth amendment and the liberty bureau. These are the primary reason how the civil war impacted slaves, some for the superior and some of their lives stayed the exact.

Slavery experienced big economical advantages ahead of the war and black codes experienced designed confident it stayed like that. Black codes had been established in 1865 to preserve the whites in electricity in the southern states and to hold the African- American as slaves. These codes had been built to retain the social and financial structure of racial slavery in the absence of the “peculiar establishment.” Even nevertheless blacks were totally free they weren’t allowed to vote, denied the ideal to serve on juries, and denied the suitable to have weapons and or to own or lease land. In this reality, lots of southern legislators were hoping to reinvent the enslavement of blacks. These black codes have been place into location to maintain slavery. Many of the white entrepreneurs would “hire“ African- People in america and give them very little or no cash and even now address them the exact.. A lot of freeman African-People in america have been compelled to indication a deal to do the job for the white person, which some continue to gained the exact same remedy or pretty low wages. If these contracts were broken quite a few were being overwhelmed, fined or was arrested.

Whilst slavery had been outlawed by the Thirteenth Modification, it effectively ongoing in quite a few southern states. The northern states eventually stepped in close to 1866 when the reconstruction had shifted to the radical wing to the Republican celebration in Congress. When Black Codes ended up gone numerous folks had been furious about this, the same calendar year 1866 when the black codes were being outlawed the Klu Klux Klan was designed. The Ku Klux Klan was a white supremacist terrorist group that emerged for the duration of Reconstruction. It took egregious, violent measures to undermine the Republican bash, hoping to sustain black economic instability and ensure white racial and economic superiority in the antebellum South. The Klan was known for its really violent acts seeking to maintain its white supremacy. They ended up dressed mostly in disguise of a lengthy white, flowing robe and hood, capped by horns. The Klan generally performed heinous crimes versus African Us citizens, in particular these running for business in the South. In addition, numerous white

Republicans and sympathizers ended up also targets of Klan violence. It is estimated that the KKK done over 3500 racially-enthusiastic lynchings in the South in between 1865 and 1900. The Klan went after everyone who wasn’t in settlement with them, Democrats have been relying on the klan to secure elections. They would threaten or get rid of republicans candidates and if the Democrats did not get the ideal results, the Klan would usually time would do literacy exam and or carry out voter fraud on a black voter. The Klan disassembled African American and Republican neighborhood-organizing initiatives by terrorizing black church buildings, as perfectly as lots of schools established by the Freedmen’s Bureau. The klan maintains management for a quite extensive time because of to its violent acts and all people feared them. Congress sooner or later built the force acts of 1870 generating southern states Warranty equal protection due to the 14th Amendment and 1 calendar year soon after 1871 designed the Klu Klux Klan act to forbid there violate functions and for their undesirable detest crimes on abasias race. But about the 1920s the Klan experienced reemerged with the navisit motion, and an additional uprising in 1950’s adhering to the brown v.s. Board of training. The KKK had 4 million customers nationwide dedicated to daunting, torturing, and killing African Americans and allied activists. The KKK still exists nowadays. This Klan manufactured it really challenging for African- American to be free or anyone who affiliated with blacks.

Freedmen’s Bureau was founded in March of 1865 to help freed persons realize financial security and secure political freedoms. Lots of wanted to increase them their problem by searching for what was denied to them land, economical security, schooling, and the capability to participate in the political course of action. The Bureau also took up the battle for African American schooling, establishing scores of community schools had been freed persons and weak whites could acquire both of those elementary and bigger training. By 1870, it is believed that above 3,500 educational institutions were being designed for freed folks. But also a lot of things did go completely wrong, Land reform and the establishment of a minimum amount wage have been substantial failures of the Freedmen’s Bureau. African Us residents believed that freedom was manifested in land possession and, thus, envisioned the federal authorities to offer them with plots of land. But President Andrew Johnson did not believe that that freedmen have been entitled to the land. As an alternative, Johnson made a decision to return all obtained land to white, ex-confederate troopers through presidential pardons and his Amnesty Proclamation. The fourteenth and fiftfifteenth which was passed on 1865 and the other 1870 built dependent of the anger that the Republican Congress experienced on the black codes. They felt as if it was an additional kind of slavery, as a result they handed the then this two amendments.

The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified on July 9, 1868, granted African People in america citizenship in equally the nation and their respective states. Now citizens, African American males received the suitable to vote through the Fifteenth Modification, ratified on February 3, 1870. These amendments were being the final of the Reconstruction, which assisted build several legal rights for blacks. General this afflicted African-People in quite a few unique methods. It didn’t give them all the legal rights that they at first assumed they experienced. Like when the black codes ended up created to preserve the white persons in electric power even after the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments ended up handed to prevent things like this from happening. It took absent a lot of of their powers and that they had was still taken care of as slaves many not obtaining any better problems.Or even when despise teams were created to maintain them from getting nearly anything, for case in point, the Klu Klux Klan. How they wrecked a lot of items that ended up blacked very own like church buildings and retailers or would even cling you if they had been to see you all on your own.But they experienced numerous very good items in saved like Freedmen’s Bureau which support the proven intention for them as a full ( African- American).

Like finding educational facilities for education and performing on some of their rights like voting. Primarily based on the completion of this investigation on African- American lives right after the civil war and how it influenced them I know have an perception into how historians do many of there techniques. Like making use of my key supply which was a document, for instance, the thirteenth amendment which helped change slaves ( African-American) life without end. This showed me how practical these paperwork and article content are extremely crucial to writing paper and presentations to a historian. But not only that I also had a Secondary supply which was a e book named the “Encyclopedia of black studies” which gave me a lot of insourcing that experienced a great deal of new facts of the what happened through this time period. It experienced a lot of information and facts packed into this 1 book which was very useful and gave a distinct point of view. Some constraints I experienced was being aware of whether or not or not it was a historical moment. Some times within just the time period of 1865- 1900 when slavery was a weighty situation in some cases it was challenging to decide no matter whether this was a historic subject to discuss about.

Like when I talked about the liberty bureau it was tricky to decide was this a historic function or just a thing I could put in my paper as an case in point. Also to explain the situations in a non biased way was incredibly complicated, but just one thing that served fix this difficulty was that I had to bear in mind that I experienced to publish it like a Historian. But also to only correct the specifics about the occasions sort the methods that I experienced. I had to don’t forget to enjoy the role of a historian to inform a story that is primarily based on evidence and the situations that took place in the previous and to get lots of different views around it. To make guaranteed that it was effortless sufficient for persons to understand the notion of the subject and that it was also exciting to numerous individuals.

How Prohibition Affected the Wine Industry? Essay

On January 16th, 1920, the United States enacted the 18th modification which stated that the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors. The ban on liquor was a outcome of spiritual actions during the region that viewed alcohol as an extraordinary threat to the region as a whole. Prohibition considerably afflicted the liquor industry forcing a whole lot of breweries, distilleries, and wineries to go out of organization however, there were certain people today in the wine neighborhood who didn’t give up. Vintners from Napa Valley located means around the ban by means of different loopholes provided by the Volstead Act as they have been the main producers of wine in America at the time.

The Volstead Act was enacted to offer enforcement for the eighteenth modification and is named after Rep. Andrew Volstead who was chairman of the House Judiciary Committee. The Act was permitted the sale and transportation of clean or dried grapes only if the shipper knew that the last consumer of said grapes weren’t likely to use the grapes in purchase to make wine, and if they did then both equally functions ended up breaking the regulation. The loophole was that preferably the winery entrepreneurs trusted the actuality that their solution would go from shopper to buyer, no matter whether they be wholesalers or frequent consumers, they would most most likely steer clear of expenses and claim plausible deniability. Although this was dangerous on their portion they most popular over simply ripping out their vines and replacing them with orchards, in assuming that prohibition would be lasting. Not only had been they carrying their individual hopes and dreams regarding wine, they also had the weight of the North American wine company on their shoulders (“”How Wine Bricks Saved the Wine Marketplace For the duration of Prohibition, 2017).

A next loophole gifted by the Volstead Act was that grape growers could produce grape juice and juice focus as very long as the products were not employed for alcoholic beverages use, nevertheless a different component of the Act allowed the use of up to 200 gallons of homemade wine as prolonged as it remained in the buyers home (“”Prohibition in Wine State, 2010″”). Utilizing these two loopholes they implored the same tactic they applied for the grapes and made guaranteed to usually be in a position to declare deniability. Leading to the creation of “”wine bricks”” which have been a brick of concentrated grape juice (lawful to make) that had been sold to consumers who could use the bricks to ferment and convert into wine. In a rather amazing way the suppliers arrived up with a way to instruct their buyers on how to make their own wine. Warning labels, these would be connected to the brick with guidance on how to dissolve the concentrate in a gallon of water. Subsequent those instructions were being warnings that said not to great the jug of grape juice for 21 days for the reason that it would start off to ferment, and the shopper would be breaking the legislation by accomplishing so (How Wine Bricks Saved the Wine Sector Through Prohibition, 2017″”).

Faith ordinarily plays a role in society all-around the globe and religion’s part in prohibition was not any considerably less helpful. Whilst prohibition did start out partly thanks to specific spiritual and ethical beliefs, it also assisted chorus wine from fully dropping off the map. Wine was allowed to be generated for spiritual factors, which led to wineries getting distinctive promotions with unique important religions i.e. Christianity, Catholicism, and Judaism. A primary instance of this would be when the founding member of the Beaulieu Winery, Georges de Latour built a offer with the then archbishop of San Francisco to offer wine all of the monks.

Sacramental wine, wine bricks, and the sale of the grapes them selves all proved to be quite prosperous for the few California vineyards that remained intact. So successful that the cost of grapes and their focus rose to a startling $375 for each ton, which according to stats, was a 3,847% raise from when the rate was basically a awful $9.50 for every ton. The charges had been in a position to skyrocket the way they did due to the reality that a lot of vineyards in California experienced made a decision to play it secure and substitute their grapes with orchards, getting away most of the level of competition in the wine business.,

Examining the knowledge on how prohibition afflicted the wine marketplace, a single begins to recognize that for the most section prohibition really assisted the wine industry. Absolutely sure, it created matters tough and vineyards experienced to shut down, but the ones that stayed open up flourished like by no means prior to. Also, prohibition aided make some of the most dominant wineries in the state who continued to develop wine over the yrs getting it additional and further more.

How Popular Culture Affected Contemporary Christian and Worship Music Essay

It is vital to note that Up to date Worship Audio (CWM) is usually noticed as a sub-style of Modern day Christian Audio (CCM) however the two intertwine and in the course of history have made along a equivalent path. Well known Culture’s affect on both forms of audio can be grouped together since artists can be conveniently located to include each of these genres. Only in the last number of decades has CCM and CWM become a world broad business. Contemporary Christian Songs (CCM) is a style which is constantly changing and adapting its audio and solution to the audio sector.

Sounds adopted from Well-known Tunes

In the 1950’s and 1960’s, white evangelical leaders condemned rock and roll tunes. If one particular jumps 50 a long time afterwards the CCM field is a multi-million pound field which is even now developing to this day. It is important to add that this is not the initially spectacular modify in solution in the 20th century. Black Christians in The usa experienced a growth in the earlier many years of the 20th century with the rising affect of well known lifestyle on their worship. Afro-Pentecostalism included European hymnody, black spirituals, blues and jazz. Afro-Pentecostal artists have been at the forefront of creating and advancing what is now black gospel songs. This immersion of black gospel audio acted as a precursor for what was about to come about with Christian Worship Songs. In the 1980’s the Winery Fellowship, led by John Wimber started worshipping with influences from rock songs and the worship band would use regular rock devices as their simple set-up through occasions of worship. By the late 1980’s and early 1990’s this musical format commenced spreading throughout America and afterwards on across the entire world.

In his dissertation on the record of christian worship songs in modern day america, Wen Reagan states that the solution to how rock music built its way from getting condemned to an intrical component of CCM and to church expert services is primarily based all-around five diverse types: ‘historical, demographic, theological, financial, and technological’. The Jesus People today Motion in the 60’s was countercultural to the hippie motion and ended up reaching out to hippies who introduced their guitars along to services and soon after they experienced recognized this, youthful individuals started crafting new songs for the church with their affect of rock songs. Reagan also states that ‘The emphasis lay on the exciting freshness of new tunes and the perception that God was giving a new message through the audio.’ This ‘freshness’ was beautiful and even the evangelicals who experienced condemned rock tunes have been softening their views when they noticed this lively new new music emerging. In the 1980’s as the Winery Fellowship, led by John Wimber, emerged ‘Songs experienced no set ending and could be adapted to react to the strength of the congregation and the cadence of the pastor.’ In the 1990’s, Document Labels and distribution organizations, specific to CCM, commenced to pop up and by the 2000’s Christian songs began to go into arenas and a great deal much larger venues.

‘The import of modern musical varieties into the church has challenged the sermon’s preeminence in the liturgy as congregants are drawn to the affective electricity of rock new music (modern worship audio), its means to produce a strong, emotional knowledge of quiet intimacy or loud, celebratory pleasure with God.’ – Wen Reagan. The Winery Fellowship pioneered the development and progress of worship tunes, as it became such an crucial part of not only church solutions but of people’s everyday life. Their songs was very straightforward and this was because the simpler the tune, the far more the congregation could have interaction and proclaim the terms as real truth. Tunes turned a tool to guide people into intimacy with God. Travis Reginald Joseph Doucette writes in his thesis for Senior Honours that ‘In an exertion to achieve misplaced people today and communicate in applicable musical language, modern day worship tunes observed a home in churches embracing charismatic theology.’ Doucette describes it effectively with the phrase ‘relevant musical language’. Worship is not meant to be something perplexing and hard to listen or sing alongside to. It is meant to be obtainable for any one to interact in worship.

Sociological conditions in the 60’s and 70’s

The 1960’s and 1970’s had been a time of substantial social change which drastically affected well-liked society and the new music field and these two decades had been property to numerous new genres.

The counterculture in the 1960’s is challenging to break up into sections for the reason that the challenge aim for several individuals, concerned in the re-condition of tradition, was to merge politics, modern society and tradition collectively. George McKay, in his e book on the social and countercultural 1960’s in the Usa, talks of radical tradition and lists the factors concerned in the huge modify of the 1960’s. ‘music, methods of residing, youth and other social movements,’ The younger era pioneered loads of the alterations in culture as a result of protesting and there seemed to be a technology hole expanding. The emergence of a drug society played a component in the rise of the hippie motion. The hippie movement have been also drawn to meditation, the occult and Indigenous American spirituality and integrated that into their lives. The motion even so confronted challenges including overcrowding, crime and sexually transmitted health conditions. A new wave of hippies commenced to pop up named ‘Jesus-Freak’ evangelists who encouraged folks to observe Jesus Christ and forsake medication and promiscuous sex. Right after integrating with a community baptist church, Ted Intelligent and other ‘Jesus-Freaks’ started out a movement of individuals known as ‘Street Christians’ with Pastor John MacDonald who established a coffeehouse named ‘The Residing Room’ to support Hippies who have been turning into homeless, hungry and sick. As this was likely on in the late 1960’s some others in the similar space, in close proximity to Haight-Ashbury where by the hippies had been pouring into, have been starting to preach on the streets. This grew at a swift rate and by 1969, the interaction involving hippie christians and evangelicals was going on all above the United States. The youth have been drawn in the direction of the Jesus Men and women due to the fact they ended up quite enthusiastic about the use of people, rock and pop songs. This was not the case in phrases of the regular church. In Simple fact the traditional church frowned on the use of popular new music and the integration of popular tradition and Christianity. By the late 1970’s the Jesus Individuals movement died down as that technology received more mature and ran out of steam but effect of the movement was great in phrases of Christian music and the improvement of the evangelical church. The movement changed evangelical Christians perspective towards well-known society and the up-beat and rock impact of the Jesus persons nearly created the Present-day Christian New music sector. As the decades rolled on hymns, choirs and organs had been replaced by worship bands and electric powered guitars. The Winery Denomination trace their roots again to the Jesus Men and women movement. The Vineyard Denomination now have above 2,500 church buildings in 6 continents.

Throughout the 1960’s and progressing into the 1970’s there have been several campaigns for civil rights, women’s legal rights and homosexual rights. Compact peace movements were energised by social activists and these modest groups of college students or activist grew into countrywide marches, worldwide campaigning, instruct-ins on campus and lots of other large protests.

The cold war, the Vietnam war and other political conflicts led to separation globally and at details issues seemed hopeless. Plenty of the press for social transform arrived from the youthful era and American youth played a crucial role in the political protests if this period. The 1960’s and 70’s were a terrifying time for folks in phrases of politics and conflict. Together with protesting, people needed to locate an escape or a way out from the fears of the instances which led to the youth experimenting with prescription drugs and intercourse and other procedures. This is wherever well-liked society significantly improved and wherever evangelicals adapted, not for the reason that they ended up becoming adjusted by well-liked society, but due to the fact they preferred to get to out to folks who were being surrounded by well-known culture. One of the major strategies the church did this was by music. This is why modern-day worship music and CCM can be so carefully joined to common new music and rock audio.

Lyrical Content material of Up to date Christian and Worship New music

It is critical to keep in mind CCM’s importance and individuality in the entire world of songs. Where by most artwork kinds are marketed as a product or service, CCM is all about it being an activity – some thing to be part of in with. Worship songs is often portrayed as a congregational audio and that the band who is top the congregation is not carrying out but worshiping Jesus Christ.

Obviously as popular tradition progressed from the 1960’s so did worship songs and Modern day Christian Music. There are similarities in the lyrical content material that run all over the advancement of CCM and CWM on the other hand there are also quite a few variances that can tie into the growth of well-known songs but also relate to the ten years of which any specific worship tracks was published. The exception getting hymns, that numerous up to date christian bands and artists at times play during a time of worship.

Even although there has been a huge improvement of the lyrical written content in CCM in the very last 60 years there is an total residing topic that ties all of the songs together. The word of God, The Holy Bible, is and will normally be carefully linked to Christian tunes. However CWM is a great deal a lot more lyrically centered on the scriptures than CCM. Some Christians argue that CCM is so delicate that from time to time you are not able to convey to the difference involving CCM tracks and secular songs. For case in point, Todd Friel, a presenter on Wretched Radio, posted a online video on youtube titled ‘Of study course Ellen loves Lauren Daigle’. In this 11 minute very long feeling piece he shared his sights on, what was at the time, 1 of the leading celebrity stories. Lauren Daigle, a CCM artist, topped the secular and Christian charts in the US in 2018 and appeared on the Ellen Present and sang one particular of her songs from her most up-to-date album. Ellen De Generes, the show host, praised the music by Daigle and Todd Friel argued that the purpose Ellen beloved the tune so significantly, and authorized Lauren to complete on her display, was simply because the phrases ended up “written in such a way that the lyrics can not be offensive” and he prompt that “no Christian can at any time be fed by it” due to the fact of the absence of “robust theology”. This is a quite one sided watch as Friel misses a large amount of particulars about Lauren Daigle and her efficiency. Many CCM artists write lyrics that never straight mention the terms Jesus, God or Holy Spirit but are prepared in a way that displays their own journey with Jesus or that talks about the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. This helps make the new music a ton a lot more accessible to secular audiences and also lets artists, this sort of as Lauren Daigle, to carry out at secular occasions and shows. The primary place that Todd Friel missed is that CCM isn’t intended to be just for Christians but is in fact a technique of outreach and spreading the Excellent Information of Jesus Christ. A further remarkable band, who generate lyrics about God that secular audiences really like singing together to, are Skillet. A Christian heavy rock band. They play at so lots of secular festivals and have a massive subsequent of secular audiences. Their tracks such as Feel Invincible, Monster and Undefeated are all pretty common and the lyrics are truly effective, written so that you wouldn’t realise they have been singing about Jesus except if you considered about the lyrics and what they are trying to say in their music.

Contemporary Worship New music is seen as a good deal much more theological and is made use of a lot more in church configurations than outreach configurations. The lyrics are insync with the scriptures and are usually tunes of praise, thankfulness, invitation, expectancy and surrender. Also, CWM is a lyrically based mostly audio simply because it is through the text that the congregation appear alongside one another and worship the dwelling God. Worship is also at times known as sung prayer mainly because it is praying to God through singing. For the duration of worship, followers of Jesus have deep encounters with the Holy Spirit where by there is healing spiritually, bodily, mentally and emotionally and Christians consider that worship has the electrical power to transform items in their lives and in the life of every solitary man or woman who offers their everyday living to Jesus and has a relationship with him. Christianity is not a religion, it is a romance with the dwelling God.

Popular society and well known music’s impact on Contemporary Christian and Worship Tunes has changed the tactic to evangelism and sharing the gospel, the Good Information of Jesus Christ. The improve in the sound and strategy to worship audio created worshipping Jesus extra available and additional congregational. CCM and CWM are now two planet wide industries that are developing and getting to be much more commonly accepted among the world-wide church and secular audiences. Closing this piece will be a estimate from John Wimber, the founder of the Vineyard Movement. “Show me where you commit your time, money and electrical power and I’ll tell you what you worship.”

How Manifest Destiny Affected Native American Culture Essay

What is no one particular spoke English any longer? What if it was illegal to celebrate Christmas? What if a new race of men and women made a decision to invade The usa and force Americans out of their properties? This was what occurred to Native People all through America’s Westward Expansion. Indigenous American lifestyle disappeared for the reason that America’s westward enlargement compelled them out of their homeland, condition and violence killed millions of them, and new legislation gave them no legal rights.

Life in the Western Hemisphere was a great deal distinct before it was invaded by explorers. The huge unexplored spot was household to over 30 million Native Peoples that had their personal languages and cultures (Bruhac). Their way of everyday living was a lot diverse than a lot of people assume. They produced various breakthroughs in the healthcare discipline, such as start control and discomfort medication and also labored difficult in agriculture by discovering strategies to prep land for and domesticate crops (Bruhac). The Natives farmed potatoes, peanuts, tomatoes, yams, and corn (Bruhac). After staying found out, these crops aided lower the disease and hunger that have been happening in Europe (Bruhac). This is how lifestyle was like for the Natives prior to being observed by Europeans.

Their strategies of lives improved when explorers arrived. In the 1300s, the Pope break up the globe into sections and determined which nations around the world would get what components of the planet (Basu). Pradeep Kumar Basu points out this by declaring, He drew a line vertically down the Atlantic Ocean on a environment atlas. The East was for England, France, Holland and the west was for the Spaniards and Portuguese. When the Spanish first landed in the New Earth, they landed in the Caribbean and took more than the Natives’ way of life. These conquerors would trick the Natives and use pressure or violence to drive them out of their homeland, murdering innumerable innocent men and women in the approach (Basu). These new people would capitalize off of the Natives’ methods and labor, mainly building the Natives the Europeans’ slaves (Basu). This cure of the Natives took absent their dignity and manufactured it impossible for them to at any time return to the point out they ended up in prior to European exploration (Basu). This is how their life changed when the explorers came.

Then explorers identified the continent of North The usa. In 1607, a group of adult men established the Jamestown colony in existing-day Virginia (Basu). These were being some of the to start with settlers in North The us, carefully adopted by the Pilgrims of current-working day Massachusetts in 1620 (Basu). Additional and much more settlers arrived and adhering to the Revolutionary War, a new state was fashioned identified as The us. When the early Americans started out to run out of place, they resolved to grow to the relaxation of the continent. In 1787 George Washington handed the Northwest Ordinance which arrived up with a way to switch unoccupied territory into states (Kowalski). It called for the United States to apply ‘utmost superior faith… toward the Indians’ who already resided in all those regions, says Kathiann Kowalski. But there have been quite a few circumstances where by claims ended up not retained and treaties ended up broken. In 1804, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, led by a Lemhi Shoshone lady named Sacagawea, traveled accross the North American continent exploring for an all-drinking water route that would transfer people to the Pacific Ocean (Westward Growth). Even though they did not come across the route they have been searching for, they learned a full region that no a person realized existed right until then. This is how the North American continent was inhabited by explorers.

There ended up lots of reasons people today wanted to increase to the Western United States. Some assumed it was our accountability, others observed it as an experiment, and nevertheless, other people assumed it was our appropriate (Yoder). Of training course, other elements came into engage in this kind of as the California Gold rush of 1849 which brought tons of new settlers (Westward Expansion). One more component could be persons desired some elbow room and the governing administration was supplying absent cost-free land in the Terrific Plains (Westward Expansion). But in all probability one of the primary causes was that People in america felt entitled to the West and noticed it as their right of conquest (Mann). The matter they did not contemplate was the other people living on the land they desired to choose.

When new settlers desired to cross the West they applied the Oregon Trail. The Oregon Trail was truly a collection of trails that led to the West Coast (Kellaher). Travelers ended up aiming to make it to Oregon Region. Oregon Country was not portion of the United States so not quite a few men and women lived there besides for Native People (Kellaher). The main challenge they confronted was the unknown, claims park ranger Rachael Nickens (qtd. in Kellaher). Settlers would make the journey in quite a few distinctive methods. Some traveled by wagons and farmed their way throughout the continent (Kellaher). At the conclusion of the Civil War, construction commenced on the transcontinental railroad (Bruhac). Setting up the railroad compelled Native Us residents to give up their land to make room for the tracks (Bruhac). Then in 1869, when the railroad was completed, the settlers could cross the country in a a lot far more timely fashion (Kellaher). This reveals how settlers made use of the Oregon Trail and other approaches to attain the West Coast.

The Oregon Path experienced constructive and unfavorable effects on the daily lives of Native People. In advance of settlers would get started their journey accross the continent, they had preset visuals in their minds of what the Natives would be like (Yoder). The Indigenous Individuals had been viewed as unfriendly, weak hurdles in the way of the settlers’ goals of Manifest Future (Yoder). But in the commencing, relations amongst the white males and Native peoples were being fantastic (Kellaher). The vacationers engaged in trade with the Pawnee and Shoshone tribes that lived near where by the settlers created their way (Kellaher). Nonetheless, as extra and more settlers came, the hardships of the Indigenous Us residents grew (Kellaher). When the pioneers arrived, they ruined the land in the Midwest. The wagons they traveled with left deep ruts in the floor and the farming the settlers did, disposed of a whole lot of the Good Plains’ grass (Kellaher). There was no grass still left for the Indigenous Americans’ horses to eat and no wild buffalo left for the tribes to hunt and feed their families with (Kellaher). The pioneers killed millions of Natives by bringing conditions that the tribes experienced hardly ever encountered in advance of (Kellaher). In get to survive, numerous tribes had to transfer absent from their homeland to spots wherever no pioneers have been touring (Kellaher). These are the outcomes that the Oregon trail experienced on the Indigenous American peoples.

Not only had been the Natives influenced by Manifest Future, but wildlife was also affected as perfectly mainly bison. The populace of bison was influenced by Westward Growth for quite a few good reasons. The first getting, new settlers came and hunted them for pleasurable (Lopata). A further explanation was that males creating the transcontinental railroad would destroy the buffalo in buy to make home for the tracks (Kowalski). The use of guns built it less difficult for them to kill hundreds at a time (Lopata). When these new individuals would murder the bison they would only use specific parts of the animal, they still left the rest of the stays to rot (Kowalski). This was unlucky for Native People since they employed the whole buffalo when they hunted (Kowalski). The Indigenous People ate their meat and made use of their disguise for shelter and apparel (Kowalski). Then in 1830, their population began to drop and by 1883 there have been none left in the wild (Lopata). This was damaging to everyday living on the Terrific Plains. Peg Lopata says, Bison migrations, grazing styles, and behaviors had been at the time a key component of this region’s ecology. With no bison, existence in the Midwest was much more durable for the people and animals living there. Fortunately, some endeavours have been built to restore the bison populace that was afflicted by Westward Growth. Today wild buffalo roam during Yellowstone Nationwide Park in Wyoming (Lopata).

When settlers essential a place to dwell, Indigenous People were being pressured out of their homelands. Native Americans did not consider land could be owned. Indigenous teams and the animals they depended on roamed freely, says Kathiann M. Kowalski. Native Us citizens were predicted to live on reservations, sections of land set aside for them, when they were being characteristically nomadic (Kowalski). A person of the earliest situations of this was referred to as the Indian Elimination Act handed by Andrew Jackson in 1830 (Kowalski). This act took Indigenous American tribes that lived east of the Mississippi River and moved them to the other facet (Kowalski). Then in 1838, the governing administration and Cherokee tribes signed the Treaty of New Echota, which traded the Cherokee land for distinct land in Oklahoma (Kowalski). The Cherokee were being pressured out of their land and marched alongside a 1000 mile march, the Path of Tears, and killed 25% of the tribe’s inhabitants (Kowalski). An celebration comparable to this transpired when 2000 Navajo and Mescalero Apache lives were being misplaced when the tribes have been pressured out of New Mexico and taken 450 miles away to Bosque Redondo (Black). Once more this happened in 1887 when the Dawes Act compelled much more Indigenous People in america on to reservations and took away 90 million acres of their land to give to settlers (Bruhac).

When Abraham Lincoln was elected into business office, issues had been going to change for a lot of groups of folks at that time. Regrettably, Native Us residents were being not a person of those people groups. Just one of Lincoln’s most well-known achievements, The Emancipation Proclamation, freed slaves but gave no legal rights to the Native People in america (Black). Abraham Lincoln did nothing to conclude Indigenous American discrimination, in reality, some points he did may well have harmed them. He was in ability when the Homestead Act was passed in 1862 which gave totally free land to new settlers (Black). He also handed the Pacific Railway Act which made it less difficult to cross the continent and also more difficult for Natives to hold their land and society (Black). He normally designed claims for the duration of his congress speeches but never took motion on them and ongoing to area insurance policies that would hurt them (Black).

Not numerous of the guarantees that were made to the Native People ended up held. The authorities employed drive to preserve Native People away from the settlers (Kowalski). Agreements produced with Natives were being not stored and when treaties have been signed the Natives had been frequently compelled to indication or unethical techniques had been applied to get their signatures (Kowalski). When the Natives started off to protect their land from settlers, the governing administration built the Treaty of Ft. Laramie in 1851 which promised dollars to the Natives and promised to restrict settlers (Kowalski). But when the government stopped delivering cash and assist, they experienced experienced ample (Kowalski).

When the Natives have been fed up with being handled as collateral harm, they fought back. A person of the earliest circumstances of this was in 1791 when a Shawnee tribe chief named Tecumseh joined the lots of midwest tribes with each other to fight off American troops (Bruhac). They finished up getting rid of 600 troops near the Wabash river (Bruhac). Again in 1811, Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa led an assault termed the Struggle of Tippenhoe (Basu). The Shawnee had been not as effective this time close to (Basu). These fights continued all over the 19th century becoming led each by Native People in america and by white settlers. In 1862, the Dakota War was fought which resulted in 38 Native guys currently being hung (Black). Then in 1864, hundreds Cheyenne and Arapaho Natives were being killed in the Sand Creek Massacre (Black). It all came to an end at the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890 the place the Sioux were being destroyed in the last substantial fight of the century (Kowalski). The Native populace was reducing and with it their society and traditions.

Today lifestyle is quite diverse for Native Americans. There are 326 reservations and 11 condition reservations (Bruhac). Indigenous Us citizens make up 1.7% of America’s populace (Basu). 50 percent of the languages they spoke have nearly disappeared (Bruhac). They however confront a lot of prejudices but techniques have been taken to make wrongs compose. Quite a few acts have been passed this sort of as the 1978 Spiritual Independence Act which built it lawful for them to exercise their religions (Vincent). There was also the Archaeological Sources Act in 1988 which safeguarded Native artifacts that were being located in archeological web-sites (Vincent).

As it can be seen from these illustrations, there are numerous factors that contributed to the disappearance of Indigenous American society. The westward enlargement contributed by bringing settlers and pioneers. Their land was taken absent to make home for these individuals and far more of their land was taken to make home for the transcontinental railroad. Their legal rights ended up taken away and they had been manufactured to really feel like criminals. They ended up murdered when they tried using to shield their land and they proceed to eliminate tradition every day. Even while there have been methods to make factors proper with the Indigenous Americans, very little can be finished about the significant sum of bloodshed and society destruction that was carried out to them in America’s quest for Manifest Destiny.

How is the Corporate Governance Affected by Globalization Finance Essay Essay

Corporate governance appears to be a particularly important topic nowadays, when ownership rights and control over assets in corporations are separated, and the top management of corporations might not act in the interests of stakeholders. There are numerous corporations all over the world, and their effect on the world economy is quite substantial. Corporations as one of the most complicated structures of a firm appear to be also the most powerful regarding its influence on economic development and political decision-making process. Considering the importance of corporations to the national economies and shareholders’ concern over level of protection of their investments, it is particularly relevant to be well aware of the governance systems inside corporations, their policy of shareholders’ treatment and their level of subordination to the state.

These paper aims to explore, how entering the international market affects the corporate governance of corporations. Our research question is “How is the corporate governance affected by globalization?”

The research that we conducted will be useful for exploration of globalization effect on the world economies, and it is as well relevant for those, who have interest in topics related to corporate governance and its dependence on exogenous conditions.

To answer our research question we will rely on the following institutional economics approaches: agency theory, transaction costs theory, business ethics theory. We opted these four institutional theories, as they are the most relevant to explain the current changes in corporate governance of German companies as they enter Ukrainian market. In our research, we focus on the effect of Ukrainian market conditions on the governance system of foreign corporations that enter the national market, in our case we analyze German corporations. Both of these countries are in the continental Europe, thus Germany adopted the European type of capitalism. However, it is rather hard to determine what kind of capitalism Ukraine adopted after the break- down of the Soviet Union. We will use real examples of corporations operating in these countries to evaluate the changes in the corporate governance brought by the differences of the background, and to show the consequences the globalization in these cases led to.

The paper contains six main chapters. Chapter 2 provides reasoning for the choice of the countries that are analyzed in the paper. Chapter 3 is a review of four institutional economics theories that we use to analyze the corporate governance in Ukraine and Germany in further chapters. In chapters 4 and 5 we describe and explain main changes in corporations and corporate governance in Ukraine and Germany correspondingly. In these chapters we also focus on the particularities of corporations operating in these countries from the perspective of state of economy, level of political stability, state intervention in private sector and social factors. Chapter 6 is a study case of few German corporations (METRO AG, Henkel etc.) operating in Ukrainian economy. This chapter is an empirical proof of the differences in corporate governance, corporate legislations and their effects in two chosen countries with our comments and advises on possible changes, relying on material provided in previous chapters.

2. Germany and Ukraine. Reasoning for the choice of the countries.

Germany and Ukraine are for the time period one of the most unique economies in the world. Both based on heavy industry those two countries are one of the wealthiest countries in Europe. The time during the Germany’s division and the occupation of Ukraine is a “black-spot” in economic history, regarding both those countries. However, in late 1980s and early 1990s, after the break of Soviet Union, many countries regained their independence thus allowing them to choose their own economic path.

Germany, was separated in year 1961, when the soviets built a wall, which divided Berlin into Eastern and Western parts, thus part of Germany as well, into two economic blocks; one of which was “Western” or capitalistic, and the other one “Eastern” or communistic.

On the other hand, Ukraine shared rather similar destiny in historical perspective. In 1922 Ukraine became a part of USSR (The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), thus determining their fate for socialistic regime, under control of Soviet Russia.

Both, Ukraine and Eastern Germany, managed to escape the Soviet control in late 1980s (1989 for Germany and 1990- Ukraine), thus allowing them to be independent and choose their own paths and make their own decisions.

“The term corporate governance is used in two distinct ways. In Anglo-Saxon countries like the US and UK good corporate governance involves firms pursuing the interests of shareholders. In other countries like Japan, Germany and France it involves pursuing the interests of all stakeholders including employees and customers as well as shareholders” (Allen, F., & Gale, D. (2002). A comparative theory of corporate governance. Social Science Research Network, Http://

The economic paths that Ukraine and Eastern Germany chose were rather different. The main differences were the corporate governance control. The united Germany adopted the continental European corporate governance model, whereas for Ukraine, a rather young and inexperienced country, they chose to adopt Anglo- Saxon corporate governance.

The main differences about those two corporate governance systems were noticed by WladimirAndreff :”In Continental Europe corporate governance, there is no domestic external market for executive talent and, thus, when a German (or any other continental European) CEO is appointed there is no negotiation (about salary, stock options, performance bonus, retirement provision and the like). The second difference is in wage negotiations between the enterprise union and managers. Anglo- Saxon firms behave in both cases as properly capitalist; continental Europe firms, by contrast, are more seen like communities. The latter employee- favoring firm opposes the former shareholder-favoring firm”(Andreff, W. (2002), Journal of international business studies, Vol. 33, No 1, pp.195- 197, accessed on 23/10/2010).

The industries both countries chose were similar. Germany and Ukraine are both famous for their heavy industries, such as machinery industry, and the IT business. However, the main exporting areas of the countries differ greatly. Ukraine still bases most of its economy on Russia. Not only it exports most of its goods there, but also imports the most of country’s energy (gas, oil, electricity) from Russia. Whereas, Germany, is internationally well known for its car industry and home technic. Therefore, the German corporate governance is in relationships with many other different countries, which have different institutional systems, thus making German governance system to adopt in its own way.

On the other hand, Ukraine, basing its main relationship with Russia, had to adopt other meanings of doing transactions. Corruption and government incompetence made the cooperation between western countries and Ukraine rather difficult. According to MSI (Management Systems International):”Ukraine can be categorized as a closed insider economy A¢”â‚¬ a country strongly influenced by elite cartels” (MSI, (February 10, 2006), Corruption Assessment: Ukraine).

In conclusion, both countries have their own similarities and differences. Ukraine and Germany share rather similar historic background until the 80-90s of XX century, however, after both countries escaped the influence of USSR, affected by globalization, they took different paths following different choices, as an example governance structure. Neither of their choices were wrong. Out of these reasons this paper will be analyzing the corporate governance particularly in these countries.

Institutional economics theories used in the analysis of the corporate governance (Agency, Transaction, Business Ethics).

There are many different approaches, which are possible analyzing countries. The theories this paper will be focusing on are: Transaction cost, Agency and business ethics. Those theories were chosen due to several reasons.

Firstly, transaction cost theory would be particularly interesting to apply to German corporate governance, as German corporations have transactions with different firms in different countries, as for Ukraine corporations, it mainly deals with Russia and other post Soviet countries, such as: Belorussia, Lithuania, Latvia, Kazakhstan.

Secondly, agency theory would show how different agents and principles manage the transactions. In Germany’s perspective, they have many branches of their companies around the world, thus making it rather hard to rule. More over, the difference in chosen corporate governance in Ukraine and Germany makes it interesting to analyze how are firm’s agents treated and rewarded in both these countries

Lastly, the business ethics part will mostly concern Ukraine, as the level of corruption in the country is rather high, thus making it rather difficult for international corporations to take part in Ukraine’s economic development. As for Germany, it will interesting to see how do the branches of corporations situated in different countries, where corruption level is higher/high, avoid the corrupt structures.

3.1. Transaction cost theory

The transaction cost is a cost incurred in making an economic exchange/ or participating in a market (, accessed on 23/10/2010). There are many different ways to calculate transaction costs. Also, the transaction cost mostly wants firms to cooperate, as lower the transaction costs lead to higher profit, thus making long-term contracts applicable and wanted. As Hanna Kuittinen argues, “The inter-A¬Arm cooperation is more efA¬Acient than the use of open markets or hierarchies when it minimizes the difference between the A¬Arm’s transaction and management costs (i.e. the governance costs) at the same time as the value of its dynamic governance beneA¬Ats is maximized”(Kuittinen, H., Jantunen, A., Kylahenko, K., Sandstrom, J. (13 September 2008) Cooperation governance mode: an extended transaction

cost approach , pp. 307). However, making contracts with other party, needs trust, therefore, the reputation and uncertainty part starts to play an important role in reducing the transaction costs. Especially when long term relationships are being on stake, the reputation determines, whether the contract will be made or not. Moreover, even if the contract is made, uncertainty still might determine the relationships between the firm, as Hanna Kuittinen reasons: “Uncertainty about future outcomes makes it difA¬Acult to specify contracts ex ante, and behavioural uncertainty complicates the coordination during the transaction and evaluation of the performance ex post “(Kuittinen, H., Jantunen, A., Kylahenko, K., Sandstrom, J. (13 September 2008) Cooperation governance mode: an extended transaction

cost approach , pp. 310)

3.2. Agency theory

Agency theory “treats the difficulties that arise under conditions of incomplete and asymmetric information” (, accessed on 23/10/2010). The most important part is the asymmetric and incomplete information in these days economy. Principle hiring a new agent for its company is never certain about the validity of his documents or experience. So how should principles determine the agency costs? If they would over evaluate the agent it might come out that the new employee does not sufficiently do his job as expected, however if the agent is under paid, he might start shirking and not try do his best. As Claudia Keser and Mark Willinger argue “low incentives can affect participants in a contradictory way because of a possible conA¬”šict between intrinsic motivation and A¬Anancial reward. Furthermore, it can be concluded from a vast survey of experiments that in some cases incentives improve performance, and in other cases they have no effect, or even worse, hurt performance. “(Keser, C., Willinger, M., (2 October 2006), Theories of behavior in principal-agent relationships with hidden action, pp. 1527).

3.3. Business Ethics

“Business ethics I can either be institutional or personal in scope. Institutional business ethics deals with broad, somewhat impersonal and abstract issues of the ethics of corporations as institutions. An example of this is corporate social responsibility”(Pattan, E., J. (1984), The Business of Ethics and the Ethics of Business, pp. 1). As stated by John E. Pattan, personal or institutional, in this paper we will try to concentrate on the institutional point of view. “We make ethical judgments every time we feel that our interests or opinions are promoted or attacked, our rights respected or violated, or ourselves catered to or threatened” (Pattan, E., J. (1984), The Business of Ethics and the Ethics of Business, pp. 3) The main purpose of business if not a secret, every businessman wants to maximize his profits. But what moral costs does it involve? In some cases it might involve corruption, stealing sometimes even taking lives of others. Therefore, it will be studied, how do institutions deal with each other and how are ethics implied to their decisions.

Corporate governance Ukraine

Introduction to the corporate governance in Ukraine.

In the given paper we regarded the period of the economic development of Ukraine, starting from 1990 year. That time was remarkable for the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the central planning and command structures that had been in forces for 70 years. The country started implementation of reform programs aimed at market economy and globalization (Holmstrom, & Smith, 2000).

The leading enterprises and companies in Ukraine realized the importance of effective corporate governance. The reason is that it is the key factor determining the microeconomic efficiency of the enterprise sector and the quality of investment climate of the country.

According to A. Kostyuk ‘ the German model is getting spread in the Ukraine from year to year (Board Practices; An International Review’2003). The main evidences are small quantity of independent directors on the board, rare meetings of the board, not big number of committees on the board, the management board affects the supervisory board. There are nearly 35 thousand joint stock companies in Ukraine that is comparatively more than in many developed countries. Every year the state commission on securities and stock exchanges states about over 12 thousand of cases of breaking the principles of corporate governance in the country. In this case, it is significantly to regard the role of ownership structure in corporate governance. It is important to know why owners purchase shares and what corporate mechanisms they use. (A Kostyuk 2002).

The cause of closing of board practices in Ukraine is the rise in concentration of ownership, which results in rise in corporate control, violation of minority shareholders’ rights, rise in number of disputes, conflicts of interests and decrease in transparency of the Ukrainian joint stock companies. A  A A 

‘Database provides annual financial statements in total for 14356 companies, in particular 2215A corporations in 1998, 8325 corporations in 2000 (out of 11850 registered), 7735 corporations in 2001A (out of 12039 registered) and 10213 corporations in 2002 (out of 12010 registered). For the empirical testing we use the dataset of 10313 observations on manufacturing open joint-A stock companies in total, in particular 4337 firms in 2000, 3385 in 2001 and 2591 in 2002. Thus theA sample covers around 37%, 28% and 21% of all open joint-stock companies in Ukraine in 2000, 2001A and 2002 respectively. The data is collected from publicly available information, in particular, fromA annual financial statements of Ukrainian joint-stock companies (Source: PFTS ñ First Trading StockA System, Istock database:A, (Corporate governance in Ukraine ‘ Vitaliy Zeka ).

Nowadays corporations in Ukraine are divided into joint stock companies founded pursuant to Law of Ukraine ‘On business association’:

Open Joint Stock company

Close Joint Stock Company

Ukrainian Joint Stock Company

Ukrainian Private Joint Stock CompanyA 

The biggest companies in Ukraine are:

Company Profit Sector – Naftogaz Ukraine Ukraine 6.126.451(Energy/Commodities), Mariupolskij Metkombinat Ukraine 2.382.034(Industry), Azowstal Ukraine 2.059.265(Industry) , Linos Ukraine 1.923.149(Energy / Commodities), Mittal Steel Kriwoj Rog Ukraine 1.836.833 (Industry), Industrialnyj Sojuz Donbasa Ukraine 1.750.239(Industry), Ukrtatnafta Ukraine 1.460.350(Energy/ Commodities), Zaporozstal Ukraine 1.325.41(Industry).

Directors can be nominated by the supervisory and the management boards independently.

At least 25 % of Companies with where controlling block of shares (50 percent +1 share) belongs to one owner, have boards with 5-6 members. They represent interests of the controlling shareholder. (A Kostyuk 2002)

In accordance with Article 118 of the Commercial Code of Ukraine, basic shareholder rights are established by law. The width of shareholders rights in Ukrainian firms may vary and depends on whether the joint stock company has free circulation of shares (an open type) or its shares are distributed among the founders and cannot be traded on stock exchange( a close type) . Companies controlled by the foreign institutional investors or Ukrainian investment companies have 7 or 9 members on the board (see the Commercial code of Ukraine).

Supervisory board members at Ukrainian joint stock companies meet every quarter. Boards at the companies, where the ownership is strongly concentrated, hold meetings less frequently than at those companies, where the corporate ownership is spread. This is because of controllers have a chance to have both the supervisory and the management boards under their control.

The procedure of nominating new directors in Ukraine is plain and chaotic. Shareholder may nominate committees by themselves. In order to do this, they must possess enough stake in enterprise. Each shareholder who possesses shares of the enterprise above 2 % of shareholders equity can offer his own candidate on the supervisory board. As we see from the chart, 44% of elected directors were nominated by shareholders. 31 % of elected directors were nominated by the management board. Only 25% of directors were nominated by the supervisory board.

(A. Kostyuk 2002).

In other words, shareholders wish to be controllers through electing directors and executive who would represent their interests.A 

Groups of the director nominators and their efficiency in nomination

Supervisory boards at Ukrainian joint stock companies are not independent. Some of them possessA largeA share of equity of the companies. The researches show that only about 8 % of board directors are independent.A There is evidence that 42 % of Ukrainian joint stock companies have no independent directors on supervisory board. About 31 %of researched companies in Ukraine have not more than 1 independent director .Companies have policy committee, which are under control of foreign institutional investors.A Directors can be nominated by the supervisory and the management boards indecently. The companies with dispersed ownership structure have a practice of nominating directors by governing corporate bodies. All candidates must be shareholders . A 

Definition of Corporate Governance.

The term ‘corporate governance’ can be interpreted as ‘the system of legal and economic institutions that create formal and informal regulatory system, which determines behavior of enterprise. (Piotr Kozarevswski 2009).

Mechanism of concentration of corporate ownership structure in Ukrain during 1998-2001 is illustrated by next figure.

(Kostyuk, 2007)

The researches ofA Saul Estrin, Adam Rosevear, AlexA Krakovsky, Alex PivovarskyA helped usA  greatly A to understanding theA issue of corporate governance mechanisms in Ukraine. All these expertsA considered that many corporate governance mechanisms, such as the boardA of directors, financial reporting etc, hardly work in Ukraine.A According to Alexander N. Kostyuk (“Corporate Governance in aA transition economy” 2007) “One of the well-known reasons is the absenceA of an Act of Joint Stock Companies.” The draft of this Act had beenA presented in 2001. However, the Act has not been approved by theA Ukrainian parliament, where a strong political lobby protects theA rights of large owners, named “oligarchs”. Therefore, joint stock companies in UkraineA have to work with reference to “The Act of Enterprises”, which does notA explain the nature of many corporate governance mechanisms, such as boardA committees,A executive directors,A executiveA monitoring, etc. As the result, corporate governance in Ukraine allows violation of minority shareholders rights, weak transparency and inadequateA corporate social responsibility. Under such circumstances, one of theA ways out is through developing a set of internal statements to makeA all these corporate governance mechanisms work.

Evidences of corporate governance in Ukraine.

There is evidence on corporate governance, which we observed while studied the statistical data on corporate governance in the country. “Our survey reveals that performance at the enterprise level has also not been improving, average output, employment, and productivity in Ukrainian firms have fallen every year since 1990 and profitability has been uniformly low, if not negative. Moreover restructuring has been very modest, although rather more differentiated across enterprises. For example there has been little increased trade with the West on average only 2%of enterprise sales in 1996 went to OECD countries, up from 0.5 % in 1999. Investment has also been low, so capital stock is largely obsolete.” (Saul Estrin & Adam Rosevesr, 1999)

This is another example we may apply for. In the average firm in Ukraine , the number of managers holding shares is around 15 , while the number of employees is 599 and former employees is 302. Holdings by Ukrainian citizens and companies are also highly dispersed at 1065 and 616 shareholders on average respectively. However, the typical number of shareholders, which are banks, foreign individuals and foreign firms, is one and investment fund is two.

The basic conditions for fundamental structure change in company corporate governance in Ukraine are still weak and need for radical policy changes and capital market development to make company corporative governance more effective (Saul Estrin & Adam Rosevesr, 1999).

After we studied the supervisory board practices in Ukraine, we may conclude the following: they are small in size, lack of legal employee participation in the corporate governance, rare meeting of board, small number of committees on board, management board influences, supervisory board, small number of independent directors.

Analysis of corporate governance in Ukraine from the approach of agency theory.

The Principal- Agent relations exist when one person called the agent acts on behalf of another, called principal. The welfare of the principal is affected by the choice of the agent.A In companies it is the shareholder who acts as the ‘ principal ‘ and company directors act as the ‘agent.’ A 

This interaction works well when the agent is a professional at making the necessary decisions, but contrary doesn’t work well when the interests of the principal and agent differ. A ‘There is possibility of opportunistic behavior on the part of the agent that works against the welfare of the principal’ (Baza Oba, 2004 ).

Most of agent’s actions in the companies are unknown to the principal or expensive to obtain.A A As applied to corporate governance in companies in Ukraine the second practice is common. The absence of accounting and audit norms in Ukraine as we mentioned above, leadsA to corruption and bureaucracy. All these prevent the Ukrainian companies from ‘ bringing simultaneous capital, access to Western ‘, technology, markets and managerial expertise’ ( Estrin & Rosevear, 2003 ).

Analysis of corporate governance in Ukraine from the approach of transaction costs theory.

In order to be able to transact at all and to transact safely, actors have to incur costs to find out how and where transaction opportunities occur, and about the possibilities the possible risks and uncertainties involved. These expenses are called transaction costs. Market transactions consist of several aspects:

1. Search and information costs (who offers the product? Is the seller the owner? What are the conditions?)

2. Costs to draft, to negotiate and to conclude the contract.

3. Monitoring costs and enforcement costs. These are the costs that are incurred to make sure that the other party commits to an agreement, whether this is of a private nature or a public nature (John Groenewegen, 2010).

According to Vladimir Andreff ( 2006), along with ‘ contract’ corporations (enterprises, established on the basis of the contract) there are a large number of corporations formed to address public authorities – ‘public’ corporations typically, in business practices of Ukraine. These corporations are successors of the reorganized ministries, state committees, departments and state enterprises to unite industry, or other principles.

(Inna Pidluska, 1998)

Analysis of corporate governance in Ukraine from the approach of business ethics theory.

It’s of common knowledgeA that no universal model ofA corporate governance exists. However,A there are generally accepted standards of good corporate governance. They may be applied in the frames of legal, economic and political aspects. InternationalA principles of corporate governance appeared as a result of increased public interest in corporate governance, which was generated by the globalization of financial markets and the capitalization of capital flows.A 

Ukraine is notoriously famous for engagingA inA corruption openly and freely. Ukraine’s President Leonid Kuchma has identified the main obstacle to business development as bureaucratic abuse of power, bribery and extortion. He also admitted that the government has failed to create conditions for conducting business honestly. (Inna Pidluska, 1998)

After the Orange Revolution the government of Ukraine has seen itA fit to sell business off to rich elite. It leads to the rise of the business oligarchs who have taken over the exercising state power into their own hands. So calledA ”shadow economy” was flourishing (Egger and Winner (2005).

In modern Ukraine giving a bribe is a regular everyday routine. To give a bribe to an inspector who checks the required norms in the company, or win a tender using special privileges, became a norm in Ukraine.

Average Ukrainian manager spends two days per week on inspection issues.A (Inna Pidluska, 1998)

The facts of double accounting and money laundering is a widely spread practice in a ‘shadow ‘economy of the country.

The size of Ukraine’s informal sector, or “shadow economy”, reflects the high degree of corruption. It is currently estimated that seven out of ten enterprises work in the shadow economy. These companies have no protection from corruption and are open targets for bribery and other forms of graft. (Inna Pidluska, 1998)

Nowadays, UkraineA is making a concerted effort to improve corporate governance at the national level. This goal can be achieved through the implementation of national Code of corporate governance. Problems of corporate governance in Ukraine must be addressed through introduction of standards of ethics and a code of practice for corporate governance. Business ethics is mainly aimed at promoting good reputation of the company at the market. TheA most important principles areA responsibility andA freedom. Employees and partners are individuals. They should beA honest, reliable and trustworthy. All the employees of the company with good will aim at high results, which improve quality of business itself and stuff’s lifeA (World Bank Group, 2009).

Nowadays corruption and bureaucracy widespread among the business community and judiciary itself is subject to political interference and corruption (Adam Mycyk & Elizabeth Cook, 2007 ).

Conclusion to the chapter.

An absence of progress in corporate governance in Ukraine can be explained by insufficiently deep character and consistency of institutional reforms realization.A The functioning of the new global economy is based on an effective management mechanism, implementation of the international accounting and audit standards and professional culture formation in corporate governance.

In general, the corporate governance practices, which were adopted by Ukrainian companies, fail to reflect the high levels set byA more developed European market economies and the United States.

5. Corporate governance in Germany

5.1 Introduction to the corporate governance system in Germany.

History of corporate governance in Germany:

In the 19th century, Germany’s typical form of business organisation was the “Kommanditgesellschaft” (“limited commercial partnership”). A “Kommanditgesellschaft” always had at least one member with unlimited liability whereas the other investor’s liability was limited to their contribution. In 1861, the General Commercial Code was enacted which devoted a section to joint stock companies and allowed incorporations with limited liability. Companies could choose between a single board of directors and a two tiered board system, involving shareholders appointing a supervisory board, which in turn elected the management board. This changed in 1884 when a reform was introduced which mandated that companies have a two-tier board that allowed free registration without a system of state concession. Thus a supervisory board was needed to take over the state’s monitoring role. For members of the supervisory board it was not possible to be a member of the management board but it was possible for a shareholder to directly elect member for the management board.

In the early 20th century, formal acts of corporate law led to the abandonment of mercantilism and the rise of classical liberalism. Corporations increasingly became public and private entities free from government control. Under the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler then, companies became less democratic in a reform of 1937. From then on, shareholders could not elect managers directly, and managers could only be removed “for an important reason”, directors were elected for terms of five years and were under the duty to serve the “Gemeinwohl” or “general good” which was manifested by the state officials to be of higher priority than maximizing the company’s revenues. After the war, new laws and changes all over the world led to more participation for workers within the corporations.

Corporate Governance from 1980-2010 in general

In the 1980’s, many countries privatized large state-owned corporations. Deregulation – reducing the regulation of corporate activity – has often been accompanied by privatization and is part of the laissez-faire policy. Another major post-war shift caused the development of conglomerates, meaning that large corporations purchased smaller corporations to expand their industrial base. Especially more concentrated and owner-controlled firms had high returns during the 1970s and early 1980s but this turned in the late 1980s and1990s. Increasing international competition could be the cause. In the mid-1990s, Germany adopted a series of legal and regulatory reforms related to corporate governance.

In 2002, the German Corporate Governance Code was created. The aim of the German Corporate Governance Code is to make Germany’s corporate governance rules transparent for both national and international investors, thus strengthening confidence in the management of German corporations. The Code addresses all major criticisms – especially from the international community – levelled against German corporate governance, namely

* inadequate focus on shareholder interests;

* the two-tier system of executive board and supervisory board;

* inadequate transparency of German corporate governance;

* inadequate independence of German supervisory boards;

* limited independence of financial statement auditors.

Each of these five points is addressed in the provisions and stipulations of the Code, also taking into consideration the legal framework. Of course the Code cannot cover every detail of every single issue; instead it provides a framework which the individual companies will have to fill in.

5.2 Analysis of corporate governance in Germany from the approach of agency theory

Corporate governance is about the way suppliers – who finance corporations – get a return from the managers on their investment. How can be ensured that managers do a good job and do not free-ride? How do suppliers of finance control the managers? These are principal-agent problems which have the essence that ownership and control – or separation of management and finance – are separated. Suppliers of finance give money to firms; the managers run the firm by using this supply of money and return some of the profit to the investors. Although this mechanism works out most of the time, the corporate governance problem is not yet solved.

In Germany, a top manager even with poor performance is usually only removed after extreme circumstances as the boards are quite passive.

There are large differences in legal protection of investors around the world. In Germany, at least some suppliers of finance have their rights protected and have them enforced by law through the courts, in contrast to many other countries. But still in Germany, managers are in most of the cases not liable.

In Germany, over a quarter of all votes in major companies are controlled by large commercial banks. The banks also have smaller but still significant influence as direct shareholders or creditors. As studies estimate, do about 80% of the large German companies have a non-bank shareholder who owns a share of over 25%. Family control through majority ownership or pyramids is the norm in smaller German companies. A pyramid means that the owner controls 51% of the company which controls 51% of its subsidiaries. The function of pyramids is to enable the ultimate owners to control the assets with the least amount of capital.

In Germany, large shareholders are associated with a higher turnover of directors.

The effectiveness of large creditors and large shareholders depends on the legal rights they have. In Germany, banks have much power because they vote significant blocks of shares, sit on boards of directors, play a dominant role in lending and work in a legal environment favorable to creditors. In Germany, banking governance is very effective.

German banks are relative to their lending power and control over equity votes not as active in corporate governance as one could expect. Large investors such as banks often fail to terminate unprofitable projects they have invested in when continuation is preferred to liquidation. A large investor often maximizes private benefits of control rather than wealth because he is rich enough. He will not internalize the costs of these control benefits to the other investors, large investors fail to force managers to maximize profits and pay them out.

Germany has a successful corporate governance system relying on a combination of concentrated ownership and legal protection of investors.

Compared to the United States, German creditors have stronger rights but shareholder rights are weaker. Germany has a system of

governance by both permanent large shareholders, for whom the existing legal

rules suffice to exercise their power, and by banks, but it does not have participation of small investors in the market. As Germany has a system of permanent large investors, hostile takeovers are rare. The advantage is that firms with long-term investors go through crises with less economic distress and better access to financing. Takeovers limit the planning for future for the managers and reduce the efficiency of investment. Permanent large shareholders and banks that dominate corporate governance in Germany are able to influence corporate management through informed investors who are better able to help firms.

A large investor-oriented governance system discourages small investors from participating in financial markets.

Germany has a successful corporate governance system that combines significant legal protection of at least investors with an important role for large investors. This combination is very different from the governance systems in most other countries which provide limited legal protection of investors and are stuck with family- and insider-dominated firms receiving little external financing.

5.3 Analysis of corporate governance in Germany from the approach of transaction costs theory

The degree to which a firm can switch or differentiate its governance mechanisms depends on the legal jurisdiction in which it operates. German law accords greater bargaining power to labour unions than other countries do. This tends to create a stronger degree of governance inseparability. Governance inseparability means that a firm’s choice of governance mode for a transaction is constrained by the governance choices it made for prior transactions. Governance inseparability can also be created by contractual commitments. Most German firms are efficiently engaged in long-term exchange relationships which require long-term contractual commitments. These contractual commitments cause governance inseparability because they are costly and sometimes even impossible to reverse. The flexibility of a firm is restricted for the future through contractual commitments.

Changes in bargaining power of other parties -e.g. employees, suppliers or customers – to a firm’s contractual commitments can also lead to governance inseparability. Changes in bargaining power can for example emerge from changes in law and regulations. Parties that gained bargaining power unforeseen, try to use this circumstance to improve their own positions but forcing the firm to adopt locally suboptimal governance mechanisms in the future. The German government does not change its regulations constantly giving security to firms and private actors, but there are still other factors that could affect bargaining power and thus make changes in bargaining power to a constant risk in Germany.

As German firms engage in long-term transactions, no firm can entirely avoid making contractual commitments and are thus always aware of the risk of governance inseparability. Governance inseparability constrains most firms over time because of their existing arrangements which limit their scope and flexibility.

5.4 Analysis of corporate governance in Germany from the approach of business ethics theory.

Germans in general are pessimistic about the introduction of an ethical code. Businessmen in Germany think that ethical codes are not effective. In their view, ethical codes do not provide aid for executives in refusing unethical requests and do not give a clear definition of acceptable limits of conduct. But over the years, there is a growing acceptance of business ethics among German executives. Managers like former Nestlé chairman Helmut Maucher, who are fed up with such “moral poppycock” have given way to an increasing number of corporate members of the German branch of the European Business Ethics Network, including well-known German companies, such as Daimler Benz, Bayerische Hypo Bank, Siemens, together with German subsidiaries of transnationals like Procter & Gamble and IBM.

5.5 Conclusion to the chapter.

The German corporate governance system is one of the best in the world. Of course it has some disadvantages and it still can be improved but it already works more efficient than most other corporate governance system and is one of the most advanced ones.

Case study.

Corporate governance in Ukraine and Germany differs in many ways. Ukrainian corporate governance system is younger and less developed, it has many weaknesses yet, comparing to the OECD standards of corporate governance and German Code of Corporate Governance (GCCG). This gap between the corporate governance systems in the two countries becomes especially obvious when globalization enters the picture. Due to the internationalization of the markets, foreign (German in our case) corporations with their own systems of corporate governance involve in the economy (Ukrainian in our case) with completely new to them conditions. Such changes have a double effect on both foreign corporations and domestic market. To show this, we will focus on how different are German corporations’ headquarters from their branches in Ukraine.

1). Metro AG was formed in Germany in 1996 through a merger of retail companies Asko Deutsche Kaufhaus AG, Kaufhof Holding AG and Deutsche SB-Kauf AG. The same year the company entered the list of 20 largest publicly listed companies in Germany and since then it started expanding to foreign markets as well. (Official website of METRO Group, METRO AG has established its branch in Ukraine in 2002. One of the main changes the company implemented was decentralization of its structure in order to improve performance of each separated sales division, this way METRO Cash & Carry was formed in Ukraine. Further on METRO Cash & Carry launched a new strategic performance improvement program “MCC 2012 – Committed to Excellence” in Ukraine. The program is built upon two cornerstones: the re-positioning of METRO Cash & Carry’s business focus and the optimization of the company’s structure with the introduction of a regional organization. METRO Cash&Carry Ukraine established an “Inter-corporation university” to provide practical managerial education to potential employees. (Official website of METRO Cash&Carry Ukraine,

The company had to adjust to a number of particularities with regard to Ukrainian economy, political state and geographical specialties; weather conditions, different consumer preferences and available labour market supply were taken into consideration, and few alterations in the company’s strategy, structure and logistics were made. A substantial problem was the process of negotiation in the beginning of business in Ukraine, the reason for that was lack of unity between the state national level authorities and city level authorities and inconsistency of their activity. Another substantial problem was caused by the difference in business ethics, written contracts are of the highest value in Ukraine, whereas METRO relies on the agreements with suppliers that regularly has contract proof, and therefore a number of trials on that account took place in Ukraine.

As a matter of fact, METRO Cash&Carry was performing successfully in Ukrainian market, since they cooperate with mostly domestic suppliers, with national authorities and launch special projects for Ukrainian market, they employ national specialists as company managers, the company also focuses on the exchange of experience between the international branches and attempts to adjust the most to the country they operate in.

2). Henkel corporation has its headquarters in Dusseldorf, Germany. Henkel has business lines: Laundry & Home Care, Cosmetics/Toiletries and Adhesive Technologies. The company management is committed to such principles: value creation as the foundation of our managerial approach; sustainability as a criterion for responsible management; transparency underpinned by an active and open information policy.

Henkel corporation was established in Ukraine in 1998. The company is centrally managed, a range of products is not presented in Ukraine due to a lower level of demand for these products in Ukraine. The company succeed in Ukrainian market by employing Ukrainian specialists as top managers, although they would dedicate German specialists marketing and financial reporting functions, as the corporation required accounting to be done by its standards. Strong system of detailed planning for 5-years periods and experience of Ukrainian specialists in the domestic economy helped the company to get itself a strong position on the market. (Official website of Henkel corporation,


The most essential factors in formation of a national model of corporate governance in Ukraine are:

The structure of ownership of shares in corporations;

Specificity of financial system as a mechanism of transformation of savings into investments;

Ratio of sources of corporate investments;

Macroeconomic and economic policy in Ukraine;

Political system;

History of development and modern features of legal system and culture;

Traditional Ukrainian ideology;

Business relations practice;

Traditions and level of government intervention in economy and its role in regulating of legal system.


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How has the Game of Baseball been Affected by the Increase in Technology over the Past Decades Essay


Industrial Engineers will need to be a element of major league baseball team setting up. The capability to benefit from this willpower is significant to the game of baseball. Industrial Engineering has integrated into the video game with the maximize of technological know-how by utilizing newer tech like significant pace cameras and personal computer algorithms to analyzes gamers mechanics to equally strengthen and evaluate their skills. Baseball has obtained a lot of contributions from industrial engineering which includes, box scores, video analyze, pitch counts, on base share. It is important for the enterprise of baseball to carry on to glance to industrial engineering strategies to strengthen the game.

Can Industrial Engineering genuinely be that important to baseball? This displicine has provided much more contributions to the current match of baseball than most know. There have been people who have appeared to understanding of analytics and advanced principles to enjoy the activity far more proficiently due to the fact the late 1800’s. These gentlemen had been nonetheless restricted in the ideas they could check out because of to the absence of technological improvements. In the previous couple a long time engineering caught up with what these men experienced envisioned for the match, and these concepts have turn out to be ever more more important in the recreation nowadays. The business of professional baseball must proceed to glimpse to industrial engineering methods to strengthen the match.

Literature Overview

Since of the importance of stats and mathematical investigation of baseball, it is much more critical than at any time to go on to create a more concise marriage concerning industrial engineering techniques and the recreation of baseball. The 4 areas of industrial engineering, which are operations investigate, ergonomics, manufacturing, and management, all align well to locations of the sport of baseball. Operations research includes mathematical tools like statistical assessment, linear programming, and simulation modeling (1). Baseball has been gradual to capture up to this notion in latest several years, but in the late 1800’s, that was not the scenario. Scientific baseball, which is synonymous with the phrase little ball, was utilised actively as far back as the 1870s. (3) The charting of diverse data regarded as the box rating have been to start with applied in 1858 by a British writer named Henry Chadwick (4). Making use of Platooning, which is location up certain baseball players versus every other for a unique gain (making use of remaining handed pitchers against suitable handed batters and vice versa) was utilized as a technique in the 1870’s by Cap anson’s Chicago White Stockings (3).

These awesome analysis were dropped in the early to mid 1900’s for the reason that there had been massive dwelling operate hitters that created exhilaration in the recreation. Small ball and platooning ended up deemed poor administration strategies through this time (3). Having said that, in the 1970’s, The Culture for American Baseball Study, SABR, was born. Today’s phrase Sabermetrics is a direct result from the expression SABR and incorporating the measurement metrics to it. SABR commenced making use of the new computing technological know-how to collect and interpret large quantities of statistical baseball information. Baseball is a quantities video game effortlessly shown by the investigation all-around the range of pitches, hits, outs, and scores (4). The activity by itself encourages the use of numerical assessment. If you listen to sportscast or read any athletics report these days, you would be difficult pressed to not uncover the phrase sabermetrics made use of.

Ergonomics, also recognised as human engineering, is the next element of industrial engineering that is employed in baseball. The research of human factors engineering analyzes perform mostly from three views: anthropometric, the analyze of the dimensions of the human system physiological, the research of the calls for of actual physical exertion on the human overall body and psychological, the research of the mental impacts of operate on the entire body (Puerzer 2002, 5). The concept guiding human engineering in baseball is to make things safer. Branch Rickey, in 1952, commenced using particular plastics helmets for the fielders and batters. Baseball phycologists have been included as early as 1970 in baseball academies (6). Frank Gilbreth was the to start with to begin filming motions in sluggish motion, so they could researched and baseball as created studying film a big element of the activity (2). Pitch counts have lowered radically considering the fact that the 1960s because folks are starting to recognize the harm to pitchers. Also, the enhance of aid pitchers has emerged from the reduction of commencing pitchers usage (7).

Production and administration has improved by means of the many years as the video game has improved. Manufacturing efficiency methods have been introduced to the activity as a result of gear and technology. Specialised products encourages an upward degree of perform. Baseball Administration has absolutely adjusted. Specialized corporate management has become the norm as teams have included pitching, batting, bench, and hitting coaches to a team. Joe Torres was very productive in the 1990’s with the Yankee business and relied intensely on other coaches in his corporation like Don Zimmer to talk about what was essential for each sport (7 and 8).

Baseball would seem to have been sluggish to rejuvenate the statistical evaluation of the game. The principles of industrial engineering is quite critical to the recreation and I imagine the corporations need to have a Main of Statistical Examination, which is as significant as any other C stage in a company. It is great to see that some of the far more productive professionals have backgrounds in one thing other than sports. For instance, Tony LaRussa has a bachelor degree in industrial engineering. He has been incredibly thriving as a baseball mentor for the Cardinal firm. Joe Girardi, who just lately managed the Yankees also retains a bachelor’s diploma in industrial engineering (8).

For the reason that of the relevance of stats and mathematical evaluation of baseball, it is additional essential than at any time to benefit the intricate romance among principles of industrial engineering and baseball. The industrial engineering ideas of functions investigation, ergonomics, production, and administration have reshaped the video game of baseball by means of a variety of means. We are fortunate that the baseball small business is supporting the concepts and as a result, baseball is a superior game.

How has the Development of the Internet Affected Media Regulation? Essay

Media regulation is outlined as the direction or regulate of mass media by watchdogs and government via methods, principles and rules in purchase to protect the community curiosity (Feintuck & Varney, 2006). It is normally linked with print and broadcast news resources but the parameters of regulation have been continuously tested in the latest decades as a direct final result of the enhancement and exponential growth of the Web and the new media that has emerged from it. Typically regulation of the media has occurred in just a framework that incorporates products of self-regulation and authorities plan while preserving the idea that freedom of expression is a elementary human proper that should really be revered and even nurtured by the media in democratic nations (Fourie, 2010). Even so, the development of the Web has lifted thoughts of this distinct framework, this sort of as its relevance to new media and its skill to govern an intercontinental instead than domestic entity, by adding a further really modern-day aspect to a various and increasingly colourful media. This essay will study how the growth of the World-wide-web has impacted media regulation by inspecting the idea about media regulation, the realistic regulation and plan in position and how satisfactory it is for the Internet, and eventually the arguments in favour of even more growth of regulation due to the fact of the progress of the World-wide-web and new media. This will be finished with a see to concluding that the Internet has afflicted media regulation in that it has created a require for alter in existing regulation, which has really modified quite little in conditions of its sensible application and is simply not adequate plenty of to fulfill the issues that the international and open up mother nature of the Web poses. Media principle incorporates thoughts about plan, regulation and accountability and is very important in facilitating the identification of details at which the improvement of the Internet matches into or troubles the present-day regulatory framework. For instance, while his work was released prior to the arrival of the World-wide-web, Habermas’s (1992) idea of discourse principle assumes that method may perhaps be linked with context so that all persons can participate in a absolutely free and rational discourse that is reputable and formative in phrases of producing a consensus. Though rather basic in nature, this unique component of idea identifies the want for liberty for the media to deliver disparate expressions and enduring discussion on certain issues. This idea is relevant to the Internet as effectively as the media in normal and this indicates that its remit matches into the applicable democratic media regulatory framework. In addition, Kogut (2004) locations the growth of the Web firmly in the economic sphere and suggests that its speedy growth was a direct final result of the globalisation of finance, trade and company governance. This implies that its job as a media system was a secondary final result of its improvement and as a result provides some clarification as to why a regulatory framework was not recognized from the outset. Both of these theoretical views, or the application of the concept in the circumstance of Habermas, acknowledge that the expansion of the Online was not expected and has not impacted on strategies of what media regulation must be. The principle also explains a deficiency of speedy regulation to accommodate the switching nature of communication. Nonetheless, it is vital to seem at the regulation and ideas in place in order to assess these details even more. Some critics and academics draw parallels with media regulation and Online regulation, therefore suggesting that the improvement of the latter has not impacted on regulation to any wonderful degree but in its place has provoked slight adjustments to accommodate the new medium. For instance, Value and Verhulst (2004) admit that there was a negotiation concerning self-regulatory bodies and authorities in the early years of the Online, which indicates that the patterns of media regulation have changed incredibly minor if at all. They go on to note that the World wide web does actively limit the means of self-regulation and government to be efficient and so it is required for the application of each to be pursued to make sure that the new world type of interaction adheres to the problem of public desire to the biggest attainable extent (Price & Verhulst, 2004). Tambini et al (2008) concur, noting that the application of the classic model of self-regulation is effective in considerably the similar way as it does in other sectors of the media with the exact same debates more than accountability, obligation and liberty. Though they go on to argue that the ongoing progress of the Net does incorporate considerable public fascination and policy problems that necessitate nearer command than would be possible with slight tweaks in present authorities plan and self-regulation (Tambini et al, 2008). These views are based mostly on the thought that self-regulation is satisfactory in spite of the simple fact that digital media is so various to classic media platforms. The fact that these arguments so thoroughly focus on self-regulation demonstrates that media regulation as a entire has in fact improved really very little, with only slight shifts taking place involving the harmony of self-regulation and governing administration coverage to protect issues of public curiosity. On the other hand, inspite of the truth that there are intensive debates as to the extent that self-regulation need to be operational in the new media sphere, Mitra (2001, p. 415) has pointed out that the progress of the World wide web has had a tangible influence on media regulation: …the regulatory landscape in which the Internet will produce is vastly various from the one particular that nurtured broadcast and cable television. As a substitute of offering a check on economic forces, rules will mostly open the doorway to them. This is since the rationales employed by the Supreme Courtroom in upholding electronic media restrictions are mostly inapplicable in the context of the Internet. The inadequacy of the media policy and regulation in spot has also specified increase to arguments in favour of improvement of the regulatory framework of the media. For example, prior to the development of the World wide web, plan and regulation was based upon specified issues that presented concern to the media and its effect upon society as a total. These fell into two unique types – community and private. Challenges of general public issue include things like the upkeep of public purchase and the marketing of the public fascination even though non-public problems include things like guarding personal and residence rights as well as avoiding private damage (Iosifidis, 2013). Building upon this, there are voluntary codes of perform that journalists adhere to in terms of their function in print and that put on the internet but Lambert (2005, p. 170) stresses that these codes are not adopted by all bloggers on the web: “Standard journalistic apply, for instance, calls for info to be double checked and presents people who are criticised by a tale a suitable to reply. Weblogs have no such standards.” Certainly, there is very very little policy to govern carry out in advance there is only authorized recourse need to an specific, corporation or collective experience slighted immediately after the occasion. In essence, media regulation has not evolved to adequately cover the community interest and non-public defense of person legal rights by powerful all publishers of information content material, or other articles that falls inside the media sphere, to adhere to ethical ideals to the extent that journalists affiliated with publications or media shops have to. As the present regulation does not offer ample protection there is a deficit that has nevertheless to be addressed domestically and internationally. As the parts of the media are perceived as countrywide institutions relatively than world wide entities, which is a major basic principle that the improvement of the World wide web worries as a consequence of the growing access of online media resources, there is a unique absence of intercontinental units of handle (Weber, 2010 Drezner, 2008). In truth, there are no international regulations or set up bodies that oversee world wide governance of the media as a full. Alternatively, there are a number of bodies, like the Earth Trade Organisation, the World Intellectual Residence Organisation and the European Commission, that have authority in particular mediums, geographical contexts or as an extension of an economic interest but can do tiny to regulate the worldwide trade of information and facts that the Online facilitates (Siochru, Girard & Mahan, 2002). In this respect, the affect of the Net on media regulation in a world-wide context has been very limited and it appears that this might continue being the circumstance in fast upcoming. There are disparities between media laws in many nations around the world that pose a big difficulty in encouraging global legislation to deal with the global character of the Internet and the articles posted on it. For example, in China there has been the vigorous pursuit of Net regulation via comprehensive blocking and censorship in order to restrict democratic freedoms and enhance the electrical power of the authoritarian routine (Tai, 2013). In the United States, on the other hand, the First Amendment of the Structure makes certain flexibility of speech and so minimal has been performed to control on the net communications either through policy or via lawful challenge as a result of the Supreme Court docket (Fetzer & Yoo, 2013). These two nations occupy opposing ends of the domestic regulatory spectrum and so the likelihood of mediating the two positions in an global context is low. As such, inspite of the need for international regulation, the improvement of the Net has not inspired extensive worldwide media regulation. In conclusion, the evaluation of the effects that the development of the Online has experienced on media regulation raises two distinct factors. The initially is that there has been very little in conditions of functional regulatory alterations apart from recommendations to improve regulation on a domestic and an worldwide level. A lot of of the procedures that deal with regulation of the media are domestic in character and so do not have the reach to address pages that seem on the Net from distinctive nations. There are also voluntary codes of perform that journalists in other mediums abide by but are dismissed by individuals online. In spite of this, there have been incredibly couple new actions executed to control the media even with the progress of the Net. The second issue is that there is a definite require for regulation supplied the challenges that the character of the World wide web poses to the present framework. Whilst theories that propose self-regulation is sufficient may possibly be productive in some sections of the media, the need to give oversight in a world ecosystem with number of limitations is extensive and outside of present parameters. Self-regulation may well work with the ethical code accepted by journalists and specialists who do the job inside of the media market, with some notable exceptions in modern years, but it is not adequate to constrain individuals who have entry to the Internet and the potential to publish articles at will. In this regard, the Internet has without doubt designed a want for a fundamental transform within the current regulatory framework as that is just not able to fulfill the difficulties that the worldwide and open character of the Net poses. There is a will need to tackle the regulation of new media and this might want to be finished by means of international regulation or coverage. However, there is absolutely no question that the improvement of the Net has influenced media regulation to a good extent.


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How has Recession Affected the Financial Markets Essay

Introduction and Business reasons:

The global liquidity crunch has affected most of the countries and among the highly affected countries is United Arab Emirates which was one among the growing business hubs in the world with its massive development and acceptance of different culture and business. “Dubai”? known as the economic capital of U.A.E was badly affected by the recession.

Consequently, huge fortunes have been wiped out due to Dubai’s current economic crisis exposing the risk of doing business in the Gulf. The expansion of Dubai was very ambitious but improbable. A $64 billion project that was initially planned at 107 square miles for a development that was to be the world’s largest collection of theme parks, shops, residences, and hotels called the Dubai Land.A For now all these remain a fantasy which is the cause of the economic downturn. WILSON, Z (2009)

As a consequence to that, various other projects like an underwater hotel, a Tiger Woods golf course, a residential community set among full-scale replicas of the Seven Wonders of the World, a rotating skyscraper, and a beach designed by Versace, complete with chilled sand have been delayed. However after six years of quick expansion, the emirate had approximately $600 billion going into construction and is home to the world’s tallest building, the world’s largest shopping mall,A the biggest man-made island andA an indoor ski resort. These rapid developments caused a 7% increase in population anually. WILSON, Z (2009)

However, once the recession hit the country, the economic conditions and development scuttled. Currently, an estimated 50% of construction have been delayed or cancelled, banks have stopped lending, real estate prices fell down by 41% in the first quarter of 2009 and are estimated to drop more and the stock market has fallen 70% from its peak. Due to this economic crisis, the expatriates living in the emirate are either fleeing or have lost their jobs. When the economy of Dubai was in its booming stage, it had 80% of its total 1.7 million residents to be foreigners.

As long as this economic condition prevails in the emirate, life is going to be a challenge for the foreigners and other residents. However Abu Dhabi which is the capital of U.A.E has helped Dubai with $10 billion which is still a small amount when compared to the debt of Dubai estimated to be over $50 billion. Abu Dhabi is also being affected slowly due to the recession. However the impact is lesser than Dubai since Abu Dhabi controls over 90% of U.A.E’s oil reserve and is also home to one among the biggest investment company in the world known as ADIA (Abu Dhabi Investment Authority)

The research will have its focus mainly on the damage done to the financial market and Business of the country. U.A.E’s strategy towards gaining momentum in overcoming the economic crisis will be critically analyzed.

Personal reasons:

U.A.E’s development has always amused me. The country is one among the leading business hubs with all major multinational companies in the world. I had always wanted to study the business sector and financial market of U.A.E but coming from an Engineering background I did not have the tools and resources to do so which is the reason I have taken MSc International Business. I am taking this opportunity to study the country’s business using the tools and resources that I have already studied and going to study during my course. Moreover it would help me to understand more about International Business and reasons to the economic downfall of U.A.E. This would also help me once I go back in order to start a business. The knowledge of the economic situation and its detailed study would help me a great deal.


During the late 2007, with the US economy going through its worst post war recession, the global economy faced the most synchronised recession ever which was a result of increased globalisation and global interdependence financially and trade linkages. The economies of almost all the major developed countries shrivelled rapidly along with many trade dependent developing countries which include U.A.E along with other major countries like India and China. Anirvan B and Pami D (2010). Before the spread of the global recession, it was believed only the U.S economy will face the economic downfall. But almost the whole of Europe and cuntries like India and China were also hit badly along with U.A.E which is a small developing country with big ambition. The economy of dubai was growing at an alarming rate with projects estimated to approximately $660 billion until the recession hit.

In november 2009, the announcement of Dubai that it was going to freeze $26 billion of debt was a shock to the world and after two months when the real estate market crashed, Dubai government had over $60 billion debt which created serious doubts in the minds of investors about Dubai. A political science professor at Durham University in the U.K. stated “The real story of Dubai is that it was a trick,” Christopher D (2010). Abu Dhabi which is the capital of United Arab Emirates has been using its $43 billion of annual oil revenue to work controlled by one among the world’s biggest investment company called ADIA (Abu Dhabi Investment Authority) building art museums, mosques and a renewable energy research institute. Pendleton and Devon (2010) Vol.A 185 Issue 5, p108-109

With the likes of abundant oil reserves of Abu Dhabi and one of the world’s biggest institutional investors (ADIA), Dubai has a ray of hope in surviving the current economic crisis. Abu Dhabi Inbestment Authority is known to be one of the biggest financial institutions in the world ranking second after the Bank of Japan, according to the Oxford Business Group. Roy and Sudip ()2006, Vol.A 37 (444), 70-76. The company established in 1976 by the late ruler of U.A.E Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahiyan had its gaol towards investing the country’s surpluses in International market with low risks. The company currently manages U.A.E’s surplus oil reserve which is estimated to be approximately $500 billion. The company has been able to raise its liquidity during this global crisis when equity market was struck severely. The country is mainly depending on the turnover of this establishment. The company’s aproach towards investment in US and Europe market are looking strong. Sheikh Ahmad says “US treasuries are still the most liquid benchmark bonds in the world and will remain an important diversification tool”. Mccrum and Philip (2010), Vol.A 54 ,8, p30-31.

In 2009, Dubai’s Jebel Ali airport which is going to be the world’s biggest airport found its construction at halt as its development plans were threatened by the gloabl economic crisis. The current economic situation has mainly affected the real estate market of U.A.E. With reduced net migration, decreasing jobs and the lack of availbility of credit has badly affected the real estate market. The prices for properties has gone down by 40% and reduced liquidity and credit for developers has shut down major projects. While there is no consumption data, inflation figures are below requirements. Dubai’s ‘housing, electricity, gas and other fuels’ inflation was at 0.5% in February 2009 which was the lowest during that year. Emerging Markets Monitor (2010) 16,(32) 17.

The emirate of Abu Dhabi shows less vulnerability to the current economic crisis when compared to Dubai. The Dubai Government had announces at 6 month stand still for debt payments in november 2009. U.A.E’s economic recovery only started gaining momentum in 2010. In this research, I will endeavour to highlight the key positive development that has occured since the recession and critically analyze the country’s future strategy.


4.1 Research QUESTIONS:

What are the reasons for the tragic economic downfall of U.A.E especially in the emirate of Dubai?

What is the extent of damage to the financial market and business in the country due to the recession?

How badly is the real estate market sector affected due to recession and what are its impacts on the residents?

How has this economic downfall affected the country’s financial market?

What are the measures undertaken by the government and private business sectors to recover from the financial crisis?

4.2 Research OBJECTIVES:

To critically analyze the reason for the economic downfall in U.A.E.

To critically analyze and comment on the extent of damage and the precise business sectors that are most affected due to the recession in U.A.E.

To critically evaluate the downfall in the real estate market and its impact on the residents

To evaluate the effect of recession on U.A.E’s financial market.

Finally, to comment on the measures undertaken to recover from the financial crisis and recommend measures which can help the recovery


Analysing a global phenomenon (the green phenomenon) at a European level and carrying out researches about a pillar industry (the automotive industry) that indicates most of the European countries’ economic health implies that various data are available. Whilst numerous advantages such as giving precious in-depth data concerning the topic, it also means that important drawbacks will arise such as so-called “fake”? or “disinformation”? data. Furthermore, this fact also implies that while collecting accurate data on such “hot topics”?, the need to constantly access the latest and up to date data will be crucial and even unavoidable alongside my research.

5. 1 Data collection methods outline

5.1.1 Secondary Data

In order to complete my research, I will be using secondary data like text books that are available at Coventry University related to Business strategy and Management to use the appropriate tools required to analyze a company or business that is hostile due to recession. Books like Business strategy Formulation Ulwick, Anthony W (2004), Chaotics: The Business of Managing and Marketing in the Age of TurbulenceA Kotler, PhilipA A A C, John A (2009) and Stock Market Cycles: Practical Explanation Bolten, Steven E.A A (2000). Other databases like EBSCO will be used to find journals and articles related to my research area. Articles like ‘’Jebel Ali terminal faces 12-month delay’’ Foreman,c (2009) Middle East Economic digest, Vol 3,(9) 18 and ‘’Contractors pay for falling prices’’ Foreman,c (2009) Middle East Economic digest, Vol 53,(5) 27-30.. Other articles and journals will be used for as my research progresses. Database like SAGE journals will also be used to find journals on Global recession and its effect on develpoed and developing countries.

5.1.2 Primary data


One on one interview will be conducted with the IT department head of ADIA (Abu Dhabi investment Authority) as a part of primary data collection for my research. The interview will help me understand and perceive how the company is doing and regarding their current investments. Depending on the quality and depth of the information collected from this interview, I will be conducting another interview with the Marketing Manager of Abu Dhabi Cable Factory L.L.C which is a company I used to work for before the start of my course at Coventry University. All these data will help me comment on the present economic condition in United Arab Emirates and their future plans as my research progresses.

5.2 Data collection methods per objective

In order to complete my first objective, I will be using journals and articles from databases like EBSCO and SAGE journals that contains materials purely on recession, its roots and forecasts.

The second objective will be addressed using the information collected from the interviews and journals from EBSCO.

For the third objective, information will be collected from databases like EBSO and SAGE journals. Additional information will be collected from local newspaper articles in United Arab Emirates.

For the fourth and the fifth objective, information collected from the interviews will be used along with other journals and articles. In order to recommend measures which could help the recovery from recession, I would use information from books like Business strategy Formulation Ulwick, Anthony W (2004), Chaotics: The Business of Managing and Marketing in the Age of TurbulenceA Kotler, PhilipA A A C, John A (2009).

5.3 Analysis of data

Primary data collected by interview will be grouped accordingly to answer the necessary objective of my research work. In order to do so I will be using the NVIVO 9 software which will help me analyze any unstructured information collected.

5.4 Limitations

As far as the secondary data is concerned, the limitations are that the information available is from a third person’s point of view which might not be accurate and also that we could find information contradicting some particular information since the research will talk about issues concerning the reason for the country’s current economic condition and measures that could be employed to overcome the economic crisis.

The limitations for the primary data would be that the information collected may not be precise as it is information regarding a company or economy from an individual’s perspective.


I will ensure that I will follow the University’s ethical procedures and submit the low risk ethical approval form and follow all the guidelines.

For my primary data collection, I shall use the participation information leaflet for interviews and also attach a consent form for interviews.

Interviews will not be conducted in ways that could go against the ethical issues like harm the respondents or question their honesty. All the data collected will be treated confidentially and will not be used for any other purpose than the research work.

All data will be securely kept in line with the Data Protection Act 1998.


Wilson, Z (2009) “ROAD TO NOWHERE”?A : FAST COMPANY 138, (13) 90-93

BusinessWeek (2009) “ ECONOMICS & POLICY JAWBONING THE BANKS”?A 4161, (4) 8-13 available at

Foreman, C (2009) “Jebel Ali terminal faces 12-month delay”? : MEED-A Middle East Economic Digest 53, (9) 18

Anirvan, B and Pami, D (2010) “Synchronisation of Recessions in Major Developed and Emerging Economie”?A : The Journal of Applied Economic Research 4, (2) 197-223 avalible at

Pendleton and Devon (2010) “Middle Eastern Mirage”?A : Forbes 185, (5) 108-109

Mccrum and Philip (2010) “Abu Dhabi begins to open up.”?A : MEED-A Middle East Economic Digest 54, (8) 30-31

Ulwick and Anthony, W (2004) Business strategy Formulation

KotlerA ; Philip, C and John A (2009) Chaotics: The Business of Managing and Marketing in the Age of TurbulenceA 

Bolten and Steven, E.A A (2000) Stock Market Cycles: Practical Explanation

Middle East Monitor:A The Gulf (2010) 20, (5) 4-5 avalilable at

Emerging Markets Monitor (2010) Vol.A 16 Issue 32, p17-17 available at

Has the Sociological Function of the Mass Media been Affected by Modern Technological Developments? Essay

For instance, do the plethora of ways of finding and reporting news, through online forums, blogs, YouTube, etc., available to the average citizen undermine the hegemonic role of traditional news media in this regard? Discuss from a functionalist, Marxist or other sociological perspective.


The mass media plays a major role in today’s society. Functionalism emphasises its strength, but warns of the danger of having its power controlled by a few individuals or organisations. That hegemony was threatened with the creation of the World Wide Web. Twenty-first century internet technology now offers any citizen the potential to reach an audience of millions. The key sociological concepts for analysing the impact of the media are long-established, and later commentators often reinterpret existing theories rather than offering new perspectives. Two macro-theories, both viewing society as a system shaping human behaviour, dominate discussions: the functionalist stance and the Marxist-oriented conflict perspectives. This essay will draw on Parsons, Merton, and Wright to present the classic functionalist viewpoint. Conflict theory offers several interpretations of Marxism, which serves as a critique. This essay will detail the popularity of the most frequently-accessed mainstream websites and consider social media’s role in news-gathering and dissemination. Examples of traditional and modern media coverage will illustrate changing attitudes and societal mores and the capacity of social media to precipitate change, before using a functional analysis to assess if the sociological function of the mass media has been affected by modern technological developments.

Social theory and the media

Functionalism, a ‘structural’ perspective and a leading sociological stance of the 1940s and 1950s, regards society as an interdependent system that can only be understood by examining how separate structural parts relate to each other and to society as a whole. The traditional mass media, principally newspapers and cinema, reached their zenith during this era so it is unsurprising that sociologists used functionalism to analyse the media and society. Functionalism makes certain assumptions, including the need for stability, and examines ‘the origin and maintenance of order and stability in society’ (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004: xv). Functionalism suggests that the mass media’s common perspective and shared common experience bind society together. Parsons (1964) argued that societal behaviour is governed by shared values that become societal norms, a value-consensus which enables society to function effectively. Functionalism being value-neutral, disruptive activities are dysfunctional rather than intrinsically bad; defunct values become extinct.A  Merton (1968), remaining within the functionalist tradition, felt that functional unity was unlikely in complex societies and that all functions, whether of religion, social stratification or even the family itself, could be met elsewhere within society. He distinguished between manifest (intended) and latent (hidden/unintended) functions of the media. A manifest function could be the need to sell goods for profit. The latent functions included supporting the status quo by reinforcing values. (Merton, 1968). Charles Wright developed what became known as the classic four functions of the media. He stated that media theorists ‘noted three activities of communication specialists: (1) surveillance of the environment, (2) correlation of the parts of society in responding to the environment, and (3) transmission of the social heritage from one generation to the next (Wright, 1959:16). He also identified a fourth element -entertainment – and distinguished between the intended purpose of the mass media and its consequences. Whereas functionalists believe that societal norms govern human behaviour, Marxists argue that the controlling factor is the economic system. They offer a conflict perspective where the mass media legitimises the status quo, enabling hegemonic control over the dissemination of information. Marx argued that members of the elite produced the dominant societal ideas to conceal exploitation of the working class while the mass media manipulated information to normalise inequality (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004). Functionalism has also been critiqued on the grounds that the value-sets presumed to characterise Western society have never been conclusively demonstrated, and the ‘content of values rather than value-consensus as such can be seen as the crucial factor with respect to social order’ (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004:943).

Old and New Mass media

The time lag between reporting and printing left newspapers a day behind in publishing events; the visual impact of television was immediate. The Vietnam War was the first ‘televised’ conflict. The iconic image of nine-year-old Kim Phuc running naked down a road outside Saigon following a napalm attack helped to turn public opinion against continued American involvement (Newton and Patterson, 2015). In the world of the traditional media, the internet’s potential impact was underestimated by commentators such as Clifford Stoll. Writing in Newsweek he said: ‘The truth is no online database will replace your daily newspaper [and] no computer network will change the way government works’ (Stoll, 1995). He was quite clearly wrong on both counts, but at that time few people had access to the new form of media that had been developed by enthusiastic amateurs, academics and students. (Rheingold, 1994). According to Pew Research (2015), Yahoo – the world’s biggest on-line news service – attracted 127,995,000 unique visitors in January 2015.A  A Google search of the traditional media reveals that the BBC warrants an impressive 793,000,000 Google listings while The Times newspaper has 398,000,000. However, these numbers are dwarfed by social media listings. YouTube has 7,540,000,000 entries, Twitter has 11,350,000,000 and Facebook tops the poll with 15,050,000,000 (Information retrieved 27.8.2015). Furthermore, on Monday 24th August 2015, it was reported that one billion people – one seventh of the world’s population – logged into their Facebook accounts (Zuckerberg, 2015). Digital communication normalises rapid dissemination of information. Anyone with a smart phone can potentially break a major news story; the first images of the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Centre in 2001 came from mobile phone footage. ‘Micro-blogging’ is event-driven; Twitter provides users with a regular feed of news and trivia. Stories which are re-tweeted or commented on frequently are said to be ‘trending’. However, with a limit of 140 characters per ‘tweet’, brevity still rules occasionally, just as it did when news of the Crimean War was transmitted to Britain via telegraph.


Historically, a comparatively small group of people working for an even smaller and more exclusive group of newspaper, film and broadcasting organisations gathered information. They determined what should be made public and how it should be presented. Deciding what to omit was probably as important as deciding what should be included; stories presenting the establishment in a negative light were often suppressed. Certain reports, decades apart but linked by a common thread, bridge the gap between traditional media and the digital age and illustrate changing attitudes in Britain. During the 1936 Abdication Crisis, despite it being widely disseminated elsewhere, British media initially ignored the affair between Edward VIII and Mrs. Simpson out of deference to King George V (Rubenstein, 2003:199). However, less deference was shown to Princess Margaret; MP Willie Hamilton, who regularly raised the issue of the royal finances in the House of Commons, described her as ‘a floosie….. a monstrous charge on the public purse.’ (Davies, 2002, np). The rise of celebrity culture also gave rise to the ‘paparazzi’, an independent cohort of photojournalists, who followed and photographed members of the royal family at every opportunity. Earl Spencer’s passionate oration at the funeral of his sister, Princess Diana, blamed the paparazzi for her death, describing Diana as ‘the most hunted person of the modern age’ (Princess Diana 97, 1997). More recently, compromising pictures of Prince Harry on a trip to Las Vegas were circulated on-line by US celebrity website (TMZ, 2012). What used to be news is now entertainment. There are a number of potential dangers in the functions of the media. Analysis accompanying factual reporting influences public opinion, but unchallenged norms and values can perpetuate injustice; one only has to recall the portrayal of racial minorities in 1950s media. Entertainment may double as propaganda, as in the jingoistic films released during WWII. Nevertheless, deciding what information goes into the public arena may still have hegemonic undertones, as demonstrated by a BBC Newsnight investigation into Jimmy Savile. This was ‘pulled’ shortly before a tribute programme to the late celebrity, believed to have abused hundreds of children, was due for broadcast. Members of the investigation team were sidelined amid allegations of a management cover-up (Jackson, 2015). Wright’s observation distinguishing between intended and unintended consequences of the media is particularly relevant to the new social media. In late 2010, mass demonstrations against political repression, poverty and corruption swept the Middle East during the short-lived ‘Arab Spring’ uprising. The authorities were unable to suppress the outflow of information via social media. The Tunisian government was the first to fall. The hegemony of their state-approved news agencies had been completely undermined. However, organisations such as ISIS also use social media to spread their message, recruit followers and boast of their horrific accomplishments (Ajbaili, 2014). From the value-neutral functionalist stance (Wright, 1974) this is not ‘evil’ but merely dysfunctional when viewed from the paradigm of Western culture; ISIS is communicating, commenting and sharing its value system to gain wider acceptance of its fundamentalist values. Contrary to Stoll’s predictions (Stoll, 1995) internet usage proliferated. Some functions of the new media, such as gathering and disseminating information, clearly descend from their traditional forbearers, but news is a globalised and a 24/7 product which has given rise to a cult of celebrity (Hollander, 2010). Gatekeepers cannot determine what constitutes news when a story may ‘go viral’ without warning, although unedited on-line content can be disturbing. Recently, the world was appalled by the murders on live television of a reporter and cameraman, in an attack filmed by the gunman and later circulated by him on social media. Such incidents bring into question the wisdom of facilitating unmediated access to what was once ‘the airwaves’. However, that particular discussion is beyond the scope of this essay. Social media has been proven to instigate social change. The viral impact of the YouTube video ‘Kodaikanal Won’t’ forced Unilever to clear mercury waste from its disused factory in Tamil Nadu (Kasmin, 2015). Social movements such as anti-globalisation campaigners use social media very effectively to spread their message. Charities and NGOs regularly harness its power and it is said that U.S. President Barack Obama owed his election success to his team’s mastery of social media. Only this week, the image of a lifeless Aylan Kurdi, the three-year old Syrian refugee washed up on a Turkish beach, galvanised public opinion worldwide, although one fears that effective political action to resolve the refugee crisis may take rather longer. Mainstream broadcasters have embraced social media, routinely incorporating audience participation by inviting comment via Twitter, text or e-mail. They have websites, Twitter feeds, and Facebook pages, as do organisations or individuals wishing to raise their public profile. Printed media struggles with falling sales, but on-line services stream news, opinion and entertainment directly into the family home, traditionally seen as the location for the transmission of cultural values. Mesch cautions that: ‘The introduction of new technologies such as the internet into the household can potentially change the quality of family relationships’ (Mesch, 2006:119, cited in McGrath, 2012:9). This impact is particularly strong on children growing up with digital media, quite literally, at their fingertips, and a trend towards individualisation within households is “undermining natural family interaction” (Buckingham 2000:43). Discussion of the functions fulfilled by family life is beyond the scope of this essay, but the issue highlights concerns over whether communications via the new social media have become a substitute for face-to-face interaction and whether social media can in fact, sustain the social fabric of traditional family life – and, by implication, society as we know it – across the generations. Although one would sincerely hope otherwise, Merton’s (1968) analysis suggesting the possible extinction of functional family life could be prophetic.


Functionalists have been criticised for seeing social order in terms of value-consensus on the grounds that consensus is presumed, not proven, to exist. Critics also note that research has not demonstrated widespread commitment to the value-sets assumed to underpin Western society, and suggest that value-content is the crucial factor (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004). Marxism argues that functionalism does not explain social conflict, and sees the mass media as another tool used by the elite to maintain their power and privilege. Social media news content is clearly not controlled in the conventional sense and posts can disturb the status quo, influencing political and social change. This strength has diminished hegemony, although organisations such as the BBC still exert editorial control over the ‘old’ media. Ideologically-driven campaigns of the ‘left’ such as the anti-globalisation movement have been able to use social media to publicise their activities as never before. The differences between opposing sets of cultural values are brought into sharp focus as social media follows events in the Middle East and elsewhere, bringing our unstable, i.e. dysfunctional world into our homes. McGrath (2012) cautions that social media could have far-reaching impacts on family life; Merton (1968) posited that any function, including that of the family unit itself, was dispensable and that society would always find an alternative. These issues cannot be discussed here but they clearly warrant investigation. On reflection, news may be trivial or disturbing, the message may travel faster and further and the values transmitted may be radically different from those of previous generations, but despite social media’s impact, its functions – gathering and disseminating news, transmitting culture and entertaining – have remained consistent. It is the changing value-content which is disconcerting, but functional analysis necessitates a distinction between functions and effects so it cannot offer a value judgement.


Ajbaili, M (2014). ‘How ISIS conquered social media’ in Al Arabiya News, 24th June 2014. Available at Retrieved 28.8.2015. Buckingham, David, 2000. After the death of Childhood: Growing Up in the Age of Electronic Media. USA: Blackwell Publishing Limited. Davies, C (2002). ‘A captivating woman who was courted by many suitors but failed to find everlasting love’. In The Telegraph, 11th February 2002. Available at Retrieved 6.9.2015. Haralambos, M, and Holborn, M (2004) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives. London, HarperCollins. Hollander, P (2010).A  ‘Why the Celebrity Cult?’A  in Society, Vol 47 pages 388 – 391.A  Available at  Retrieved 8.9.2015.A Jackson, J, 2015. ‘ BBC forced out team behind Savile exposA©, says ex-Newsnight journalist’ in The Guardian, 29th July 2015. Available at Retrieved 29th August 2015. Kasmin,A, 2015. ‘Social Media proves its power as Unilever feels the heat’ in Financial Times, 9/8/2015. Available at Retrieved 27/8/2015 McGrath, S (2012) The Impact of New Media Technologies on Social Interaction in the Household. Available at Retrieved 29.8.2015 Merton, R (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure, (enlarged edition) New York, The Free Press Newton, P, and Patterson, T (2015). ‘The Girl in the picture: Kim Phuc’s journey from war to forgiveness. In CNN online, 20th. August 2015. Available at . Retrieved 5.9.2015. Parsons, T (1964). Essays in Sociological Theory. New York, The Free Press. Pew Research (2015) ‘Digital Top 50 online news entities 2015’. Available at Retrieved 5.9.2015. Princess Diana 97 (1997). ‘Princess Diana’s funeral Part 17: Earl Spencer’s Tribute.’ Available at Retrieved 6.9.2015 Rheingold, H (1994). The Virtual Community. Finding connection in a computerised world. London, Secker and Warburg. Rubenstein, W (2003). Twentieth Century Britain: A Political History. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan Stoll, C (1995) ‘Why the Web won’t be Nirvana’. In Newsweek, 26.2.1995. Available at Retrieved 27.8.2015. (2012) ‘Prince Harry nude pics surface from Las Vegas Trip’ 21.8.2012. Available at ( Retrieved 6.9.2015.A A Wright, C (1959) Mass Communication: A Sociological Perspective. New York, Random House Wright, C (1974). ‘Functional analysis and mass communication revisited’ in Blumer, J, and Katz, E (eds) The uses of mass communications (pp 197 – 212). Beverley Hills, Sage Publications. Available at Retrieved 27.8.2015 Zuckerberg, M (2015) cited in ‘One Billion People used Facebook on Monday’. Sky News report, 28.8.2015. Available at Retrieved 28.8.2015

Families Affected by Mental Illness Essay


A ton of psychological troubles make the existence of a affected individual depressing considering that they are unable to are living a standard lifetime. The dissimilarities between the daily life of a mentally stable and mentally ill man or woman are distinct, and their excellent of daily life differs. The problems affect not only the affected person but also their people. The people endure tension which then develops into much more state-of-the-art psychological challenges. The social distance in between a affected individual and family also increases the moment the affected individual gets to be a burden to them when their life need help by other people today. The society stigmatizes the people and their relatives, and this helps make the existence of the entire family members uncomfortable (Thornicroft, 2006). Different family members use distinctive strategies to solve the issues that appear with psychological illness of a family members member. Also, most of the families want different kinds of aid this kind of as counseling, money and clinical dependent on abilities of the households.

Due to lack of economical qualities and believing in regular healers, quite a few of the families selected the traditional healers above pros who offer with mentally challenged people. On the other hand, there are others who in no way search for any assist, and it remains unclear why they by no means choose any action towards making certain they seek help so that they can recover (Hyperlink, et al, 2001). Having said that, though many individuals know that their relatives are suffering from mental sickness, they in no way consider it as a major make a difference. Some consider it as a curse, witchcraft, and possession by evil spirits. They at periods seek divine intervention from the spiritual leaders. The patient is accused of remaining the major contributor. The the vast majority of people in no way seek out assist for their clients simply because they worry victimization. Even individuals who have relations who know how to offer with mental sickness discover it tough to humble them selves and search for guidance considering that they assume the condition to heal on its very own. For that reason, only a several of the situations are introduced to the attention of the pertinent authorities. The burden of the sickness is primarily on the shoulders of the loved ones users, and they also go through stress.


  1. The demands of the family with people today living with mental disease are mostly neglected mainly because only a couple persons and establishments are willing to hear to their concerns and the challenges they go through in their day-to-day existence. The best outcomes can be obtained if people can start out addressing the demands of such family members in the public domain. Addressing this sort of troubles in a community platform will build awareness and properly-wishers will come up and volunteer to generate the agenda even more to particular degrees.
  2. Nursing gurus ought to also be a part of the attempts and support their clientele recognize additional about the subject. Recognition will build some enhancement pertaining to capabilities the victim have and how they use the strategies to strengthen their excellent of everyday living. The capabilities will incorporate how to do parenting, and how to defeat pressures from relatives customers and pals.
  3. The needy people should really be made available aid for them to get consciousness about establishments that can support them.


Several households are going by psychological ailment for the reason that they have mentally ill patients. There a noticeably huge number of mentally unwell people. The existing estimations state that men and women influenced by psychological health issues are as substantial as four hundred and fifty million. Out of the 4 hundred and fifty million people affected by the disease, thirty-7 people have dementia, twenty-4 million folks have schizophrenia, and twelve a single hundred and 20-1 people today endure from despair. In 2001, about twelve percent of the disorder affecting human in the earth was men and women struggling from mental troubles. The unipolar problem is believed to come to be the next condition foremost to disabilities by the yr 2020. The family members are the at the time who bear the obligation of searching just after the mentally sick sufferers due to the fact they are unable to have out most of their day by day particular obligations.


Several psychological worries end result from the psychological health problems. The challenges ensuing from psychological disease contain deteriorating standards of life for patients and family members (?–stman, &Kjellin, 2002). The society abandons households with mentally ill patients since of their affected person. They experience stigmatization and humiliation by the general public simply because of the patients. Mentally sick persons go by means of a lot of problems which affect their life and behaviors. They are instances included in poor activities this sort of as crimes. Some of them end up in prison considering the fact that it will become very tough for the family customers to regulate their behaviors.

Populace Influenced by mental ailment:

The total selection of men and women who undergo straight or indirectly from the conditions is estimated to be forty-two million five hundred thousand (Saunders, 2003). Out of the full population of grown up individuals in The United States, eighteen per cent of them are affected, possibly instantly or indirectly, by psychological ailments.

Target Populace:

Psychological problems are witnessed in men and women of all ages. But it normally begins when men and women are at their young ages. Nevertheless, it is not distinct what age group is generally affected by psychological sickness. It, therefore, results in being challenging to know the team the preventive actions will target on.


Family members who experience psychological troubles simply because they have mentally unwell sufferers can be assisted by giving them with family therapies. Spouse and children therapy serves two applications. The initially goal is to create recognition which will help people present assist to the individuals likely via distinct treatments procedures (Corrigan, et al, 2001). With the essential aid from the complete communities, patients and their people can stick to the restoration approach. Finding critical supports eradicates relapse. The second objective is to guarantee the family get important psychological assistance so that they can get better immediately (Phelan, 2005).


Distinctive families have in different ways thought, and they involve individualized techniques. People people providing help need to have to pay attention to those they want to assistance and realize how they will offer with their beliefs to motivate them to participate in such things to do (Goldberg, & Huxley, 2003). The strategies will be adjusted relying on the degree of good results realized. The family members ought to have the liberty to take or reject proposed methods and suggest some others if they are mentally able. Assistance personnel should not grow to be the victims to attend the aid periods, and they should be authorized to determine when to go to (Hinshaw, 2009). The main aim will be to enable assistance victims recover without having discouraging them or creating them truly feel like the courses are compelled into them.



The plan supported under this proposal will operate for one particular yr. Inside of the one 12 months, the first thirty day period will be devoted to registering people and the influenced families. After the registration plan is over, then the instruction and remedy will commence. By the close of the twelve months, the households will have been given adequate education and counseling, and they will be in a placement to present information to other impacted men and women. The counseling will supply mental support to sick folks, and as a result, there will be reduced suicide conditions.

Integrated cure mixed with early intervention

The program will run for twelve months. The initially thirty day period will target on registering unwell and impacted people today. The moment they are registered, the team will assist them, and they will employ well being procedures developed by the group by way of session with the influenced families and people today. Each specific is anticipated to have recovered in six months.

Restoration services

To enable the impacted individuals strengthen their high-quality of lifestyle, they will be made available products and services that will uplift them and supply a superior daily life and stop lapses. Restoration services will be supplied from the sixth thirty day period to all those who entire the counseling plan. But those people who are unable to increase finances for primary desires will be specified some funds to support them pay for fundamental requirements and motivate them to just take component in the plan.

Individuals who comprehensive the program will be offered positions, housing, and other guidance expert services that will be run by their friends. This services will be made available to those people who have a frail spouse and children guidance and have no resource of cash flow.


Thornicroft, G. (2006). Shunned: discrimination in opposition to individuals with mental sickness. New York.

Saunders, J. C. (2003). Family members living with extreme mental health issues: A literature evaluation. Concerns in psychological health nursing, 24(2), 175-198.

Goldberg, D., & Huxley, P. (Eds.). (2003). Psychological health issues in the community: the pathway to psychiatric treatment (Vol. 3). Psychology Press.

Corrigan, P. W., Edwards, A. B., Green, A., Diwan, S. L., & Penn, D. L. (2001). Prejudice, social distance, and familiarity with mental health issues. Schizophrenia bulletin, 27(2), 219.

Phelan, J. C. (2005). Geneticization of Deviant Behavior and Penalties for Stigma: The Circumstance of Mental Illness —. Journal of Wellness and Social Actions, 46(4), 307-322.

–stman, M., & Kjellin, L. (2002). Stigma by association. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 181(6), 494-498.

Hinshaw, S. P. (2009). The mark of disgrace: Stigma of mental disease and an agenda for modify. Oxford College Press.

World Health and fitness Business. (2003). Investing in psychological wellbeing.

Url, B. G., Struening, E. L., Neese-Todd, S., Asmussen, S., & Phelan, J. C. (2001). Stigma as a barrier to restoration: The repercussions of stigma for the self-esteem of persons with psychological sicknesses. Psychiatric providers, 52(12), 1621-1626.

Ernest Hemingway: how his Life Affected his Writing Essay

Ernest Hemingway was worldly acknowledged for his composing style that was composed of short, easy sentences. Hemingway’s exclusive type inevitably led to him getting rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 1954. Not only was he known for his fashion of writing, but the main strategies applied in his stories had been from experiences he faced in his everyday living himself and he just dramatitized them himself. Some extra novels that Hemingway wrote include: The Solar Always Rises, A Farewell to Arms, To Have and Have Not, and For Whom the Bell Tolls. Hemingway’s selections and points he underwent in his early daily life finally led to occasions that transpired in his later on everyday living.

Ernest’s father Clarence Edmonds Hemingway or Ed Hemingway started follow to remaining a health care provider and when he served his internship re-fulfilled his later on wife, Grace Hall. Ed Hemingway was encouraging are inclined to Grace’s mother because she had cancer. Ed Hemingway and Grace Hall had earlier noticed each individual other when they went to the same substantial university, Oak Park Superior University. Their letters they sent to every other around a span of 6 yrs later led to their marriage in the yr of 1896. Grace liked actively playing music and later found herself instructing audio to persons. Ed Hemingway and Grace Hemingway had 6 youngsters collectively, like Ernest. Ernest experienced an older sister, Marcelline, which was born in January 1898. Ernest also experienced three young sisters and young brother: Ursula, Madelaine or Sunny, Carol and Leicester. Ursula was born in 1902, Madelaine in 1904, Carol in 1911 and Leicester in 1915 (Dearborn 18).

Ernest’s mother, Grace Hemingway recorded things about Ernest as a little one in his infant reserve, she would file items that Ernest did as a baby that were particular and uncomfortable. There had been images of Ernest as a child with his sister and it seemed like they were twins and the two women. In that century, it was frequent for boys to have on ladies clothes, but even following, there began to be dissimilarities in the outfits amongst boys and women. Ernest’s mother continue to dressed Ernest in girl’s apparel. As a little one Ernest was pretty close with his oldest sister Marcelline. Grace always dealt with his two older kids as twins, since she had often wanted twins. Not only did Grace costume up Ernest like Marcelline, but she desired them to be in the similar grade so she held Marcelline back a yr. Ernest and Marcelline’s partnership were truly close as they have been children and continued to develop as they turned more mature but their romance soon turned toxic as they achieved adulthood. There were being specific traits that Ernest pointed out in Marcelline’s identity that he didn’t like since they were the exact same lousy attributes his mom experienced (Dearborn 22).

Ernest’s moms and dads acquired a house on Walloon Lake in northern Michigan the calendar year just before he was born. A third of Ernest’s summers were expended at this Michigan lake dwelling. This summer time house had a major impression on Ernest as he was growing up and later on in his writings. Michigan is exactly where Ernest experienced the entertaining in nature and the wilderness in the world. All the Hemingway young children have been taught how to shoot a gun and the safety about them by Ed Hemingway, he taught them how to shoot an animal and catch a fish. While at the property on the lake the young ones would generally fish and hunt. Even however Ernest went to the dwelling in his before a long time there were being continue to constant appearances of the Michigan household in a lot of of his later functions, but 1 major perform that it appeared in was The Nick Adam Tales. The Nick Adam Tales were being a group of short stories describing main functions in Ernest’s lifetime, from childhood to adulthood. Not only did the summers likely to Walloon Lake aid produce some of his writings, but I imagine that it brought on Ernest to have a liking for traveling to sites and observing the entire world (O’Connor, “When Hemingway Was a Younger Fisherman in Michigan”).

As Ernest entered in as a freshman into Oak Park and River Forest Substantial University, he wasn’t critical about English and basically experienced options to develop into a health care provider. After having English classes and classes in writing, his plan started to transform and he turned significant about English. Marcelline and Ernest liked reading magazines that came to their house and competed to see who could complete examining things first, like King James Bible. The afterwards many years in superior university was when Ernest seriously commenced to improve an inspiration and adore for writing. Two teachers motivated him extremely, Margaret Dixon and Fannie Biggs. Both equally teachers took a ended up intrigued in supporting Ernest, but every single assisted him otherwise. Ernest was inspired and motivated by Miss Dixon when he was commencing to generate. Miss out on Biggs had an club that each Ernest and Marcelline were being intensely included in. During the club, pupils would mail in operate and critique every single other’s get the job done with help from Miss Biggs. Miss out on Biggs was a huge impact for Ernest to focus on the genre of shorter stories, but Miss Biggs was much more influential to Ernest on his route to journalism. Overlook Biggs’s journalism class was known for becoming ran like an real newspaper office. The two Ernest and Marcelline were picked to be rotating editors for the newspaper. The editors have been precisely preferred by Overlook Biggs’s to publish about distinctive items in the newspaper. Ernest identified that sports activities composing was the most straightforward for him primarily since he performed on a few of sports teams in substantial school. Ernest’s passion for creating undoubtedly commenced from higher school and flowered into something amazing as can be witnessed in his writings. His teachers gave him the commitment and opportunity to even further his English and creating techniques in large college(Dearborn 37-38).

In Ernest’s senior yr of higher school, he started considering about college or university. Ernest’s father desired him to observe his sister, Marcelline, and show up at Oberlin, but Ernest favored Cornell improved. Ernest advised a lot of individuals that he was likely to the University of Illinois, but Ernest’s interest in faculty disappeared and was much more interested at performing for the newspaper, The Kansas City Star. Ernest’s uncle Tyler assisted Ernest get the apprenticeship at The Kansas Metropolis Star because he knew a writer at the newspaper. The newspaper gave Ernest a full-time position in the fall. Ernest was new to writing newspapers, but at some point, he turned a very talented newspaper writer. Ernest had the position of interviewing people in a specified space of Kansas, through this he achieved several people and turned far more involved with the town. He was taught the procedures of the newspaper and the principles took place to turn out to be the reason he was these kinds of a exceptional writer. Surely, acquiring these skills early on in his everyday living served him simply because the policies he was taught at the newspaper was the type he was later on regarded for (Dearborn 45-49).

Through Ernest’s time at the newspaper he required to provide in the Wonderful War. Ever since his senior calendar year in substantial faculty, Ernest saw the societies’ change to militarism. This patriotism drew Ernest to the military services lifetime, and prompted him to indication with the 7th Missouri Infantry of the National Guard. Ernest’s relatives was recognized for owning lousy vision and this induced for the U.S. Unit to not accept him. Thankfully, for Ernest the American Crimson Cross was providing alternatives as a result of ambulance driving in France. The Crimson Cross was actively recruiting for the reason that of the key defeats the Italians confronted because of to the Austrians. Ernest signed up and explained to The Kansas City Star he was leaving in April. Ernest manufactured his way from Mestre to Fossalta, which would be the Purple Cross base camp. Ernest would go from trench to trench handing out materials to Italian troopers. A single day as Ernest walking out of the trench and the Austrians began shooting their mortars at them. The explosion induced soldiers to lie dead on the ground or cause key wounds to them. Ernest who experienced been terribly wounded from the shrapnel, brought on by the explosion, lifted a badly wounded soldier and walked to the Purple Cross dugout. On Ernest’s final techniques to the dugout his leg was shot by a device gun, producing him to be unconscious in the trench. Purple Cross motorists took Ernest to Fornaci where they would thoroughly clean his wounds. For Ernest’s act of heroism, he was awarded The Silver Medal of Military services Valor. Several unique versions of Ernest’s story would floor. Whilst in the Purple Cross medical center in Milan, Ernest was seeking to come up with a superior fictional novel about his war wounds. Inevitably, Ernest wrote, A Farewell to Arms, in 1929. A Farewell to Arms was a appreciate story about a hero, Frederic Henry, and a nurse, Catherine Barkley, that whilst recovering from his wounds they fell in love. Just like in Ernest’s novel, Ernest finishes up acquiring a liking for a nurse named Agnes von Kurowsky even though he was recovering from his war wounds. They invested time collectively, digging shrapnel out of his leg, sightseeing, and heading to races at San Siro. While in the healthcare facility, several have mentioned that Ernest’s encounters had brought on his individuality to adjust from a fresh new, boyish character to becoming self-centered. He imagined of himself so remarkably by wearing his uniform with all of his medals and wounds stripes. Not only did this event that Ernest working experience immensely enable his supporter base afterwards in his life, but it also modified Ernest as a man or woman (Dearborn 59-68).

Ernest Hemingway’s early lifetime seeded the origins for his wonderful creating techniques and accomplishment. From his experience in the wilderness that later led to his love for touring, his academics that sparked his inspiration for crafting in higher faculty, to his occupation in journalism that designed him acknowledged for his exceptional writing design, to his around loss of life practical experience that led him to crafting an awesome novel. These are only a handful of illustrations in Hemingway’s early existence that helped his success in his later daily life. With out these significant gatherings Hemingway skilled in his early life, I think that he wouldn’t be just about as effective and nicely-recognized currently. 

How 9/11 Affected the Whole Nation Essay

You wake up 1 morning contemplating that now is heading to be normal day. You comply with your daily plan and change on the Television information channel. Your surprised by the chaos on the news and from your apartment you can hear persons screaming and shouting. Out of nowhere you listen to a loud increase. This is the 2nd airplane that crashed. You verify the date 9/11/01. The us text widely known this kind of as Al-Qaeda, Taliban, ground zero, radicalism and anthrax.( Villemez, 2018, p1)

       On September 11 terrorist assault the United States. They hijacked four air planes mid flight. They terrorist flew the airplanes into the twins towers creating them to make two large holes on the prime of the buildings. Quite a few men and women were being on the prime of the constructing and it took several several hours to rescue them. The 4 planes had been hijacked with 19 terrorist who have been from the center east. All planes were crashed in accordance to plans and some of the terrorist died in the plane crash. 9/11 has left a lasting affect on thousands of individuals around the world. approximately 3000 men and women died. Individuals who have lost their beloved ones or skilled the incident will never erase this from their reminiscences. Quickly afterward, the FAA banned all flights all-around New York City, and bridges and tunnels in the area began to near.( Gale, 2017, P1) There was no cell phone services. Transportation support had been cancelled. Persons were frantic not figuring out if their beloved types were secure. The FAA suspected a different hijacking immediately after Flight 77 crew members and passengers commenced calling household customers and other officers.(Gale, 2017, P1) At 9:31 President Bush declared that the country was less than an evident terrorist attack. The President was in Florida looking through to college small children when he was notified.

          Airports and protection forces tightened up and had been upgraded.  we had significantly a lot more ways 9/11. This incident created US know that they had to do additional then just upgrading their stability. A new department was designed soon after 9/11 named-Office of Homeland Safety. The division was specially manufactured for terrorist and protection from terrorism. Two months after the assaults, Congress federalized airports by stability by passing the Aviation and Transportation Protection Act.(Villimez, 2018,P1) Airports tightened safety to involve steps like eradicating footwear when going through stability. Laws was developed to insure that soldiers and other folks who helped with the cleanup experienced access to healthcare. Making codes were being developed to make skyscrapers stronger and to be protected in other cases like this assault.

          Osma bin laden was born in Riyadh 1957. He went to faculty in Saudi Arabia and afterwards moved to Afghanistan where  he acquired included with terrorists. Afterwards on he moved to Afghanistan, where by he joined the jihad or holy water, towards the Soviet Union. He shaped the group Al-Queda , which means the foundation in 1998.(Gale, 2017, P2) They built the initial terror assault in 1991 and space was directed to the American troops. At that time the bomb assault did not destroy any Individuals. After that they began to assemble much more persons and got even a lot more highly effective. 9/11 started out a lot of fights and created a lot of enemies. As of 2012, ICE claimed that 9/11 attack experienced taken virtually 48,000 convicted criminal aliens.(The Lowdown, 2018, P8) It bring about heaps of commotion and all the information channel ended up only chatting about the incident.

        The activities of 9/11 is even now very unfortunate for individuals who dropped beloved ones or seasoned the incidents. This afflicted the total nation. The place is now regarded as Ground Zero. The terrorists concerned in the attack have died butAl-queda is continue to very a lot alive and active. 9/11 is an incident that will never ever be forgotten.

How the Rwandan Genocide Affected on People Essay

 A genocide is the mass murder of a huge group of folks and or a certain ethnic team or nation. In 1994, April by July, a genocide took place in Rwanda. About 800,000 Rwandan persons had been massacred in just 100 times. This devastating event sparked just after the Rwandan President’s plane was taken down, killing President Juvenal Habyarimana. The total of people today killed and how rapidly it all transpired, still left the persons traumatized. Thousands of women were taken by the militia and were being impregnated. Leaving them with a constant reminder of becoming held and what disgusting activities took place whilst there. The Rwandan Genocide affected countless numbers of life, lasted for quite a few days, and destroyed hundreds of households.

        The Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana’s airplane was shot down higher than Kigali airport on April 6 of 1994. This sparked the Rwandan genocide which was concerning Hutus and Tutsis. The Hutus men and women ended up generally the folks that carried out the killings and the Tutsis were being typically the people that have been remaining killed. The genocide was prepared by Hutu persons and lots of of them had been a component of the national govt. The Hutus individuals experienced a target of wiping out all the Tutsi.

        Numerous gatherings and disagreements led up to the murder of the Rwandan president, Juvenal Habyarimana. Some of the Tutsi nationalist were forming the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). The aim of the RPF was to overthrow Rwandan President, Habyarimana and return to their homeland. This brought on Tutsi hatred all in the course of Rwanda. The Rwandan Patriotic Front, discrimination and the competing of ability that led to the genocide and the murder of the Rwandan President.

        A lot of people today may inquire about a genocide. Are there several different functions in a genocide? How quite a few are there? According to Stanton, there are 8 areas of a genocide. The 8 distinctive levels of a genocide are classification, symbolization, dehumanization, group, polarization, extermination and denial, (Stanton). In accordance to Stanton, classification is the place when each individual party decides who they will be against. The next stage is symbolization, at this issue, every single party will make your mind up the title of their group and if they will receive a image to be involved with their identify (Stanton). The 3rd phase is dehumanization, which means that the procedure of killing commences.  Organization is the future stage. Which usually means All genocides are arranged. At this stage, loathe groups are arranged, militias are qualified and armed, and the armed forces are purged of customers of the intended victim team as well as officers and other folks who could possibly oppose genocide, (Stanton). Phase 5 is polarization. All through polarization, the average 3rd functions are targeted and assassinated, (Stanton). Planning is upcoming, which according to Stanton signifies, throughout the preparation phase, plans are created for the genocide. Loss of life lists are compiled. Demo massacres are conducted, both equally as education for the genocidists, and to test regardless of whether there will be any response, (Stanton). Just after planning, extermination starts. Extermination means that the genocide has formally began. The remaining phase of genocide is denial. Stanton states throughout and after each and every genocide, the perpetrators deny they committed the crime, (Stanton). There were a number of warnings foremost up to the genocide.

        Thousands of women have been raped all through the Rwandan Genocide. Some even became pregnant. A young woman named Josette was taken by the militia. She and numerous diverse females had been held in a property and were being raped by a lot of distinctive gentlemen. Just about every and each early morning the adult men would arrive and strike the women 10 moments. After hitting them, they acquired a distinctive person, (Torgovnik). Josette at some point turned pregnant and had a small boy, his title was Thomas. The moment he grew up, he was quite stubborn, and Josette states that it was not because of to him knowing his mom did not adore him. It was simply because of the blood that is in him, (Torgovnik). Whilst Josette realized this baby was innocent, she could not assist but assume that he was a result of rape. She suggests I ought to be trustworthy with you I never beloved this child. Each time I try to remember what his father did to me, I applied to sense that the only revenge would be to destroy his son. But I under no circumstances did that. I forced myself to like him, but he is unlikable, (Torgovnik). Josette struggled to adore Thomas as her baby. She had hardly ever been pregnant before, by no means raised a child right before, permit alone increase and enjoy a boy or girl from the end result of rape. A number of women of all ages turned expecting in the course of the genocide. Every single mom looked at their child a distinctive way. Some moms would view their youngsters as a result of rape and other moms would nonetheless see their kids as becoming harmless. In order for a mother to adore and take pleasure in the kid as her individual inspite of the situations, she need to comprehend the father was the disgusting a person and not the loving boy or girl.

        The moment this horrific genocide finished, it was however important for small children to get their demands. Hundreds of kids had been remaining to endure without having just one or the two of their mothers and fathers. Having said that, some Rwandans have been very generous in providing the desires that orphans have. Whilst numerous little ones have been taken absent from their family members and some even had to just take treatment of their more youthful siblings. Schooling was still a massive component of a child’s demands. A lot of children, which were deserted and experienced no academic rights or possibilities or a probability to turn out to be a part of a relatives, remaining. They still left the city they had known, in buy to fend for themselves and to survive on their personal.

        Most of the folks that have been associated in the genocide were people today that have been effectively identified, people that have been a component of Rwanda. A well-known musician named Simon Bikindi wrote songs and sang tunes. Bikindi was the initial entertainer that was identified to be responsible of a genocide-connected charge, (Simons). Mr. Bikindi’s rap songs was made of lyrics endorsing ethnic hatred, which was greatly broadcasted and was sung by mobs as they killed their victims, (Simons). The Rwandan people today that ended up included in the genocide have been individuals that were well-recognised persons. Nevertheless, surprisingly seven persons that had been responsible for up to a million fatalities were being arrested for these horrific crimes. If these seven individuals would not have confessed to staying accountable for the deaths of thousands and thousands of folks, they would not have been in a position to arrest them and punish them for the crimes they dedicated.  These 7 individuals arrested have been key ministers, former minister in the authorities, a colonel in the basic workers of the Rwandan army, former editor-in-chief of the influential newspaper Kangura, previous commander of the para-commando battalion of the Rwanda armed forces, former prefect of Butare, (Suspected Rwandan Genocide Perpetrators Arrested). This goes to show how the folks during the local community are the types responsible for the Rwandan people’s dying.

        The moment this horrific party arrived to an finish, at least 2,000,000 people had fled the nation, such as several of the Hutu and perpetrators. Their people were being gone, and their local community had been torn apart. Although several family members had been torn apart, hundreds of young children survived their dad and mom, leaving them all by yourself. Numerous females survived because of to the militia keeping them in houses and getting edge of them. Due to the girls becoming held in properties and raped by the militia, they became expecting. These mothers had been still left with the frequent reminder of remaining taken advantage of and that reminder would under no circumstances go away, as long as the mom would continue to keep the baby. After the genocide, about 70 % of the population was gals and 30 per cent gentlemen. The Rwandan genocide still left Rwandan families alone and wrecked.

        The Rwandan Genocide was a quite devastating function with a substantial demise depend and lots of sudden individuals associated. People ended up ruined and torn aside. Multiple kids have been positioned into an orphanage, due to their loved ones becoming killed or taken. Several moms had been still left to raise their children alone and some moms have been raped and grew to become expecting, becoming pressured to have the toddler. Increasing that boy or girl would be very tricky on the mom and the mother would have to pick out no matter if she could acknowledge the instances and really like the kid or if she would have to disown that baby. This genocide induced so quite a few heartbreaks in Rwanda.

How Propaganda Affected Women in WW2 Essay


The onset of the second globe war resulted in major disruption of the social standing quo in a lot of communities about the world. So several resources have been channeled cowards preventing. Wide quantities of youthful and equipped adult men who were instrumental in delivering the booming industries throughout Europe and America turn out to be recruited to serve in their various militaries. At the similar time, scores of these fighters have been dropped in the war as a result building a demand from customers for additional military personnel. Distinctive countries mobilized both of those guys and girls to provide in various capacities to make certain their economies that had been under danger in the deal with of the disruptive next world war was taken care of. Adult men have been mobilized as a result of anticlastic propaganda to exhibit their patriotism by starting to be enlisted in their militaries. Gals, on the other hand, turn out to be mobilized to occupy the vacuum left by the combating gentlemen in industries and income-producing endeavors. The Next Planet War, therefore, contributed appreciably to a change in the ordinarily held gender roles. In advance of the war, women of all ages had mostly performed the part of getting care of households, bearing and getting care of children amid other stereotypes gender roles ordinarily involved with females. Men on the other hand were being mainly perceived to be the breadwinners and protectors of their households. The Seconds Earth War (WW2) was consequently powerful governing administration to mobilize women to aid in sustaining economies. Females ended up informed that the war was not merely an endeavor to be resolved by their male counterparts. Females as well experienced a job to engage in in various capacities. The paper, consequently, intends s to deeply delve into the impacts the WW2 propaganda campaigns experienced on females.

Considering that the Colonial interval up to about 1940s, the greater part of Us citizens had been convinced that the organic atmosphere in which a lady thrived is with her relatives at household.WW2, nevertheless, resulted in disruptive modifications that altered the position quo. The federal government aggressively utilized propaganda that emphasised the will need women of all ages be additional included in earnings building ventures during the war. Millions of girls, as a result, were being recruited into factories consequently demystifying the customarily held gender views. While the propaganda campaigns were immensely thriving in aiding the government to achieves its objective of stating America’s financial state, it similarly brought a lasting alteration to gender roles.

Propaganda channels that had been utilised by the federal government incorporated advertisements, magazine posts, radio applications, and posters. For the 1st time, ladies ended up depicted doing the job in factory traces in overalls with their hand significantly greasy. Using these propaganda applications, various organizations which includes the Workplace of War Data encouraged women of all ages to change from the kitchens to factories. The propaganda similarly encouraged girls to be additional enthusiasm for consumers and nurses. Active usage would maintain the overall economy as functioning women of all ages bough authorities bond making sure the federal government experienced sufficient money resources to sustain the war. Scores of injured military services staff who were delivered back dwelling required the even additional nurses to guide in restoration.

In the a long time in advance of WW2, the wonderful melancholy constrained financial routines so ensuing in significantly handful of work positions. Gentlemen, for that reason, monopolized the minimal employment positions available consequently starting to be the breadwinners in their families. The development developed a rigid social bias as a result limited girls from venturing into lively profits generating ventures. Some states have handed laws barring married girls from accessing positions. It was as a result noticeably demanding [specially for mid-class operating women of all ages to obtain feasible employment positions. In the onset of the second entire world war, solitary females and very poor gals were being promptly absorbed into America’s labor technique. Middle-course single females keep on being an untapped labor useful resource at as a result junctures.

To realize best achievement in mobilizing these ladies, the government via agencies like The United States Office environment of War Facts (OWI) to decimate propaganda stimulate women’s involvement in work Even though promotion greater, wages would have been an effective mobilization instrument. These an solution would have simply resulted in increased investing thus contributing to inflation. The authorities thus solely adhered to emotional appeals and private patriotism.

The patriot enchantment has two critical attributes. ?Do your ?strategy was the initial stage. The subsequent portion was a warning reminding women of the possible damaging effects of their failure to do their part’ a soldier might die.’ Women of all ages have been equally sensitized that their contribution would consequence in a much more expeditious gain in the war. As at the mid-1942 involving 150,000 and 200 000 women have been currently being employed in America’s labor current market each and every month. As at September 1943, in excess of ten million adult men experienced been recruited into the war, and a bulk of the relaxation who remained were being currently in employment. WW2 compelled The united states to have interaction in 1 of the most intense generation campaigns during background. Japan and The us have now amassed their weapon for the previous ten decades, and now The united states had to measure up. Females were being hence vital in the manufacturing of the weapons that finally contributed to America’s achievements in the war. Topics on war tactics that focused women had been issued by OWI in publications,  radio commentators and journals.

As of 1941 (December), about 12 million women of all ages had been employed. The amount improved by 35% early the pursuing yr (sixteen million). The changeover was not as clean as the integration of ladies into the labor current market produced vacuums in their domestic tasks. The most challenging was childcare. The somewhat limited technological know-how in laundry and cooing demanded that women of all ages nonetheless dedicate a major sum of their time to safeguard their properties. Gasoline rationing and deficiency of rubber resulted in important problems in the transportation business. The vast majority of ladies however resided in semi rural regions as a result restricting their successful and timely entry to perform or voyage back property. Ladies who owned cars and trucks gave rides to their counterparts to get the job done and back household.

It is crucial to take note that the propaganda campaigns considerably undermined concerns about the unfavorable impression of WW2. As a substitute of trying to get effective and quick ways of de escalating the war and consequently stopping its negative results, women have been encouraged to dedicate all their initiatives to help the govt reach its aim. Many economic assets had been as a result directed in the growth of armed forces sources these kinds of as weapons. Quite a few ladies selflessly committed all their initiatives to their professional obligations as effectively as their domestic obligations again at household. When dedicating all their hard work to meet up with their countries demands, girls were continue to encouraged to be frugal in their use of assets to make certain navy forces could be sustained.

Volunteer will work

WW2 considerably attained America’s economic means. Limited farming ventures and lack of peace in the relaxation of the world resulted in confined availability of food items methods. Meals reserves hence rationed available meals means. The federal government came up with the Women’s Land Arm (WLA), a volunteer application. WLA was included in a huge-scale volunteer farm get the job done system to aid strengthen food stuff sustainability in the country. Some farm homeowners were, on the other hand, reluctant to use WLA companies as town women have been barely regarded as to have any successful possible in farmlands. Females ended up, however, the only labor resource at their disposal. The volunteer system realized a 14% maximize in foods manufacturing by the initial summer season of the war.

The propaganda instruments sensitized girls to be a lot more frugal in their use of methods like cotton, rubber, tea, silk, wool, espresso, and beef. Girls were being important in the rationing courses considering the fact that they are the main people in their family members buildings. Other women were being included in nursery courses wherever young children obtained treatment as their moms toiled in distinct places across the nation.

Serving in the Army

The 2nd Earth War also noticed the induction of ladies into armed company. The transfer was undoubtedly a radical shift in the perceptions beforehand held in direction of gals. In early 1942 the Property of Representatives passes a invoice that resulted in the development of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps. Later on in July the adhering to year, the auxiliary position of the team was dropped producing women whole lively individuals in America’s armed service ventures. The Navy later came up with Women Recognized or Voluntary emergency provider. These adjustments in America’s Military service ended up in reaction to the want to replenish the country’s army staff. The war was boasting a rating of serving army men even though maiming many others consequently the have to have to coach and combine ladies into energetic companies. The films that ended up designed through this [time period were instrumental in motivating ladies to sign up for the military services. Journals and Newspapers also utilized to glamorize military services daily life. While the number of women of all ages that have been to begin with recruited into different navy branches was comparatively modest. They have been the pioneer that paved the way for the later inclusion of additional women in the armed forces provider.

WW2 propaganda alters the position quo about gender roles. The inclusion of women in the labor sector contributed to the later emergence of the feminist movement that demanded equal access to employment prospects. Fictional propaganda figures like Rosie the Riveter were being quite instrumental in later building a vocal wave of feminist who viciously fought the limitation gals confronted in their try to entry equivalent work predicament in spots of operate. Even with the greater inclusion of women in the labor marketplace all through WW2, it is critical to notice that glass ceiling ongoing to bar gals from accessing management positions in the decided on areas of endeavor. A negligible variety of women of all ages ended up included in leading administration positions as perfectly as political management positions.

 The feminist movement was motivated by the societies desire to prohibit them to domestic obligations just after WW2 as soon as once again. Gentlemen returned had been natural currently being rewarded with work positions. Thanks to the constrained availability of employment positions, females ended up inspired to relinquish their employment position to war veterans. Ladies who built an effort to keep on to their employment positions were being shamed into compliance. The intense propaganda campaigns had nevertheless created a long lasting impact on women of all ages who became keen that ever prior to to be utilized. Teams of ladies labor unions and other activists generate groups that championed for the equality of ladies. Illustrations or photos like Rosie the Riveter shifted from currently being propaganda instruments to lively feminism icons. The impact that the propaganda campaigns experienced on females impacted the basic essence of America’s social fabric. Girls have been for instance photos of women of all ages carrying pant for instance reworked commence social values as reserved domestic personnel who were envisioned to be completely faithful to their husbands. Quite a few solitary girls chose to peruse their profession not becoming keen to enter into marriage and hence thoroughly depend upon their spouse for monetary aid. It was unquestionably difficult to pressure ladies again into their past standard kitchen and residence roles. Even gals who experienced young children took momentary breaks from their employment just before having back to work.  Organizations championing for the legal rights of women of all ages commenced to actively foyer for the formulation of legislation that would be certain businesses used a reasonable amount of money of both of those adult males and women of all ages. Additionally, the propaganda waves equally resulted in the force on legislators and the government to occur up with exclusive rights for women in their work this sort of as maternity leaves.

Just after WW2, The united states was engrossed in a jubilant celebration ignorant of the truth that their intensive propaganda campaigns would endlessly alter America’s social construction. The general public belief on the gender roles had without end been altered women of all ages started on a long and painful journey to have not only equivalent opportunity to employment but also equal employment gains. The propaganda strategies experienced been careful to depict gals as industrious and self-assured but also female and dedicated to their domestic chores. Employment, even so, gave women of all ages obtain to a whole lot of independence as they had their cash and could comparatively do as they make sure you. In a drive to strengthen their suitability to get employment much more women of all ages, choose to progress their education even to tertiary concentrations. Increased entry to education and learning equally drove gals away from their conventional domestic roles. The return of soldiers soon after the WW2 resulted in a rise in birth rates and quite a few women who had been doing the job have been coaxed into relinquishing their employment positions. Ladies were now urged to go back again dwelling and relaxation as they celebrate their attempts. Gals ended up equally inspired to use the dollars they had generated in obtaining home goods that would make their domestic roles more efficiently. It was however very clear that the war had forever terraformed America’s female inhabitants.


Pressured to enter into the next entire world war, America enlisted a significant variety of into male population in the military services. The country on the other hand still required to maintain its economic sources and maintain its ambitious armed service expedition. The united states, thus, contracted companies such as The United States Place of work of War Info to maximize the role of women in profits generating ventures. More women of all ages were being recruited in factories making weapons utilized by military services strategies all over the planet. Other women of all ages served as nurses who attended to wounded customers of the armed forces brought back residence. Females similarly took element in food items manufacturing consequently feeding the nation. The campaigns equally contributed to the inclusion of women in the military services as active serving participants. The propaganda strategies were being escalated and in the long run terminated following the war. Gals were inspired to reassume their domestic roles and make it possible for adult males to be the breadwinners in homes The WW2 propaganda strategies, nevertheless, altered the common perceptions with which ladies ended up perceived there have been developments in feminist groups that campaigned for gender equality. Some girls pick out to concentrate on their professional career and their schooling.


  1. Basinger, Jeanine. “The Wartime American Lady on Film.” A Companion to the War Movie (2016): 89.
  2. Brock, Julia, Jennifer W. Dickey, Richard Harker, and Catherine Lewis, eds. Over and above Rosie: A Documentary Historical past of Girls and World War II. College of Arkansas Press, 2015.
  4. McEuen, Melissa A. “Women, Gender, and Earth War II.” In Oxford Investigation Encyclopedia of American Heritage. 2016.
  5. Ryan, Kathleen M. “Military Existence: Coordinating WWII Journal Publicity by the US Naval Women’s Reserve.” Journalism Background 40, no. 4 (2015): 217.