Theme of Hopes and Dreams Essay

Themes in literary works are perhaps the most important takeaway for the story. A theme is the central topic, or what represents what drives the overall storyline, as well as the decisions of the characters within it. The Mill on the Floss, Rita Hayworth and the Shawshank Redemption, and the film Good Will Hunting all share the common overarching theme of hopes and dreams. Hope, aspirations, ambitions, and a feeling of optimism are all important elements to each of the works discussed. In each work, this overall theme of hopes and dreams motivates a particular character’s decisions and actions, and is an underlying concept throughout each story.

In The Mill on the Floss by George Eliot, the theme of hopes and dreams is carried throughout the novel, particularly through Maggie Tulliver’s character. In fact, Maggie Tulliver may be representative of the author George Eliot’s own hopes and dreams for herself. Maggie’s intellectual and curious nature often refutes her family and society’s expectations for her, which leads to an internal struggle between following her own hopes and dreams, or following those in which her family had instilled upon her. In the novel, which took place during the Victorian Era, women are viewed much lower than men in society. Maggie often expresses her desire to be as intelligent as a man could be, despite being told that some knowledge is only meant for men, and not being able to attend school with her brother, Tom. Additionally, during this period, marriage and family was the ultimate dream in a woman’s life. However, Maggie goes against the societal rules of the era by following her own dreams and deciding to work as a governess, after which she was described as “a most undesirable niece” by her family (Eliot 420). She even rejects Philip’s marriage proposal and decides that she does not want to go through with her marriage with Stephen, either, which further shows Maggie’s need to follow her own hopes and dreams rather than those of society.

The idea of hopes and dreams can also be seen throughout Rita Hayworth and the Shawshank Redemption by Stephen King. Similarly to Maggie in The Mill on the Floss, Andy seems to carry this powerful theme of hope throughout the novella. The other characters in the novella who are inmates at Shawshank seem to be imprisoned by the fear of life outside of the jail, while Andy maintains a warm and positive demeanor throughout the story, radiating this idea of hopefulness and dreams of what life could be like on the outside world. Andy’s optimism spreads to some of the other prisoners in Shawshank; he is particularly able to help Red view life from a different perspective and better cope with his circumstances in the prison, saying “remember that hope is a good thing, Red, maybe the best of things, and no good thing ever dies” (King 106). Andy’s grip on hope and his dreams help him survive the harsh prison life, and ultimately lead to his motivation for digging the tunnel through his cell wall and escaping from Shawshank.

Another piece that contains the theme of hopes and dreams is the film Good Will Hunting, written by Matt Damon and Ben Affleck. The story is centered around Will, who grew up in a relatively rough area of South Boston and works as a janitor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is labeled as a genius because he is extremely gifted at mathematics, but struggles with his internal fears of failure and rejection in pursuing his dreams and showing the world who he truly is. Will grew up as an orphan, and endured a painful childhood that stripped him of his hope. This initially prevents him from seeing a better life for himself or pursuing a career in math, despite the numerous prestigious job offers he receives. These fears also prevent him from displaying his affection for a girl he falls in love with from Harvard, Skylar. However, through the help of therapy sessions with a psychology professor, Sean, Will discovers his own self worth and realizes what actually matters to him. By the end of the film, Will decides that he is not actually satisfied with his life in Boston working physical labor jobs, and decides to follow his real hopes and dreams by accepting a corporate mathematics job and pursuing his love for Skylar. After watching the film, viewers can’t help but to feel hopeful.

Overall, the central theme of hopes and dreams has a strong presence throughout these three works. Maggie, the protagonist of The Mill on the Floss, goes against societal and family expectations and uses her wit and curiosity to pursue her own dreams. In Rita Hayworth and the Shawshank Redemption, Andy maintains hope throughout his life in prison, which leads him to escape prison and fulfil his dreams for his life in the outside world. Will, in Good Will Hunting, lacks hope at the beginning of the story, but regains it after therapy sessions and ultimately pursues his dreams in his career and love life. All three stories instill a feeling of hope in their readers or viewers, inspiring them to go after their own dreams as each of these particular characters were able to do. 

I Hear America Singing and I, Too, Sing America Identity Theme Essay

“I, Too” is a cry of dissent against American prejudice. It’s anything but, an individual of color, regrets how he is avoided from American culture—despite the fact that he is a critical piece of it. However, the speaker contends, individuals of color have endured—and will continue on—through the treacheries of bigotry and isolation by fostering an energetic, lovely, and free social custom, a social practice so incredible that it will ultimately propel white society to perceive dark commitments to American life and history.

All through the sonnet, the speaker demands that he is truly American and that his local area has made significant commitments to American life. The speaker starts by declaring, “I, as well, sing America.” This is an inference to a sonnet by Walt Whitman, “I Hear America Singing.” In that sonnet, Whitman depicts America as a tune, which rises up out of an assorted chorale of laborers, ranchers and mechanical works, ladies and men.

In any case, Whitman remarkably does exclude individuals of color in his vision of American life. Despite the fact that the sonnet was written in 1855, only five years before the Civil War began, he doesn’t specify servitude by any means. The speaker objects to Whitman’s sonnet, demanding that individuals of color add to the American “tune”: all in all, that dark culture and dark work have been vital to making America.

The sonnet contends that these commitments have been deliberately eradicated by white individuals. In the sonnet’s subsequent refrain, the speaker takes note of that he is compelled to “eat in the kitchen/when organization comes.” This is an all-encompassing representation for isolation. It depicts the way that white individuals treat individuals of color and dark commitments to American culture.

The speaker likewise proposes that white and African American populations are very private with one another. The speaker is “the more obscure sibling”— as such, he’s important for a similar family—the American family—as the white individuals who drive him to eat in the kitchen. Notwithstanding this closeness, be that as it may, the white individuals from this allegorical family constrain him out of view when others are near, when they have “organization.” all in all, the all-encompassing analogy features the fraud of white networks: despite the fact that white and individuals of color are important for a similar American family, white individuals bar, disregard, and overlook dark commitments to American history and culture.

In spite of being dealt with like a peasant, the speaker reacts to treachery by pronouncing that he will “giggle,” “eat well,” and “develop further.” at the end of the day, individuals of color react to bigotry and isolation by creating lively and free social customs. These customs invigorate them so that, later on, white individuals can at this point don’t disregard their commitments to American culture—”they’ll perceive how lovely I am,” the speaker reports in line 16. Further, because of this strength and excellence, white individuals can presently don’t prohibit the “hazier sibling” from the table. Isolation itself will separate.

The sonnet subsequently contends that bigotry includes a persistent refusal to recognize that individuals of color as similarly as American as any other person. Furthermore, it contends that this refusal will ultimately cause the breakdown of bigotry. The sonnet urges individuals of color to persist, to develop and stretch out their commitments to American life and culture until those commitments are difficult to overlook.

American Dream Theme in their Eyes were Watching God Essay

In Hurstonr’s novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Janie, the main character, did not fit into the three communities of North Florida, Eatonville or the Muck. She always seemed to be an outsider in those communities. The quote I choose is Ships at a distance have every manr’s wish on board. For some they come in with the tide. For others they sail forever on the horizon, never out of sight, never landing until the Watcher turns his eyes away in resignation, his dreams mocked to death by Time. That is the life of men. Now, women forget all those things they dont want to remember and remember everything they dont want to forget. The dream is the truth. Then they act and do things accordingly. (1.1-2)

She gained a sense of power, due to being alienated from those communities and it allowed her to grow. If she would have been an active member in either community, she would not have been able to grow and change into the person she was meant to be. It is assumed this novel takes place around the late 1920r’s, due to the historical references in the book. This was a time when blacks and whites were still segregated but everyone still had dreams for their lives, despite color. The love that Janie saught after was jaded by the way Janie was treated by the men in her life. She yearned for respect and equality, while her nanny thought what was best for her was to get married to have financial stability. She at first aimed to please everyone, especially her nanny, but realized that it ultimately did not make her happy.

Her American dream was about finding herself and with that came along gaining personal freedom and finding true love. The freedom she found was not in a relationship but in lonesomenss and becoming a widow. This part of the quote, Now, women forget all those things they dont want to remember and remember everything they dont want to forget. The dream is the truth. Then they act and do things accordingly; represents Janier’s American Dream by the fact that women can mold themselves from their past into what they want to be. To learn and grow from your experiences make you into the person you are meant to be. Women, especially women of color were supposed to be subservient to men. Janie just wants to be an equal and a free woman that has her our thoughts and dreams. As the novel unfolds Janier’s life experiences embodies who she becomes as she has a self-realization. She discovers things about herself she did not know before which shapes her into the woman she was truly meant to be. She realized she could only rely on herself for the love and care she was in so desperate need of and was searching for her whole life. The author shows that men and women have different dreams and goals and that is why many relationships dont work out.

The nature of relationships and culture of this time period was what the novel focused on. However, today, relationships should be based on mutual respect and support of each otherr’s individual dreams and dreams they have together. To have a dream for happiness and success, and the hope of achieving it is what keeps the dream going for many Americans. Janie earns her freedom and happiness by the end of the novel. Her plight in life was one filled with struggles but she learned from the pain and learned about herself too. The American dream is your own, but you grow and learn things about yourself throughout your journey. Hurston, Zora Neale, et al. Their Eyes Were Watching God. Virago Press, 2018.

Theme of “Thank you Ma’am” Essay

When people mess up they are always saying, “Please, forgive me.” or “Give me a second chance.” Everyone hopes that the person will say, “OK,” but that doesn’t always happen. Luckily, in “Thank You Ma’am,” Mrs. Jones forgave Roger and gave him a second chance. The short story, “Thank You Ma’am,” teaches people about forgiveness.

Mrs. Jones was walking home when Roger tried to steal her purse, but instead of getting away, he fell on his back. Mrs. Jones grabbed him by his shirt and looked at him for a second. She could have taken him to the police, but instead she surprised him by saying, “ ‘… your face is dirty. I got a great mind to wash your face for you. Ain’t you got nobody home to tell you to wash your face?’ ‘No’m,’ said the boy. ‘Then it will get washed this evening,’ said the large woman starting up the street, dragging the frightened boy behind her.” She took him home with her and made him wash his face, so he would look presentable. She forgave him by teaching him to respect himself. After, he was finished washing his face she realized that the boy must be hungry. “Maybe you ain’t been to your supper either, late as it be. Have you?” He told her that nobody was at home, so she made him food. “Then she cut him a half of her ten-cent cake. “Eat some more, son,” she said. Some teens today are like Roger. They are neglected, and starving.

Mrs. Jones shows forgiveness to Roger even after he tried to steal her purse because she felt empathy for him. “ ‘I were young once and I wanted things I could not get… You thought I was going to say but, didn’t you? You thought I was going to say, but I didn’t snatch people’s pocketbooks. Well, I wasn’t going to say that.’ Pause. Silence. ‘I have done things, too, which I would not tell you, son—neither tell God, if he didn’t already know.’ ” It matters today because if you give someone a second chance you could be giving them a second chance at life. “When they were finished eating Mrs. Jones got up and said, “Now, here, take this ten dollars and buy yourself some blue suede shoes. And next time, do not make the mistake of latching onto my pocketbook nor nobody else’s— because shoes come by devilish like that will burn your feet.” Teens today make the same kind of mistakes that Roger made.

The theme is forgiveness because of how Mrs. Jones handled the situation. Mrs. Jones gave Roger that second chance that everyone wants. Roger acts a lot like teens today. Like most teens now Roger didn’t think of the consequences. He wanted something he couldn’t get so he found another way to get what he wanted. He didn’t even consider that Mrs. Jones might turn him into the police. After he fell over that is when he realized he was in trouble. “You gonna take me to jail?” asked the boy, bending over the sink.” This is why the theme is forgiveness.     

‘A Sound of Thunder” and ‘Nethergrave’ (Characters, Theme) Essay

How do these stories fit into the Science Fiction genre? What events make this story fit into the science fiction genre? (can include setting, technology used, events from the plot, etc)

‘Science fiction is a time-sensitive subject in literature,” according to Dr. Beshero-Bondar, Associate Prof. of English, University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. “Usually futuristic, science fiction speculates about alternative ways of life made possible by technological change.”

Two science fiction short stories, Ray Bradbury’s ‘A sound of Thunder” and Gloria Skurzynskis’s ‘Nethergrave’ both offer adventures to new and magical worlds with the aid of technology. In “A Sound of Thunder,” a wealthy man named Eckels travels with a couple of his friends. Using time traveler machine, they go back to to the Jurassic period to hunt dinosaurs. He is warned never to wander from from a carefully constructed path since any interference with the past could change history forever. In ‘Nethergrave’ the main character Jeremy escapes his miserable daily life by using his high-tech computer to chat with his online friends. All of them lie about who they really are.. They mostly live in a fictional world where they are who they want to be. In the ‘Nethergrave’ he is able to ‘physically’ go into ‘the other world’ as an avatar. He becomes a jaguar and is able to experience events living as the animal.

The characters in “Nethergrave” are easier to relate to than those in “A Sound of Thunder.” Readers could really get to know them and could connect with their feelings. It is also a clearer and more direct tale with modern implications and a more powerful ending. ‘“Nethergrave” speaks to the hearts and experiences of teens and young adults. When kids are bullied at school or ignored by family at home, they turn towards different ways to comfort themselves. One such comfort is online computer chats, websites, and games.

Fewer people can relate to “The Sound of Thunder” it’s so foreign to our day and age. There are more characters to deal with. Multiple situations add complexity and many possible interpretations. Anyone can understand Jeremy’s loneliness and how he takes it to online chat rooms in, “Nethergrave.” Consider the scene when Travis made Eckels go and retrieve the bullets from the monster’s neck? How many people can relate to that?

Sound of Thunder displays a vibrant and fascinating world. But Nethergrave is more focused on character development and deep, universal human connections. and motivation. Jeremy is stuck in the real world, a place where he feels he doesn’t belong. When he gets a chance to leave it, he and jumps at the opportunity.

Both short stories envision a the future in which man will develop advanced programs that can transfer them into a fictional world. Through time travel, past events can be influence in a way that that can affect their future lives. Both stories imagine the possible effects that these advanced programs can have on humanity.

Nethergrave’s theme includes human isolation, in the loneliness of Jeremy. It talks about the problem of escape, spending time in a virtual world rather than the real world. Neglect and bullying can lead some people to spend excessive time chatting online. Who are our real friends when we logs off if internet? Why do people spend so much time online and playing video games? The story shows how someone can get addicted to a game and abandon reality. The story brings readers through the idea of inner struggle and decisions about whether to return to the real world or remain in the game forever.

In the last line of Bradbury’s story, a sound of thunder is heard. The theme of the story shows the pitfalls of misusing technology. Eckels had a goal to hunt a T-Rex, but when he sees the dinosaur, he panics and leaves the path. At this point, he smashes a butterfly. Upon returning to the present with his crew, the men find out everything has changed. To make matters worse, a dangerous dictator has been elected president of the United States, all because he killed a butterfly. The theme of the story is that technology should be treated with the utmost respect not just for man’s careless and prideful indulgence.

I conclusion, science fiction creates alternative worlds with reasonably consistent rules and structures. These are set apart from the regular and familiar world we live in. These two stories show us a glimpse of what may happen if technology gets even more advanced and is misused. Deep looks into human feelings and ideas, through the development of certain characters, gets this point across best.

Of Mice and Men Theme Analysis Essay

Humans are selfish, inconsiderate, and narrow-minded when it comes to insecurities. Many people are scared of getting hurt; therefore, they say bias things about someone else to defend themselves. Furthermore, these actions can make one suffer with loneliness and the feeling of being trapped; as a matter of fact, some characters from a short novel- Of Mice and Men written by John Steinbeck- are just like that. Candy, Crooks, and Curleyr’s wife were all discriminated by their peers who lived on the ranch with them. Discrimination can lead to depression and isolation because of the actions made by others that may affect the rest of their lives.

There were other characters who were pre-judged against, but Candy, Crooks, and Curleyr’s wife were the ones who were discriminated the most. First of all, Candy wanted to join in on the American dream with George and Lennie but he cant do much so Candy said, I aint much good with ony one hand. I lost my hand right here in this ranch. Thatr’s why they gave me a job swampin. (59). The boss looked down on Candy when he lost his hand. It was an accident but he didnt even give Candy a larger amount of compensation fee. To add on, Candy is an old man, but he was looked down because of his lack of use on the ranch. Individuals who are younger than another person are suppose to respect elders even though the boss didnt do that and gives Candy odd jobs. Later in the story, Lennie happened to wander into Crooks room. Hequestions why Crooks doesnt go to the bunkhouse more often. He answered, I aint wanted in the bunkhouse ?Cause Im black. They play cards in there, but I cant play because Im black. They say I stink. (68). This is racism because Crooks can not go to the bunkhouse frequently because he is a black man. They are discriminating him due to his color and race.

Also, Crooks lives in a shed outside the barn which is total isolation with nobody to talk to. That is very lonely for Crooks. Similarly, Curleyr’s wife also experiences the same thing. One day, she went into the barn and saw Lennie. She talked to him but Lennie said he is not allow to talk to her because George said so. Then Curleyr’s wife asked him, Why cant I talk to you? I never get to talk to nobody. I get awful lonely You can talk to people, but I cant talk to nobody but Curley (86 and 87). Curleyr’s wife married Curley to get away from her strict mother. Curleyr’s wife is the only woman living on the ranch and there are no other female for miles away. Curley doesnt let her chat with men except himself. This is discriminating to Curleyr’s wife because she is a woman and she is not worthy of talking to other men. This woman doesnt have any friends; no wonder she is so lonely and flirts with guys on the ranch for attention. All of these characters were biased against in a different way but itr’s still discrimination. Candy, Crooks, and Curleyr’s wife are feeling so much pain and loss. Do they even feel like they have a reason to live?

Segregation and despair can be an outcome of discrimination expected by flaw humans whose intention is to bring down other human beings. The three characters are discriminated based on their age, race, and gender. Candy is treated differently because of his old age and disadvantage of his hand. Crooks is in isolation living away from everyone because of segregation. Curleyr’s wife is just a piece of property to Curley. She doesnt even have a name. Curleyr’s wife cant talk to men on the ranch because her husband said so. This proves she is not worthy of being contact with other people because she is a women. The men on this ranch treats their coworkers differently because of their appearance which is saying society doesnt accept someone unless they look impeccable. In the book called The 9 Cardinal Building Blocks: For Continued Success in Leadership, Assegid Habtewold wrote, No one is perfect. We all have weaknesses and limitations. Some can’t be fixed (

Betrayal as a Providing Theme in Othello Essay

Betrayal can be seen and done for many reasons, but often there is no real reason why someone would betray another human being. This proves to be the case in Shakespeare’s Othello, where one of Othello’s most trusted men, Iago betrayed him after being filled with rage and jealousy of not receiving the recognition he solely thought he deserved. Iago becomes both Othello’s friend and worst enemy throughout the whole play in order to destroy him and his reputation while ensuring the downfall of everyone so he can finally get what he wants.

In the beginning, Iago has found out that Othello has given the title of lieutenant to Cassio. This is when the jealousy and rage fill Iago as he feels he deserved that title. All this anger that was built inside Iago made him come up with a plan to betray Othello and ruin both his and lieutenant Cassio’s reputation. Iago believes that just destroying Othello will not be enough to cause Othello significant pain. He intends to push Othello to his limits in order for him to commit an evil act that would be unforgivable which is what he means when he says, “ A jealousy so strong that judgment cannot cure.”(II.i.295-296). Iago intends to lie to Othello and tricking him into believing that his lieutenant Cassio has been having an affair with his wife Desdemona to start a spark of jealousy in Othello which will, later on, turn Othello mad resulting in horrific acts and Iago becoming the new lieutenant.

As the play goes on, Iago is able to manipulate both Cassio and Emilia into betraying one another so that his plan can go through with betraying Othello. For Instance, when Cassio is stripped from his title after getting into a brawl while being drunk, Iago informs him to get really close to Desdemona as she can be the one who can help him regain his title by taking his side when talking to Othello. It is Iago’s intention to use any opportunity he has to make Othello doubt his friends and wife to be able to trust Iago. For example, even though Othello knows deep down in his heart that Desdemona would not betray him, for she is the one who fell in love with him. Othello has been manipulated so much by Iago that all these thoughts soon abandon Othello’s mind. Although this is just Iago’s plan to ruin and destroy Othello. Othello still considers Iago to be one of his closest friend. Iago soon uses this trust that was gained to turn Othello into a man that is nothing better than himself.

By the end of the play, all Characters have lost their loyalty to each other from what Iago has done to make them feel betrayed. Iago’s plan to ensure everyone’s downfall has taken a wrong turn as Desdemona is killed by Othello and Iago is left to kill his wife Emilia as she reveals to Othello that Desdemona has been falsely accused. Othello can hardly believe what he has done and kills himself rather than living with the guilt of killing his innocent wife Desdemona. Iago decides to escape but is soon caught and turned in for judgment.

All in all, through his betrayal, Iago destroys the lives of innocent people in order to ruin Othello’s reputation and better his own to be able to receive what he wants. Iago’s reign is short-lived as his selfishness causes his plan to take a toll on him causing Iago to captured. Betrayal should never be an option for revenge.

How it Feels to be Colored me Theme Essay

Maya Angelou said: “we all should know that diversity makes for a rich tapestry, and we must understand that all the threads of the tapestry are equal in value no matter what their color.” In How It Feels to Be Colored Me Zora Neale Hurston toys with the idea that one may be able to channel an inner awareness acknowledging that one may embody two selves, two spiritual beings. Throughout the years, African Americans have faced injustice and unfortunately still do present day. Some carry the anger of slavery that their ancestors faced; some hide behind that anger and project their emotions differently.

Some are able to project a double consciousness of who they are and some find the strength and self-confidence to embrace individuality in their African American heritage. Hurston does just that, but identifies herself with the human race, rather than solely the race associated with the color of her skin. She states that she “has no separate feeling about being an American citizen and color” (Hurston 3). Illuminating the fact than despite events and beliefs that surround her, she is confident and finds comfort in who she is: “I am merely a fragment of the Great Souls that surges within the boundaries” (Hurston 3).

In How It Feels to Be Colored Me, Zora Neale Hurston presents the capacity of harboring strength and utilizing it for control in claiming who you are despite outer influences from those surrounding you.  In her essay How It Feels to Be Colored Me, Hurston speaks of her memory as a thirteen years old growing up in Eatonville, Florida. Very subtlety she highlights events, memories from the “very day [she] became colored”(Hurston 1). Living in an exclusively colored town she noted that the only time white people would pass by was on their travels to and from Orlando. She describes the interactions between the whites passing by and the town’s people of Eatonville, highlighting the difference between the Southerners and Northerners. She notes that interaction with them seldom occurred, “they were peered at cautiously from behind curtains by the timid.

The more venturesome would come out on the porch to watch them go past” (Hurston 1). A formal connection never made between the two, except for the ones that Hurston initiated. She did not see any differences between her and the white people passing through town, in fact she even spoke to them. But, “if one of [her] family happened to come to the front in to see [her], of course negotiations would be rudely broken off”(Hurston 1).

She acknowledges the differences between her family and herself partaking in social exchanges with whites, but never gives off any ideas or hints that she is ashamed of whom she is or the community that she and her loved ones embody.  Zora Neale Hurston has worked on ethnographic texts that have given authors and researchers a more in depth perception on African Americans and all Americans living amongst one another (Lori Jirousek). Hurston states in her essay that she is “not tragically colored. There is no great sorrow dammed up in my soul, nor lurking behind my eyes. I do not mind at all” (Hurston 2). Using ethnographic context from Hurston, analyzers have been able to conclude that through How It Feels to Be Colored Me Hurston, “attempts to transcend race and avoid victim status”, “has an individualistic standpoint that not only emphasizes her own self-determination and self-definition, but also promotes those same qualities in others” and develops “a new definition of community that challenges […] boundedness of such categories as race and nation” (Jirousek).

Hurston illuminates the mere fact that what others may think or say about ones skin color cannot make one feel less than or inferior or unless he or she lets it. She does not let the mere fact that she is black belittle her in any shape or form. She grabs racism by the horns when stating “At certain times, I have no race, I am me” (Hurston 3). Her ability to channel self-confidence is what allows her to transcend race and its rubbish tendencies, develop and urgency towards self-definition and breaks the barriers between stereotypical sense of belonging between race and nations. Stating that she does “feel discriminated against, but it does not make [her] angry. It merely astonishes [her]” (Hurston 3). She continues to capitalize and assert her confidence in one sentence: “How can any deny themselves the pleasure of my company? It’s beyond me” (Hurston 3).

Hurston worked on the establishment of “national coherence and solidarity” (Jirousek) by providing the shared relationship between an individual and their nation, something she broke through in her essay How It Feels to Be Colored Me.  United States in the 1920’s was an era of injustice. Filled with many wrong doings on certain groups of people. Hurston alludes that she does not view herself any differently than her neighbor, “[she] has no separate feeling about being American and colored” (Hurston 3) as stated previously.

She decided to not let outer influences have a say in the image she wants to create for herself and share with the world. She dives into her ancestry stating: “Someone is always at my elbow reminding me that I am the granddaughter of slaves. It fails to register depression with me. Slavery is sixty years in the past. The operation was successful and the patient is doing well, thank you (Hurston 2). The strength and resilience she embodies is what gives her the strength to look past that and recognize that she is equal to her fellow Americans no matter her the color of her skin or her ancestry. 

Revenge Theme in Frankenstein Essay

In the Novel Frankenstein, Mary Shelley discusses several important themes. These themes represent her thoughts and occurrence from her real life. She presents the action and decision of some of the characters to introduce these themes. Among them, revenge is a key theme throughout the novel Frankenstein. Thus, the continuous cycle of revenge due to the excited state of strong emotions- love, anger, hatred, loneliness, and rejection drive the plot of the novel.

Revenge is shown as the important aspects of Victor and Monster’s life. From the time of creation of Monster, he was rejected by his creator Victor because of his physical appearance. He has a desire to be accepted by society. So, he tries to fit into the society but receives nothing except fear, ignorance, and hatred from the people. So, he explains his pain of rejection and isolation to Victor saying, Unfeeling, heartless creator! You had endowed me with perceptions and passions and then cast me abroad an object for the scorn and horror of mankind (Shelley).

He desires to have a female monster for his company, but Victor denies for making another monster. Consequently, he becomes more aggressive and wanted to take the revenge against the human and his creator. In the process of taking revenge, he killed the young boy as he seems from Frankenstein family (Shelley 171). He says to Victor, You can blast my other passions, but revenge remains??”revenge, henceforth dearer than light of food! I may die, but first you, my tyrant and tormentor, shall curse the sun that gazes on your misery, (Shelley 206). He killed Victor’s friend Henry as revenge to Victor for denying a companion for him. Later, he killed Elizabeth in her wedding night. Hence, he takes the revenge with Frankenstein by killing his loved ones. As a result of losing the loved ones, Victor becomes aggressive with the monster. When monster killed Elizabeth, Victor wants to destroy the monster.

The loves of Victor to his family lead him to think about the destruction of his own creature. When I thought of him, I gnashed my teeth, my eyes became inflamed, and I ardently wished to extinguish that life which I had so thoughtlessly bestowed (Shelley). Hence, revenge forms a common link between the monster and Victor. This distort bond between them has nothing except destruction. Revenge becomes the reason for them to be alive. Thus, revenge makes the Victor devil, and leave no probability for the monster to be accepted by the humankind and the society. The theme of revenge is still relevant. People are eager to take the revenge.

Series of revenge can be seen in the life of people. People are becoming devil taking the revenge even for the small reason. The system of taking revenge should be stopped as revenge leads to the dissatisfaction and loneliness only. People should realize that revenge does not provide any happiness or satisfaction. That is the reason monster felt guilt at the end. He asks Victor for forgiveness, What does it avail that I now ask thee to pardon me? I, who irretrievably destroyed thee by destroying all thou lovedst, (Shelley 271).

Discussing the story in the group is much more effective than reading the story on our own. To be honest, in my first attempt of reading the Frankenstein, I did not understand it at all. But on my second reading, I was able to guess the overall events and happening of the novel. But after discussing the story in the small group and then summing up the findings of all the groups gives clear picture of the novel. I realize that I had interpreted some paragraphs in a completely wrong way while reading on my own. Also, discussing in the group introduce several new things which we generally ignore while reading on our own but have major roles in the story. Discussing in a small group gives the opportunity to every student to have their point to be listened by everyone. It also encourages the students to re-read the story in order to have their active participation. After discussing in a small group, analyzing and noting the findings of each group in white board gives the clear-cut explanation of the whole story. Thus, discussing in a group is better than self-reading.

A good novel focus on the elements like theme, message, plot, characters, setting, style, tone, and so on. Among these, theme is the most important element of the novel. It connects all the elements of the novel like plot, conflict, characters etc. It is the thought of an author. It is the main issue that is repeated throughout the story. It is that important one sentence conclusion for which the entire story is developed. The theme of the novel should be relevant to the time. It should raise the current issues of society. It should possess the power to change the thinking of the people and hence the society. Hence, people should consider reading the novel by considering its main theme.

Theme of Regret in the Two Stories Essay

The story ‘The Hollow of the Three Hills’ by Nathaniel Hawthorne is involves an unnamed woman who is willing to sacrifice her life to know how her past situation and actions have affected the present. This is caused by hurting and humiliating the ones she loved in the past. The theme of regret is expressed through the woman’s decision to sacrifice her own life and through the author’s use of language. The effect of the past in the present is expressed through the woman’s choice to abandon her family. The second story ‘The Door in the Wall’ by H.G Wells is about Lionel Wallace finding everything he ever wanted in a garden and being robbed of that by the world. This is caused by him telling his family and schoolmates about the garden and being punished. Therefore, he is subconsciously blocked from entering the garden. As the years went by, he finds the garden in various places and occasions in which he had to choose between the garden and his career. He refused to go in the garden and later on regrets it which ultimately causes Lionel’s death. The theme of regret is expressed through Lionel not going into the garden and the effect of the past in the present is expressed through Lionel informing his family and schoolmates about the garden.

Firstly, the theme of regret in ‘The Hollow of the Three Hills’ is communicated by the woman’s decision to sacrifice her own life in order to know how the past has affected the present. In page 2, paragraph 2: “I will do the bidding though I die”. In explanation, the woman had to attend a meeting with a witch to know about the present situation. This can only happen if the woman is willing to accept her demise. So this quote shows us that she is willing to accept her death because she regrets her past actions.

Secondly, the woman running away from her family and breaking their heart conveys the theme of regret. In page 4, first paragraph: “breathed against the daughter who had wrung the aged hearts of her parents, – the wife who had betrayed the trusting fondness of her husband, – the mother who had sinned against natural affection, and left her child to die.” This quote demonstrates the woman leaving her parents alone in a quite house humiliated and the woman breaking her vows to leave her husband broken hearted with the death of their child. She regrets leaving her family and that is one way the author conveys the theme of regret.

Thirdly, the theme of regret is conveyed by the author’s use of language. In page 2, paragraph 5, the woman says “Let me flee- let me flee and hide myself, that they may not look upon me!” This quote refers to the woman’s humiliation and her not wanting to be seen by her family. Feeling humiliated causes her to regret the past and so her humiliation conveys the theme of regret.

The second story, ‘The Door in the Wall,’ communicates the theme of regret through Lionel Wallace telling his family about the garden. In page 5, paragraph 2: “I tried to tell them, and my father gave me my first thrashing for telling lies. When afterwards I tried to tell my aunt, she punished me again for my wicked persistence.” This quote refers to his family punishing him for telling them about the garden because they had thought that he was lying. He regrets telling them about it because if he hadn’t, he wouldn’t be subconsciously blocked from entering the garden. This point can also be in the category of the effect of the past in the present. Wallace might have the chance to enter the garden more often if he hadn’t told his family about it and he wouldn’t have died which can really affect the present situation.

Secondly, the theme of regret is expressed by Lionel not going into the garden which was caused by his family. They made him consider that the garden was imaginary and this stopped him from entering the garden ever again. And later on in his life, he regrets not having what he always wanted which was entering the garden which leads to his death. So, one way the theme of regret is expressed through is by Lionel not going into the garden and by his death.

In the two stories ‘The Hollow of the Three Hills’ and ‘The Door in the Wall’, there seems to be more similarities than differences in them in terms of ideas. One of the similarities could be that both authors in the stories believe that there are repercussions for past mistakes. In ‘The Hollow of the Three Hills’, the woman abandons her family to live in a new life which ultimately leads to her death and in ‘The Door in the Wall’, Lionel regrets not going in the garden which also ultimately leads to his death. It seems like both authors believe that past mistakes can affect one’s life by consequences which may even lead to death.

In conclusion, the theme of regret in the story ‘The hollow of the three Hills’ is conveyed by the woman’s decision to sacrifice her life, and through the author’s use of language. The effect of the past in the present is expressed through the woman’s choice to leave her family behind for a new life. In the second story ‘The Door in the Wall’, the theme of regret is demonstrated by Lionel refusing from entering the garden and the effect of the past in the present is expressed through Lionel referring to his family and friends about the garden. The two stories also show that both the authors believe that making mistakes can have consequences which may even lead to death and that it is difficult to redeem oneself.

Theme of Identity in Fish Cheeks by Amy Tan Essay

Fish Cheeks by Amy Tan is a personal narrative about a young chinese american girl who has a crush on a blond American boy named Robert. On christmas eve, her parents invited Roberts family for dinner and Amy was mortified about the idea of him witnessing her chinese customs. Throughout the narrative the author uses literary devices such as imagery, duction and symbolism to teach readers that one should not be ashamed of their identity for the sake of others.

Amy uses imagery to vividly describe the foods found at the dinner. To develop the conflict she intentionally describes the food to the readers to paint a negative metal picture. She graphicly talks about the preparation of the foods, so the readers can be repealed by the image of her mom “pulling black veins out of the backs of fleshy prawns”,and the “ slimy rock cod with bulging fish eyes that pleaded not to be thrown into a pan of hot oil”. She purposely describes the food in an unattractive way develop the conflict and show why she is embarrassed.

Tan compares the food to strange things like the tofu, “which looked like stacked wedges of rubbery white sponges” and the “plate of squid, th ir backs crisscrossed with knife markings so they resembled bicycle tires. And then” to make the food sound unaptasing to the readers. Throughout the essay Tan the readers learn that tan was only describing the food in the way that she thought Robert would see it as not how she actually felt. She revels at the end that her mother actually prepared her one of her favorite dishes and even brought her a beige skirt because she knew Amy’s heart.

The diction used in fish cheeks to emphasizes the height of her discomfort concerning the dinner. She uses the words such as slimy, bulging, fleshy, rubbery and fungus to reveal her embarrassment of her family’s tradition. Evidence of amys embarsemt is shown through when she says things like “threw me deeper into despair” and “I wanted to disappear.” Amy revels the climax of the the story when her father leans back and bleaches,. The ministers family succeed to show discomfort and amy is utterly silenced in unease. She is left in shame as the diner proved the gap of differences between their two families and their costumes.

Another way the theme of the story is shown through is symbolism. One of the symbols shown is fish cheeks is the mini skirt. The beige mini skirt represents how amy wants to be more American. The other one is fish cheeks symbolises her asian culture. Her mother made her all her favorite dishes understanding how she felt and is shown through when her dad offers her her “favorite” which is fish cheeks, something she liked but tried to hide.

In conclusion Amy uses imagery, diction and symbolism to show the importance of being proud of one’s identity, a lesson that she didn’t realize till she was more mature and understanding.

Theme of Identity in Fish Cheeks by Amy Tan Essay

Fish Cheeks by Amy Tan is a personal narrative about a young chinese american girl who has a crush on a blond American boy named Robert. On christmas eve, her parents invited Roberts family for dinner and Amy was mortified about the idea of him witnessing her chinese customs. Throughout the narrative the author uses literary devices such as imagery, duction and symbolism to teach readers that one should not be ashamed of their identity for the sake of others.

Amy uses imagery to vividly describe the foods found at the dinner. To develop the conflict she intentionally describes the food to the readers to paint a negative metal picture. She graphicly talks about the preparation of the foods, so the readers can be repealed by the image of her mom “pulling black veins out of the backs of fleshy prawns”,and the “ slimy rock cod with bulging fish eyes that pleaded not to be thrown into a pan of hot oil”. She purposely describes the food in an unattractive way develop the conflict and show why she is embarrassed.

Tan compares the food to strange things like the tofu, “which looked like stacked wedges of rubbery white sponges” and the “plate of squid, th ir backs crisscrossed with knife markings so they resembled bicycle tires. And then” to make the food sound unaptasing to the readers. Throughout the essay Tan the readers learn that tan was only describing the food in the way that she thought Robert would see it as not how she actually felt. She revels at the end that her mother actually prepared her one of her favorite dishes and even brought her a beige skirt because she knew Amy’s heart.

The diction used in fish cheeks to emphasizes the height of her discomfort concerning the dinner. She uses the words such as slimy, bulging, fleshy, rubbery and fungus to reveal her embarrassment of her family’s tradition. Evidence of amys embarsemt is shown through when she says things like “threw me deeper into despair” and “I wanted to disappear.” Amy revels the climax of the the story when her father leans back and bleaches,. The ministers family succeed to show discomfort and amy is utterly silenced in unease. She is left in shame as the diner proved the gap of differences between their two families and their costumes.

Another way the theme of the story is shown through is symbolism. One of the symbols shown is fish cheeks is the mini skirt. The beige mini skirt represents how amy wants to be more American. The other one is fish cheeks symbolises her asian culture. Her mother made her all her favorite dishes understanding how she felt and is shown through when her dad offers her her “favorite” which is fish cheeks, something she liked but tried to hide.

In conclusion Amy uses imagery, diction and symbolism to show the importance of being proud of one’s identity, a lesson that she didn’t realize till she was more mature and understanding.

The Theme of Education in “Dead Poets Society” Essay

The definition of education is the knowledge and development resulting from being educated. (Merriam-Webster). Education is a crucial part of a teenagers life and can often be taught in an older style. An example of this is a school called Welton Academy on the movie Dead Poets Society written by Tom Schulman. Welton Academy is a private all boy school and focuses on students being the greatest. Although this works, sometimes educators have to get creative and interact with students outside of the classroom environment. A perfect example of this is a teacher by the name of John Keating. John Keating is a former honors graduate of Welton and a new English teacher. His views on teaching greatly differ from the other teachers. His method sometimes can raise questions from the other members of the staff. While some may stand by the argument that John Keating was not a great teacher, another look would reveal that he taught very differently, built their confidence and to follow their dreams.

John Keatings ability to teach differently from the other teachers is one of the reasons he is a great teacher. One of the most memorable scenes of the movie is when Keating has his English class rip out the first page of Understanding Poetry by J. Evans Pritchard. This page basically states that all the poetry in the book should be ranked on a scale of perfection and importance. Keating proceeds to say, “Excrement. That’s what I think of Mr. J. Evans Pritchard. We’re laying pipe, we’re talking about poetry… Now I want you to rip out that page.”(Dead Poets Society) Mr. Keating although finds a perfect opportunity to bring up that poetry should not be measured by perfection and importance. Many teachers would’ve just taught the students what was in front of them and had them learn that all year. Mr. Keating though decides to teach his students a different outlook and not always to go off what the book says. Another way that Keating taught his students differently is by having them stand on his desk. Keating says,“I stand on my desk to remind myself that we must constantly force ourselves to look at things differently.” (Dead Poets Society) Many teachers would not think of incorporating a lesson like this but low and behold Mr.Keating does. This lesson teaches the students that they will all see the classroom differently from the rest. This lesson is not only important in the classroom but important in life too.

The capability of having a teacher build students confidence in and out of the classroom is another reason that John Keating is such a great teacher. For one of Mr.Keating’s lesson he takes the class outside and has a group of them walk. He explains that they all walked the same. He then says,“But you must trust that your beliefs are unique your own. Even though others may think them odd or unpopular … I want you to find your own walk right now.” (Dead Poets Society) Mr.Keating is trying to teach that even though everyone is doing it doesn’t mean you have too. He was trying to build their confidence in their walks and to not care about the other walks. Another example is Mr. Keating trying to break Todd out of his shell. Todd kept being compared to his older brother and wasn’t feeling the best about the attention going to his brother. Many teachers would of just kept comparing him but Mr. Keating sensed he wasn’t confident and tried to build it. Mr.Keating says,“I think you have something inside of you that is worth a great deal.” Mr. Keating encouraged him and got him to read his poem, when he barely talked at all.

Regardless of what others say, Mr.Keating always encouraged his students to follow their dreams with everything they do. One of his students, Neil Perry, thrived to be an actor but his father does not want him to be one. Mr.Keating realizes that the play means alot to Neil and wants his father to understand his dreams too. Mr.Keating talks to Neil and says, “Well, if it’s more than a whim, then you’ll have to prove that to him. You’ll have to show him with your passion and commitment that it’s what you really want to do. If that doesn’t work, at least by then you’ll be eighteen and able to do what you want.” (Dead Poets Society) This conversation is important because Mr.Keating is trying to tell Neil to pursue his dreams and not be afraid of the outcome. He still wants his dad to know but he still wants to follow his dreams. Mr. Keating teaches the viewers to follow their dreams no matter what someone might say. While helping Neil pursue his dreams was a memorable moment in the movie he also helped other students and teachers too. While talking to Mr. McAllister Mr. Keating realizes that he doesn’t believe in students following their dreams. Mr. Keating replies with, “But only in their dreams can man be truly free.” (Dead Poets Society) He is explaining that when people have hops and dreams they can be truly happy and look forward to something. Teaching someone to follow their dreams can be tough but Mr. Keating makes it effortless.

All in all, Mr. Keating was a very different teacher and was not an ordinary teacher. Some examples are that he taught very differently, built their confidence and to follow their dreams. Mr.Keating might not be an ordinary teacher but he is a great teacher.

Theme of to Kill a Mockingbird Essay

Living in a society, humans have a great desire to fit in with the rest of mankind. It compiles them to go with the flow, even when the majority is irrational. The novel To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, was set in the 60s in America, an era in which discrimination against African Americans was still a very prominent issue. Told from Scout’s childlike perspective, the plot is centered around a rape case regarding Tom Robinson, an African American man, accused by Mayella Ewell, a white woman. Atticus, Scout’s father, is Tom Robinson’s appointed lawyer and makes a significant effort to defend Robinson’s innocence. Through Atticus’s solid stand of his ground despite opposition, firm personal belief, and persistence despite the low chances that he was going to win the trial, the theme that one should conduct righteous acts regardless of the odds against one for the greater good of humanity is demonstrated profoundly throughout the novel.

Near the beginning of the novel, Atticus was repeatedly challenged for his defense of Tom Robinson, seen as a controversial or even traitorous act by many white people in Maycomb, a small town he lived in. Atticus simply believed he was doing the right thing. His 7-year-old daughter, Scout, had heard multiple insults about her father: her peer announced, “Scout Finch’s daddy defended niggers” (74), her cousin accused Atticus by saying he “mortif[ies] the rest of the family” (83), and a dying neighbour commented that Atticus “lawed for niggers and trash” (103). However, Atticus was not slightly abashed by these disrespectful remarks and instructed Scout to not be tempted into fights. Atticus’s unmoving stand in defending Tom Robinson, an African American, even with the awful comments he got from the town, reflects the theme that one should keep their integrity in spite of the challenges they face.

The theme of standing firm with the right values through adversity was further developed when Scout asked Atticus why he had to defend a colored man when everyone else in the town despised the act. Atticus replied, “…before I can live with other folks I’ve got to live with myself” (105). This quote demonstrates Atticus’s personal values and sense of morality as being opposed to the values of society. Because he believed that Tom Robinson was truly innocent, he defended him like he would defend any other innocent person, regardless of the color of their skin. At that time, the majority of white people assumed “that all Negroes lie, that all Negroes are basically immoral beings, that all Negro men are not to be trusted around or women” (204). However, Atticus, a white man, was determined to defend Tom Robinson’s innocence despite what others thought thus exemplifying his bravery and his defiance of societal norms. Atticus’s boldness is just another example of standing up for the right thing despite of the judgement given by others.

Another attribute that made his actions even more courageous and admirable is that the likelihood of him winning this case was really small: the jury consisted of white men who grew up with the influence of racism. This instance further amplified Atticus’s persistence in doing right thing he believed in, in spite of the odds against him for the greater good of his society. Deep down inside, Atticus knew he was not going to win, but he still persisted with as much effort as he would devote to any other fair trial. When Atticus’s arrived in front of his house to tell him about the newest update on Tom Robinson, he calmly replied to the doubting crowd “that boy might go to the chair, but he’s not going until the truth’s told” (146). This shows his determination in defending a colored man, not just for his own belief, but for the truth to be heard. Even others understand that “Atticus Finch won’t win, he can’t win, but he’s the only man in there parts who can keep a jury out so long in a case like that” (216).

Because of the amount of effort he committed to the trial, he was able to shine a light on the truth and made some people realize that prejudice had blinded them: they had been convicting every black person guilty without properly thinking about the facts. Even though Atticus had only a small chance of winning, this only furthered a sense of respect for him; because he still took the case seriously even when he was more likely to lose, it further ties back to the theme of one doing the right thing despite the odds against them.

Together, Atticus’s solitary act of standing up for the right thing in society delivered an important lesson of standing up for the right thing even when one is doing it alone. From offensive comments about his defense, his daughter’s questioning, down to the inevitable loss of the trial, Atticus remained unmoved in his determination to defend Robinson. To Kill A Mockingbird teaches its readers to stand up for what they believe is right, even when they are doing it alone; despite not having immediate influence, the courageous acts will reflect on society over time. Atticus withholds his personal belief, remains unmoved by others in his determination in speaking for the voice of justice, and his persistence in defending of Tom Robinson despite such high chances of losing the trial is an inspiring example of doing the right thing regardless of the odds against them for the greater good of humanity.

The Theme of Racism in a Raisin in the Sun Essay

The text in the book A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry was happening in the early 50s-late 50s in Chicago where racism was a huge issue in all aspects such as education, employment, and housing. One of the preexisting conditions or problems that’s still going on the society is racial segregation and discrimination. Even though the Supreme Court overturned the separate but equal doctrine in 1954, we all have implicit| hidden bias by nature. This is still a prevalent issue in our society currently as people have stereotypes and prejudice mainly towards women, Muslims, Latino, and minorities, and especially Black or African- American people and their communities. Everyone is striving to get the American dream; as for the Younger family described in A Raisin in the Sun, they are denied the pursuit of the American dream because they are African-American. Some people have to work harder like the Younger family did. In this time period, while white people still have better treatment or easier access to housing and better opportunities, African Americans, such as the Younger family, have to work harder in order to have a better way of living.

Part of their American dream was to live in a better place, but the Younger family did not have the right amount of money to do so. They lived in a two bedroom apartment at Southside Chicago. The son didn’t have his own bedroom. He slept on the living room couch. In addition, they didn’t have their own bathroom. They shared a bathroom outside the hallway with other neighbors living nearby (Hansberry 27-28). It seemed like this family did not had any privacy at all and they were all cramped up into one small area. During this time period, Walter drove other rich people around while Ruth and Lena were servants. Their socioeconomic status was low – classified as the servant class or working poor class. (Constantakis 141). In addition, Drake and Cayton said similar to the Youngers’ situation, only 64% of black women and 34% of black men were servants or housemaids in the city (Gordon 123).

There weren’t a lot of resources or opportunities that was a great benefit for the African Americans. Constantakins stated that segregation and discrimination increased rapidly during the time period of 1950s and 60s in Chicago (142). However, this affected Black people and their communities negatively as there were limited opportunities. For instance, for housing, the Black people were restricted to reside in housing projects that were often crime ridden (Constantakis 142-143). Also more black people didn’t get jobs or lost their jobs more often the white people (Gordon 123).The Younger family was facing a lot of financial struggles when they lived in the apartment. One example is when the Younger’s family had to work so hard to get money. Being African American, Walter and Ruth did not get the right amount of pay to what they were doing.

Getting the check was their only hope to change or turn their lives around. In the text, Ruth was talking to Walter saying: They said Saturday and this is just Friday and I hopes to God you ain’t going to get up here first thing this morning and start talking to me bout no money – cause I ’bout don’t want to hear it (Hansberry 29).Based on their financial situation, the first thing that comes to their mind is money. At some degree, I could see and agree why Ruth was frustrated when she was talking to her husband, Walter about the check coming in. First, it’s not even her money. It’s her mother in law (Lena) and they don’t know what was going to be her motive once Lena gets it. Second, until then, just like every other Black or African American families, they had to struggle to meet their ends financially, mentally, and physically such as having food, clothing, and paying their bills on time. Even though the White families in the 1940s and 50s paid around the same amount of money for housing, the Black families living arrangement was different, such as no electricity and less space (Gordon 125). Also Ruth’s son, Travis, was asking Mom briefly if the check was coming and that he needs fifty cents for school.

Ruth said to him Well I ain’t got no fifty cents this morning. I don’t care what teacher say. I ain’t got it. Eat your breakfast, Travis (Hansberry 31).I feel the struggle that’s happening in this scene. She was going through an economic hardship like other Black families where they can’t afford to give their child what they need in terms of school or personal stuff like entertainment wise. They were struggling to survive. Every penny or any type of money they got, they made sure they spent it wisely and not just gave it away carelessly. However, money was a root or a main cause in the Younger’s family. In the play, Walter said to his sister, Beneatha, Have we figured out yet exactly how much medical school is going to cost (Hansberry 40).This seems like a financial burden on how much money was allotted only to the sister to further her education. This caused resentment or envy on Walter’s behalf since he does not have enough money to spend on what he wants for himself and the family.

Money was a financial problem on how it affected the children in the parents’ relationships of black families. When the mother couldn’t give her son the money that he needed for, Walter stepped in and provided his son the money for his basic needs. Walter said, In fact, here is another fifty cents. Buy yourself some fruit today-or take a taxi cab to school or something (Hansberry 34). I found this to be interesting and loved the fact that even though they were struggling money-wise, the father went out of his way boldly to give his son what he needed. That’s what every Black or African American family really wants their children to see their parents as role models and depend on them for anything to give it to them. Young children shouldn’t experience financial troubles when the parent can’t even give them 50 cents to school. It was part of their life as they were in poverty. It seemed a little bit heartbreaking to see that as a parent, Walter would feel more as a failure that he can’t give his son the little money he needed it for.

Racial segregation or discrimination played in the story was played through several characters. One of the characters was Karl Lindner, who was a representative of the Clybourne Park Improvement Association for the New Neighbors Orientation Committee. Clybourne Park is an all-white neighborhood and he is the one that took control over the neighborhood and made sure he had the right type of people he wanted to see living in that community. In the text, Linder said, I’m the chairman of the committee- go around and see the new people who move into the neighborhood and sort of give them the lowdown on the way we do things out in Clybourne Park(Hansberry 115 ). It seems like he was entitled and wants to be mean to the people who he has disapproval of into moving in the perfect neighborhood he wants.

This welcoming committee seems like it had contradictory attitudes and behaviors of people getting along together. In the text, Linder stated to Walter, Beneatha, and Ruth, I want you to believe me when i tell you that race and prejudice simply doesn’t enter into it. It’s a matter of the people of Clybourne Park believing, rightly or wrongly, as I say , that for the happiness of all concerned that our Negro families are happier when they live in their own communities (Hansberry 118). Gordon described Linder’s statement that he was having the same beliefs upon segregation similar to the people that reside in the urban northern part of Chicago (Gordon 129). This is an example that could led into the cognitive dissonance theory. This was quite disturbing when Karl said it out bluntly that black people should not be in this type of neighborhood. He definitely pulled out the race card. As the chairman of the new people orientation, instead of welcoming them with open arms and letting them join the neighborhood peacefully: he was full of pride and told them how he felt about them moving in. Instead, he thought giving them money as an alternative would be a better solution for them to forget the house.

The Younger family denied their money because they just want to get out and live or integrate in a better neighborhood. These people came from Southside Chicago living in the slums. Black families, like the Youngers’ lived in hazardous living conditions in their apartments. Gordon described it as indestructible contradictions to this state of being with the rats, roaches, worn furniture, and over-crowded conditions (Gordon 127). Who wouldn’t want to live a better life at a good neighborhood? It seems that Karl was afraid to see change and was living this utopian fantasy that things would only run good if there’s only white people in the neighborhood. Moreover, Gordon stated some of his concerns about segregation and racism. In reality, there’s no exact term called white folks’ neighborhood except for those that clearly wants to be prejudiced or people that are open to have or accept racist ideas (Gordon 125).

When Linder was saying those racial| prejudiced comments, he didn’t know how it would affect the other characters and their actions. When he received an angry reaction from them, Linder said, Well i don’t understand why you people are reacting this way. What do you think you are going to gain by moving into a neighborhood where you just aren’t wanted and where people can get worked up when they feel that their whole way of life and everything they’ve ever worked for is threatened (Hansberry 119).Based on this, Gordon stated there could be a possibility of fear in integrating diverse people in the same communities (129).According to one of the Supreme Court decisions made in 1954, negroes and white inter-marrying will be a common thing and the white race will go downhill (Gordon 129). It seems to me like he was contradicting himself in the whole situation .Also it seems or feels like it is unfair that a white man tried to threaten the Younger family if they moved into the neighborhood they wanted to be in. Furthermore, it seems like he’s making an assumption or stereotype about Black people – being around Black people is risky and a danger to the society. In addition, if the roles were reversed or be a double standard, the white people would probably have the same reaction like the Younger’s family had.

Another character that demonstrated racial discrimination or segregation throughout some of his lines was Walter, the son of Lena Younger. There was a scene when Walter was talking to Mama about his life. He said: Mama – sometimes when I’m downtown and I pass them cool, quiet- looking restaurants where them white boys are sitting back and talking about things… Sitting there turning deals worth millions of dollars??¦ sometimes I see guys don’t look much older than me (Hansberry 76).It seems like Walter wishes he could live this type of lifestyle with his family. He is envious when he sees people his age living better than him and having more fortune than him- emphasized more on their skin color.

This is interesting to see that Walter has a dream or vision on how he wants to live his life someday. He categorizes himself as a poor or middle class but he’s trying to elevate himself to be successful like the white people. In another act of the play, Walter was talking to his wife, Ruth about his dream -on having a business negotiation with Willy is still not done. Walter mentioned: Why? You want to know why cause we all tied up in a race of people that don’t know how to do nothing but moan, pray, and have babies(Hansberry 89). It seems like Walter can’t get his dream accomplished because he was making a general stereotype that what all African Americans only do and why they are not successful. Not all Black or African Americans are about that lifestyle. It feels like Walter has a sense of internalized racism. In other words, Walter absorbed all the prejudiced or racist comments in his mind that comes from the dominant group that has been talking down towards his racial group. Eventually, this information bombarded him and made him have self – hatred towards his own race.

This led to Walter into becoming racist towards his own idea. Therefore, I don’t agree what Walter was stating about his own race to be true. There are some African Americans that are struggling and hustling to live a better life for themselves or their family. For instance, Lena Younger, the mother of Walter, wasn’t satisfied on how she saw her family living in the apartment together and weren’t getting along. With the insurance money that she had inherited from her husband that passed away, she decided to live her American dream: to buy a nice house for her family in a very nice neighborhood -Clybourne Park. In the text, Lena was telling Ruth Them houses they put up for colored in them areas way out all seem to cost twice as much as other houses. I did the best I could (Hansberry 95). This seems like these racist laws that they put up for colored people were given unfair treatment to grant them access to equal opportunity of housing like the European or Caucasian people. Although she got a new house. it felt like she had to go out of her way even more to find a house that’s not only good for her family but was financially stable for her to buy the property. When Lena brought the house in Clybourne Park, she was trying to prove a point in the society. Mama insists on having her family permission or approval to stop the economic oppression that was happening in Chicago during that time period of segregation (Gordon 127).

To sum it up, there was a lot of racial segregation and discrimination going on throughout this time period (1950s-1960s) for African Americans. As this was a tough battle to fight and break the cycle of segregation, Black people and White people should be created equally and having the same type of assess to having the same types of jobs and housing. They shouldn’t be treated differently because of their skin color. We need to come together as a whole and create peace and not destroying each other.

Works Cited

“A Raisin in the Sun.” Drama for Students, edited by Sara Constantakis, vol. 29, Gale, 2012, pp. 131-155. Gale Virtual Reference Library, Accessed 11 Dec. 2018.

Gordon, Michelle. “‘Somewhat like war’: the aesthetics of segregation, black liberation, and A Raisin in the Sun.” African American Review, vol. 42, no. 1, 2008, p. 121+. Academic OneFile, Accessed 11 Dec. 2018.

Theme of Creation and Evolution Essay

Maybe the most argued topic in science throughout the years is how did life and earth come to be. The two sides argue did the life come to be through the creation of a man named Jesus. Or did it happen through the evolving of an atom. I kind of believe in both, but I take more on the side of creationism. Also, I believe in some of evolution like microevolution, and microevolution is same things happening rather that big things like a human coming form an ape. I believe in the living things adapting to their surroundings. I don’t totally believe in creationism, but I still side with creationism. There are some things that I believe in evolution.

As I said before I take both sides, but I lean towards creationism. One of the reasons I side with creationism is because of Genesis chapter 9. For those who do not know in the chapter the great flood happens, then Noah must build the ark to save the animals and others. Then Ken Ham a creationist expert says that water froze and then came the Ice Age. I agree with him, because he is a professional and I would hope he knows what he is saying. Another thing that was brought up in the debate between Bill Nye and Ken Ham, it was Ken asking Bill how do you measure how old ice is. Bill said when they measure it, they count the layers. Then though they must guess how old each layer of ice is. I don’t know how much I want to trust them guessing how old things are. We have souls I don’t care what others say. Everybody feels emotion, like when your find out a close family member passes away, I bet you will be crushed. You’re not just going to be like “oh someone died whatever.” You’re going to mourn with your family and be sad with them. When you die your soul is going to go to heaven, another example that you are going to heaven is the book The Boy Who Went to Heaven and Came Back. This book is about a 5-year-old boy who had a near death experience and went to heaven and came back.

Now, why I kind of think that evolution is real. First, we are related to almost everything somehow. For example, we get our cytoplasm from plants. We are also almost exactly like ape we have DNA strands that very close to being the same, and some that are the same. It makes sense that we are close to apes since we came from them. Also, some scientists think that we came from sea animals and we use to have gills to breath underwater. Then again from the video Bill said that there are pyramids recorded to be older than the earth as well as some trees. Also, Bill said that the meaning of life for humans is to reproduce and make things better. And once you die you just go straight back to the earth and erode.

Finally, I believe in both but mainly in creationism the part of evolution that I believe in is microevolution. Like for creationism I believe in that we were made by God. And the great flood that caused the Ice Age. Also, that it is hard to count the layers of ice over that many years, then they guess on how old the ice layers are. And I don’t really believe that we came from apes or sea creatures. One of the main forms of microevolution is animals or humans adapting to their surroundings. For example, birds will get bigger beaks in certain areas so they can eat. Birds get bigger and stronger beaks to eat seeds and carry stuff for their nest. Sparrows have gotten bigger in genral, in the north they are bigger to survive the cold temps and places like California they are small because it is not as cold.

To conclude, I believe in both creationism and evolution. I take more of a side to creationism, but I believe in some of evolution. Like micro evolution and animals and humans adapting I am a big believer in.

Works Cited

  1. “Choose Country.” | Creation Ministries International, 2018,
  2. Genesis, Answers in. “Bill Nye Tours the Ark Encounter with Ken Ham.” YouTube, YouTube, 13 Mar. 2017,
  3. “Choose Country.” | Creation Ministries International, 2018,
  4. “How Closely Related Are Humans to Apes and Other Animals? How Do Scientists Measure That? Are Humans Related to Plants at All?” Scientific American, 2018,
  5. Reproductive Isolation, 2018,

The Theme of Social Classes in Wuthering Heights Essay

Emily Bronts novel Wuthering Heights tells one of the most famous love stories in the English language. Throughout the novel Nelly Dean, a servant at both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange, shares the love story between Heathcliff, a gypsy boy who is found on the streets of Liverpool and is rescued by Mr. Earnshaw, and Catherine, the daughter of Mr. Earnshaw who forms a passionate attachment to Heathcliff. When Heathcliff is lowered to the position of a farmhand and Catherine decides to marry Edgar Linton instead, Heathcliff turns to revenge. He is determined to degrade everyone who sought to degrade him. At the time when this novel takes place, people were born into a class and stayed there: if your parents were rich and respected like Edgar’s, you would be, too; if your parents were servants like Nelly Dean’s, you probably would be one too. Social mobility the idea that you can change your class status (usually for the better)– was not commonplace (Meler). In Emily Bronts novel Wuthering Heights, the theme of social class is shown throughout the novel, creating conflicts for the characters of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange.

When reading the novel, it is clear to see that the storys setting and characters at both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange supply an unambiguous comprehension of the social contrast between the houses, The Earnshaw’s and Linton’s are both part of a social class named the gentry, which is similar to the upper-middle class (Meler). However, Bront makes it very clear that Thrushcross Grange is a far more superior manor to the farmhouse at Wuthering Heights, While the Heights is depicted as simply typical and “domestic,”(Bront 80) the Grange is described as a “scene of unprecedented richness (Meler). The two houses are neighbors yet they Heathcliff, Catherine, and Hindley live pretty much cut off from the outside world at Wuthering Heights and their only friends are the people that live there(Meler). Heathcliff and Catherines close bond probably comes from this aspect, where they only really had each other when growing up. It is not until Heathcliff and Catherine stumble upon the Linton family in Thrushcross Grange that their relationship begins to change due to the fact that Catherine starts feeling a sort of societal pressure that she did not feel before, Catherine does not consider personal feelings, but instead, she focuses on her outward appearance to society…wealth justifies social class, and Catherine strives to achieve high status (Meler). She regrets this when Heathcliff returns to the Heights, He had grown a tall, athletic, well-formed man His upright carriage suggested the idea of his having been in the army. His countenance was much older in expression and decision of feature than Mr. Linton’s; it looked intelligent, and retained no marks of former degradation (Bronte 83).

During the time he was away from the Heights, Heathcliff worked hard to raise his social rank. No longer could Edgar and Hindley treat Heathcliff like a servant like they did when Catherine first came back to the Heights. Heathcliff, you may come forward,.. You may come and wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants (Bront 47). Heathcliff newly obtained social status gave him the power to own both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. However, he chose to live in Wuthering Heights. … Heathcliff let Thrushcross Grange, and preferred living in a situation and residence so much inferior (Bronte 28). Social class was something he never really cared about. He only ever wanted Catherine to marry him. Though far apart, Thrushcross Granges capitalism of social class destroys the natural and humane elements of Wuthering Heights creating the pressure to need a high social class

In the novel, it is clear to see that how the characters act and present themselves causes many problems with how they are treated. Each house is associated with the behavior fitting their description, The Lintons are relatively firm in their gentrys status but nonetheless take great pains to prove this status through their behaviors. The Earnshaws, on the other hand, rest on much shakier ground socially(Meler). When growing up, Catherine was always a rambunctious child. There were no other ladies around so she was never taught how a lady should act. This made it easier for Catherine and Heathcliff to get along. When stumbling across Thrushcross Grange, Catherine is badly hurt by one of the Lintons dogs. The Lintons bring Catherine inside and thinking that Heathcliff is nothing more than a servant tell him to go away. Instead of leaving, Heathcliff watches,When Heathcliff watches Catherine through the window of Thrushcross Grange he watches the Lintons comb Catherines hair and wash her wounded foot, his purpose is to determine whether she wants to be rescued he waited by the window to determine if Catherine needed him. (Apter 70) Her stay at the Linton house is when Catherine is introduced to the life of being a proper lady. Never once did she think about Heathcliff. Catherine stayed at Thrushcross Grange for five weeks.

When she does return, there is no longer a wild, hatless little savage jumping into the house, and rushing to squeeze us all breathless (Bront 46) like the Earnshaws remembered instead there’lighted from a handsome black pony a very dignified person, with brown ringlets falling from the cover of a feathered beaver, and a long cloth habit, which she was obliged to hold up with both hands that she might sail in (Bront 46). During her stay she at Thrushcross Grange she forgot all about how Heathcliff acted and presented himself. So when she sees him again she laughs and calls him dirty. Heathcliff is greatly hurt by this and he later asks Nelly to help him look presentable. Heathcliffs manners improve as he becomes a higher class. A half-civilized ferocity lurked yet in the depressed brows and eyes full of black fire, but it was subdued; and his manner was even dignified: quite divested of roughness, though too stern for grace” (Bronte 83). The son of Hindley, Hareton should be the heir to Wuthering Heights. With land and standing, he ought to be a gentleman. However, Heathcliff refuses to educate him, and everyone else mostly ignores him, so his manners (a very important indicator of class status) are rough and gruff. (Meler) Lower classes do not always get to learn manners and have the ability to present themselves in a dignified way. In the novel, the characters must present themselves well or they will be overlooked and seen as nothing.

Lastly, in the novel, it is clear to see that social status in marriage is a huge part of the social contrast between Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. Catherine, throughout the novel, showed different types of love for two different people. Her love for Heathcliff was her everything, it was her identity to love and live for Heathcliff but as soon as she found out how society views Heathcliff, she sacrificed their love and married Edgar Linton in the hopes of saving Heathcliff from Hindley and protecting him from the eyes of the world.”Did it never strike you that if Heathcliff and I married, we should be beggars? Whereas if I marry Edgar, I can aid Heathcliff to rise and place him out of my brother’s power.” (Bront 71) Catherine thought she could slip beneath passions net and take the offer of Edgars pleasant love, but she is destroyed by her defiance. Her own emotional greed she thought he would be satisfied by her own inward assurance that they were one person.

Her passion was so real that marriage to her had no reality. (Apter 72) Catherine was going to marry Edgar because of his wealth and status. By marrying Edgar, it would give her a name she can be proud of and the people would envy her. …he will be rich, and I shall like to be the greatest women of the neighbourhood, and I shall be proud of having such a husband(Bront 69). This marked the lost of innocence for Catherine because she now knows the rules of society. She used to be so close to Heathcliff that she told Nelly I am Heathcliff(Bront 101). Their naturally formed union has been broken by Catherines marriage and now they must struggle for possession of one another. This struggle is a desperate attack; they cannot be gentle with one another; they must be ruthless in their attempt to maintain their hold upon one another(Apter 71). Edgar knew that Catherine loved Heathcliff more than she would ever love him. Because of this he despises Heathcliff and banes his daughter from ever going to Wuthering Heights.His rival destroys his happiness a second time by kidnapping his adolescent daughter, Catherine. The blow is so devastating that Edgar soon dies of grief(Bloom 23). Heathcliff … would not have bothered with Edgar Linton and his family had Catherine not married Edgar(Apter 68).

In Emily Bronts novel Wuthering Heights, the theme of social class is shown throughout the novel, creating conflicts for the characters of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange.The characters in the novel are affected by social classes in how they should act, how they are treated, and who they can marry, The social class conflicts added to Heathcliff’s bitterness because he was rejected by his love due to his social class. It drove Heathcliff’s ambition to become wealthier after Catherine marries Edgar instead of him. The social contrast between Heathcliff and Edgar, along with Catherine’s want to be wealthy, ultimately resulted in her marrying the man she was less happy with (Meler). If it wasnt for the social classes seen in the novel, the characters of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange wouldnt have to deal with the struggles they did.

Theme of Revenge in the Cask of Amontillado Essay

“The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge” (1) is the opening line of this short story. In Edgar Allan Poe’s “A Cask of Amontillado” we learn of a man who seeks revenge on an old friend, a man who had insulted him. The story does not give details of what was said but the Narrator is determined on seeking revenge. Throughout the story, reader is never told exactly what Fortunato did to deserve such vengeance on him. Is Montressor reliable? Is it possible that whatever crimes Fortunato is believed to have committed be imagined or exaggerated. One thing for sure is that Fortunado had no idea of Montressor’s anger. He is telling the story fifty years after it happened so it is possible that some of the details have not been remembered correctly.

Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” is a frightening and disturbing short story about the consequences that result from persistent insults and an unforgiving soul. This is evident in the opening line when the narrator makes it obvious that the insult is what directly led to his unquenchable desire for revenge. If someone is so determined to get revenge, could he have done this before?. An important part of his revenge lies in maintaining the appearance of being innocent so that he is not charged with murder. In his eyes, if he was caught, the act of revenge would not have been a success.

The theme of revenge in the story is strong throughout. . Poe never explains why Montresor carries so much hatred and animosity toward Fortunato. This gives the story more suspense. And we are left to wonder why Montresor has so much hatred towards Fortunato. The story begins with Montresor explaining the he has been horribly insulted. In his revengeful mind, every time he sees a person who has wronged him, he acts as if there is nothing wrong and that he does not hold a grudge. But in reality we know Fortunato’s insult definitely was not forgotten. Montresor acts and lives his life as if there has been no wrong doing, while he plots a perfect act of revenge. . . “I must not only punish, but punish with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. (2 ) Once all the details of his plan have been thought of, Montresor acts. He leads Fortunato away from the carnival and deep into the catacombs of his family estate. ,. Montresor’s idea is to plaster Fortunato into a brick sepulcher underneath the house. This act quickly becomes a reality. Once trapped, Fortunato was left to die. His tomb was left untouched for years to come.

He gets Fortunato to follow him by offering him some wine that is stored in the cellars beneath the house. The Narratorr has planned for this night down to every detail by sending his servants away to the carnival. The two men descend into the damp and dark vaults. Fortunado starts to cough. Montressor offers him some wine for a few reasons. First, he wants him to survive long enough for him to kill him. He does not want him to succumb to the dampness. Secondly, it is the lure of more wine that will convince Fortunado to continue following him. And third, if he continues to drink, perhaps he will not question what is happening to him.

There are a few symbols in this story that Edgar Allen Poe uses. The Cask of Amontillado is what Montressor uses to lure Fortunato to his death. … Amontillado is a wine and wine symbolizes pleasure. Fortunato is willing to travel through the dark and spooky catacombs to get what he wants. In the end, the wine betrays him and signals his death. Montressor uses the carnival to get Fortunato to his home. So while people are having fun, beneath the ground something sinister is happening below. .The story changes from a day of celebration to a day of murder. The dark, damp setting of catacombs signifies a place of death. This makes an ideal place to conceal a murder.
Throughout the story, reader is never told exactly what Fortunato did to deserve such vengeance on him. Is Montressor reliable? Is it possible that whatever crimes Fortunato is believed to have committed be imagined or exaggerated. One thing for sure is that Fortunado had no idea of Montressor’s anger. He is telling the story fifty years after it happened so it is possible that some of the details have not been remembered correctly.

Although this question is not clear, and not really answered by the end of the story, the reader, can only use their Imagination to conclude why he did what he did. Basically, a crime goes unpunished and there is no real explanation, except for what Montessor shares. He tells his story the way he wants’ us to know. He believes Fortunato deserves what he got. But is it really true? This story allows us to enter the mind of a murderer and his rationale for doing what he does. He may be telling the story out of guilt because it is 50 years later but we will never know. The crime would have been too fresh had he told it the morning after. By telling it 50 years later, most people who remember Fortunato would have forgotten or have died. Montressor could have been lving with this guilt all these years and haunted by Fortunado’s last words “For the Love of God, Montresor!” (24) is a cry for mercy and has probably haunted him all these years.

The Theme of Symbolism and War in “Persepolis” Essay

Every war has millions of stories, and people who lived through it all tell the best ones. Persepolis refers to the ancient capital of the Persian Empire, published in the United States in 2003, is a graphic autobiography novel by the Iranian author, Marjane Satrapi. Satrapi details her experience and life before, during and after the Iranian Revolution and the Iran and Iraq war. Satrapi also includes political and cultural events that helped shape her into the women she is today. The novel begins after the Islamic revolution had started, when Satrapi is only 10 years old. Women were forced to wear the Veil, girls and boys were placed in separate schools, and entertainment activities such as music, playing cards or even having posters of singers were banned. Satrapi, goes by Marji in the book, and her family weren’t happy about all the changes. Her family was considered modern and secular. Satrapi got in trouble many times throughout the first chapters because of her rebellious acts so her family sent her to Austria. After going through tough times in Austria, Satrapi went back to Iran. She got married and shortly after getting divorced then moved to France for good. Satrapi’s Persepolis is a fascinating book that illustrates many rhetorical strategies, but the four that affected me the most were her use of imagery, syntax, irony and symbolism. The use of these devices made her story come to life.

Imagery in Persepolis

One of the many rhetorical devices Satrapi uses is Imagery; she uses both visual and verbal imagery. Satrapi uses many visual imagery examples throughout the story since it’s a graphic novel but the strongest example is when her hometown, Tahran, got bombed. Satrapi was out with a friend shopping when she heard it on the radio. She ran as fast as possible to get home and make sure her house and family were okay. When she made it home, she found out that her mother was home alone at the time and the bomb didn’t hit their house. Her mother told her that the bomb destroyed their neighbor’s house, Baba-Levy’s. While walking home with her mother, Satrapi looks at the destroyed house and sees an arm with a purple bracelet under a pile of bricks. Starapi immediately remembers her neighbor’s daughter Neda and looks away, then says, No scream in the world could have relieved my suffering and anger. (Strapi 142) Starapi chose to draw this panel with nothing but a black image to describe her overwhelming pain and sadness. An example of verbal imagery is when Satrapi’s parents come home after a long day of protesting against the shah, she describes her parents by saying, After marching and throwing stones all day, by evening they had aches all over, even in their heads.(Satrapi 18) This quote shows how worn out and exhausted her parent were due to all the horrible changes in their country.

Syntax in Persepolis

A second rhetorical technique Satrapi uses is Syntax. Syntax is the grammatical use of words to make well-formed sentences. An example of syntax in Persepolis is when Satrapi was a young girl and realized the differences between the social classes, she said, The reason for my shame and for the revolution is the same: the difference between social classes. (Satrapi 33) Satrapi uses a colon to make her readers feel as if they have made the realization with her. Another use of syntax is when Satrapi was explaining how Iranian felt about the shah, she wanted to create a playful tone by using a colon, she said, The people wanted only one thing: his departure! So finally.. (Satrapi 41) then we see a picture of the Shah, his soldiers and protesters indicating that he left.

Examples of Irony in Persepolis

A third rhetorical device Satrapi uses in Persepolis is irony. Irony is used to describe how things seem and how they really are. There are three different types of Irony, verbal Irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. An example of dramatic irony in Persepolis is when the shah gets dethroned; the United States refused to give him a shelter when they were his biggest supporters when he was still a ruler. Satrapi also uses situational irony when she told the story of her parents and wine in the The Wine chapter. She explains that during the Islamic revolution, people were not allowed to party or drink but her family and friends still did it. One day, her family went to celebrate her newborn cousin. On the way back home, the police stopped them and asked them if they have been drinking, Satrapi’s father denied it. The police decided to follow them home and search it for any banned items. So when the family got home, Satrapi and her grandmother ran upstairs and got rid of all the wine. Satrapi’s father ended up bribing the police officer and made him leave. After the police had left, Satrapi’s father wanted alcohol badly but ironically, Satrapi and her grandmother got rid of it all. Another use of situational irony is in the The Passport chapter. Satrapi and her family went to visit her aunt. While they were there, her aunt’s husband started smoking so his wife got mad at him and asked him to stop smoking because he has had two heart attacks in the past, but her aunt’s husband said, The stress I get from every gunshot I hear is much worse for me than the cigarettes. (Satrapi 118) Ironically, he gets hospitalized few days later due to his fear from a grenade that his neighborhood and dies.

Symbolism in Persepolis

The last and the most important rhetorical device Satrapi uses in Persepolis is Symbolism. Symbolism is the use of symbols to illustrate ideas by giving them important meanings that are different from their natural or exact definition. Starapi uses many examples of symbolism in her novel. One of the most important symbols is her bed. Satrapi mentions her bed many times throughout her story. It’s where she does most of her thinking in the novel. We see it through her moments of change and maturing. The bed could symbolize a better world for Satrapi as well as her mind and thoughts. The cigarette in the The Cigarette chapter is also a great use of symbolism. In this chapter, Satrapi makes new friends and ends up skipping class with them. Her mother finds out and gets mad at Satrapi. Satrapi being upset goes down to the basement. While Satrapi is in the basement thinking about all the horrible things going on in her country; she finds a cigarette and smokes it then she says, With this first cigarette I kiss childhood goodbye. (Satrpai 117) The cigarette symbolizes Satrapi’s independence but it also symbolizes her own act of rebellion against what’s going on in her country as well as against her mother who thinks Satrapi was a child still.

The Veil in Persepolis

Another important use of symbolism in Persepolis is the veil. We are introduced to the veil in the very first chapter The Veil. The chapter explains how women and young girls were forced to wear the veils. Satrapi as a young girl, and her friends didn’t like wearing the veil simply because they didn’t understand why they had to wear it. Wearing the veil wasn’t a choice, it was obligated and a set law by the government, all females had to wear it. Satrapi’s family was modern and didn’t like to wear the veil. Satrapi and her mother would only wear it when they go out to avoid getting in trouble, but would not wear it at home. She says, I really didn’t know what to think about the veil. Deep down I was very religious, but as a family we were very modern and avant-garde. (Satrapi 6) As time went by, the veil became even more of a big of a deal to the government. Satrapi’s mother went through an awful and terrible experience because of it. Satrapi’s mother’s car broke down, while waiting for Satrapi and her father to come and get her, she was stopped and insulted by two men because she wasn’t wearing the veil. Satrapi’s mother said, They insulted me. They said that women like me should be pushed up against a wall and raped then thrown in the garbage, and that if I didn’t want that to happen, I should wear the veil. (Satrapi 74) The veil in Persepolis symbolizes the abuse and persecution of women and covering their freedom and voice. It also symbolizes the oppressive Iranian government.

Satrapi’s Persepolis is a great book filled with cheerfulness, sorrow and moments of childhood in a world where children were forced to do things they didn’t want to do and didn’t understand why they had to do it. Where kids had to grow up sooner than the rest of the world. War is a hard subject to write about, but with Satrapi’s great use of rhetorical strategies, such as imagery, irony, syntax and symbolism, it gave the novel a playful and cheerful tone.

The Theme of Fear in Macbeth Essay

What is fear? Why is it so impactful? Fear can be defined as “an unpleasant emotion caused by the belief that someone or something is dangerous, likely to cause pain, or a threat” (Google). Fear is one of the most powerful emotions; it creates a paranoid, vulnerable state of mind which often leads people to making decisions that they normally would not. Many literary works incorporate fear into their themes to demonstrate how it can corrupt the way a person thinks and compel them to make irrational decisions. William Shakespeare’s play, The Tragedy of Macbeth reveals that fear is the most powerful motivating force in existence through Lady Macbeth’s use of fear to manipulate Macbeth, and the dynamic change in each of their characters throughout the course of the play.

At the beginning of Shakespeare’s play, Macbeth receives news from three witches, who claim he will be the new Thane of Cawdor and become King of Scotland. Shortly after, Macbeth indeed becomes Thane of Cawdor, which makes him confident that the witches predictions are true. After Duncan decides to make his son Malcolm heir to the throne, Macbeth questions whether or not the witches are right about him becoming the future king of Scotland and considers the fact that he could technically still be the next king if Duncan were executed. It doesn’t take long before Lady Macbeth finds out about the meeting with the witches. She sees an opportunity for Macbeth to take the throne by murdering king Duncan, but fears that he will not be man enough to actually do it. “Yet I do fear thy nature: it is too full o’ the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way. Thou wouldst be great art not without ambition, but without the illness should attend it” (1.5.16-20). Lady Macbeth knows her husband is afraid of her disapproval. She uses this to her advantage by telling Macbeth she doubts his ability to go through with the plan to murder King Duncan. T

he last thing Macbeth wants to do is disappoint his wife; he might be afraid of killing the king, but he’s even more afraid of what Lady Macbeth thinks of him. As if questioning Macbeth’s manhood wasn’t enough to convince him to get the deed done, Lady Macbeth goes on to tell Macbeth he should act like the innocent man he his to conceal his true intentions. “Look like th’innocent flower, but be the serpent under’t” (1.5.56-58). At this point, it is obvious that Lady Macbeth knows murder is not in Macbeth’s nature. Rather than considering her husband’s morals, she continues to encourage him to go through with the plan. Further into Act 1, Macbeth approaches his wife to tell her he’s having second thoughts about killing Duncan and questions what will happen if their plan fails; this doesn’t sit right with Lady Macbeth. “We fail? But screw your courage to the sticking-place, and we’ll not fail.” (1.7.59-61). Once again, Lady Macbeth makes Macbeth question his manliness for not wanting to murder Duncan which makes him doubt the way he’s feeling. Macbeth doesn’t want to betray his cousin who trusts him and cares about him but he feels pressured to prove himself as a man. When Macbeth thinks he’s seeing a dagger which leads him to Duncan’s bedroom, he feels compelled to kill him. Lady Macbeth’s plan seems to have been executed practically perfectly, besides a few details that she takes into her own hands. This sequence of events shows how Lady Macbeth uses Macbeth’s fear of her disapproval to manipulate him into murdering King Duncan, which proves that fear can influence people to make decisions which are not in their true nature.

After murdering King Duncan, Macbeth’s paranoia sets in almost immediately. He tells Lady Macbeth about the dagger he saw before going into the king’s room and the voices he thought he heard. Lady Macbeth warns her husband that if he thinks too much about what he has done, he will go crazy, but Macbeth is already struggling to think and act normally. When Duncan’s death is revealed to the rest of the characters, Macbeth kills the guards that him and Lady Macbeth framed as the killers to make himself appear loyal to the king and to ensure that the guards could not attempt to prove their innocence. Duncan’s two sons, Malcolm and Donalbain, flea to England and Ireland in fear that they may be killed next, but this makes them look guilty. For now, Macbeth is in the clear and he is named the new King of Scotland. Banquo becomes suspicious of the witches’ prophecies and starts to wonder if Macbeth had anything to do with them coming true. Macbeth, already paranoid, begins to fear that Banquo may know what he has done. “Our fears in Banquo stick deep, and in his royalty of nature reigns that which would be feared.” (3.1.50-55). Macbeth remembers the witches saying he would become king but that Banquo’s descendants would follow after him. He understands that this means his future children would not inherit the throne, but the children of Banquo would. Macbeth becomes terrified at the thought of having murdered the king just to have someone else’s children take the throne after him; he decides to take matters into his own hands once again, and have Banquo and his son killed. Macbeth convinces two murderers to kill Banquo and Fleance in secret.

The murderers kill Banquo, but Fleance escapes. Macbeth is ecstatic to hear that Banquo has been executed, but the thought of Fleance still being alive makes him feel trapped by the fear of losing his crown. Determined to get more information, Macbeth goes back to the witches and demands answers. First Apparition says, “Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! beware Macduff; Beware the thane of Fife” (4.1.77). After hearing this, Macbeth becomes even more fearful of Macduff; he is convinced that he needs to kill him immediately to get rid of his troubles and fears. Macbeth soon discovers that Macduff ran away to England and decides to kill his family instead. At this point, Macbeth is desperately trying to secure his title as king. His actions clearly show that his morals have completely changed. In the beginning, Macbeth was hesitant about murdering Duncan; he did not want to betray his leader. Once the evil deed was done, the evil within Macbeth only grew. He has become a tyrant leader who no longer feels ashamed of his actions. Macbeth’s fear of losing power controls his thoughts and actions; he is now willing to murder anyone who stands in the way of his power. This drastic change in Macbeth’s character shows how fear can corrupt a person’s mind and motivate them to do the unthinkable.

In England, Malcolm and Macduff discuss the disastrous state of Scotland. After Ross informs Macduff that his wife and children have been killed under the orders of Macbeth, he is even more prepared to get his revenge. Malcolm agrees to help Macduff save his country and tells him he has already arranged for England to help them. The leader of the English army and 10,000 of their soldiers follow Malcolm and Macduff to Scotland in hopes of defeating the evil Macbeth. Back at Macbeth’s castle in Dunsinane, Lady Macbeth has been seen acting suspiciously by a gentlewoman who works for her. Unsure of what to do, the gentlewoman reports Lady Macbeth’s strange behavior to a doctor, “Since his majesty went into the field, I have seen her rise from her bed, throw her night-gown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth paper, fold it, write upon’t, read it, afterwards seal it, and again return to bed; yet all this while in a most fast sleep.” (5.1.5-9). Lady Macbeth is beginning to feel guilty for the murder of Duncan and the murders that followed; after all, she did push Macbeth to kill Duncan knowing it was not in his nature.

As Lady Macbeth realizes that she is responsible for most of her husband’s wrong-doings, she becomes overwhelmed with paranoia and guilt. The woman who once thought her and Macbeth were untouchable, has been driven to insanity. “Out, damned spot! Out, I say!—One, two. Why, then, ’tis time to do ’t. Hell is murky!—Fie, my lord, fie! A soldier, and afeard? What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account?—Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him.” (5.1.32-35). Lady Macbeth has gone mad to the point that her mind is creating visuals which do not exist. She imagines the blood of King Duncan on her hands and is incapable of washing it off. The fear of living with the guilt that she’s been carrying around for the rest of her days begins to consume her thoughts and control her life. Right before Macbeth goes to battle he is informed that his wife, the Queen, is dead. Shakespeare does not specify the cause of Lady Macbeth’s death, but it appears as if she has taken her own life. At the beginning of the play, Lady Macbeth is the more evil of the two Macbeths. She pressures Macbeth into murdering the king and encourages his sinful behavior. Eventually, she realizes the severity of her actions and loses her sanity. The way Lady Macbeth’s character shifts from being manipulative and ill-intentioned to fearful of her own thoughts proves how powerful fear can be.

William Shakespeare’s play, The Tragedy of Macbeth demonstrates the theme that fear is a powerful motivator which can lead people to making unimaginable decisions. Lady Macbeth utilizes fear to make her husband go against his morals and murder King Duncan. As the play progresses, Macbeth faces some obstacles which make him fearful of losing power. Macbeth’s character undergoes drastic change; he goes from being a noble, well-respected man, to being the most evil tyrant leader Scotland has ever seen. As Macbeth becomes a different man, his wife soon realizes that she is the one to blame for the poor choices he has made since taking the throne. The fear that Lady Macbeth faces after coming to realization that she would have to live with her guilt forever affects her everyday behavior and permanently scars her. Shakespeare’s play reveals that fear leads to corruption, irrational thinking and even insanity.

The Outsiders: Main Theme of Innocence Essay

When we are young, we are curious about life. We are nature’s first green. Young, carefree, and worriless. We lived happily without stress. This is not an easy thing to keep. Those days slowly become harder to have as you get older. We have responsibilities and more worries. This same thing goes on in the novel The Outsiders written by S.E. Hinton, where one of the main themes is innocence. The definition is different than what you might think. For the characters, it is not just about what they have seen or done, it is how that changes them, and if they can still find positive aspects in the world.

Loss of Innocence In The Outsiders

All of the boys have a different innocence because of the way they see their life and the world around them, whether it is Ponyboy watching sunsets, Johnny still finding the little things that make him happy like reading, or Dally giving up on loving anything. Ponyboy is the narrator of the story and tells his world from his own perspective. He is much more innocent than many of the characters in the book because he is thankful for what he still has.

As Ponyboy says in the novel I’ll fight anyone anytime, but I don’t like to which means he doesn’t like to fight and hates violence, but living where he does takes away innocence because violence is a part of life. He is not like the other boys in a way, because he said I liked my books and clouds and sunsets which are still things that make help you maintain your innocence. But for Pony, he still had traumatic experiences that made him lose innocence such as when Mom and Dad were killed in an auto wreck, Ponyboy had to grow up faster.

He had to go through the feeling of loss which made him lose innocence, although he sees a positive in this because he didn’t lose his brothers. His brother Darry had to step up and take his father’s place and that meant the Ponyboy wouldn’t have the fun lighthearted Darry anymore. Overall, Ponyboy is less innocent than most of the characters in the book because he chooses to not follow the stereotypes of being a Greaser such as getting into fights. Another character who is similar to Ponyboy is Johnny.

Johnny didn’t have a great home life and he wasn’t loved there, although he still managed to keep a little innocence. If it hadn’t been for the gang, Johnny would never have known what love and affection are. (pg. 11.2) Johnny only maintains his innocence because of the gang. He doesn’t have a good home life and he is neglected and abused. He lost a lot of innocence because he doesn’t have a family to love and care for him one of his main sources of innocence is the gang. He also is selfless and he is not hardened like Dally.

That was the only time I can think of when I saw him without that defeated, suspicious look in his eyes. He looked like he was having the time of his life. (pg. 79.2) He decided to go into the fire instead of standing back like Dally and help the kids. This shows that he is up for an adventure and cares about others. He knows that he doesn’t have a great future, so he decided to risk his own life to help kids who might have more of a chance. In conclusion, Johnny is somewhat innocent because he has the gang to love him and he cares about others, although he doesn’t have a good home life. Johnny is more similar to Dally than Ponyboy because of his family.

Dally has hardened himself up and he lost all of his innocence in his hard life. Dally has had to harden up at a young age. Dally had spent three years on the wild side of New York and had been arrested at the age of ten (pg. 10.2). He grew up in a rough neighborhood which made him have to toughen up at an early age so he didn’t get hurt. He never got the real affection of a father either, and the only people who love him is the gang. The only innocence he had left came from the gang, and especially Johnny. “Dammit, Johnny…” he begged, slamming one fist against the wall, hammering it to make it obey his will. “Oh, dammit, Johnny, don’t die, please don’t die…” Johnny was Dally’s last shred of innocence, and nobody can live without any innocence at all, so Dally didn’t have anything else to live for. Overall, Dally is the least innocent of the gang because he turned cold and hard since you don’t get hurt that way.

The boys all have a different innocence because of the way their lives are whether it is Dally living on the streets of New York, Johnny having a terrible home life and only being loved by the gang, or Ponyboy losing his parents, they all went through something that made them less innocent. Ponyboy is more innocent than many members of the gang because he can still find positive aspects of his life such as not losing his brothers, and having a gang who loves him.

Johnny is less innocent than Ponyboy because he doesn’t have a family who loves him, and that impacts him and makes him see his home life very negatively. Dally has completely lost his innocence and love for the world. He hardened himself because he thought that you don’t get hurt if you get tough. Because we all have different lives and experiences that make us who we are. If everyone had the same innocence and views that would not make a diverse world. It is not just about what you have seen, it is about how that changes who you are and your personality.

The Theme of Sovereignty in Wife of Bath Tale Essay

The Wife of Bath, one of the many characters in Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales.Chaucer, in the “General Prologue,” describes her as promiscuous. The Wife confirms this claim in the prologue to her tale.The “General Prologue” and the “Wife of bath’s Prologue” reveals a direct relationship between the Wife of Bath and the characters in her tale, such as the knight, queen, and ugly woman.

The theme of sovereignty in Wife Of Bath Tale The description of the knight as “lusty” is the opposite of what knights were supposed to be. However, even this knight is able to accept and abide by the Wife’s idea of what a husband should be. The point of her story belief that women should always have sovereignty over their husbands in marriage. The old lady in the tale is able to persuade the young, lusty knight to give her this sovereignty over him. The fact that he raped the girl earlier shows what an accomplishment this is because a man who did not care at all about a lady’s desires has now given in completely to them. The theme of looks can be deceiving and sovereignty.

This is seen when the knight returns to the castle to answer the queen’s question, saying “a woman wants the self-same sovereignty over her husband as over her lover, and master him, he must not be above her” As part of a previous arrangement the knight is saved but must marry the old hag. The woman knows that her new husband is upset that she is old and ugly, so she decides to give him a choice. The hag questions the knight as to whether he would rather have her old and faithful or young and unfaithful.

The knight tells the hag that the decision is hers to choose what she thinks will be best. Because the knight was wise enough to give the woman the choice to choose for herself the old hag was able to become young, beautiful and good. The theme of power ?’There was a knight who was a lusty liver. One day as he came riding from the river He saw a maiden walking all forlorn Ahead of him, alone as she was born. And of that maiden, spite of all she said,” Rape is the domination of another human person by saying that the knight rapes the woman or in spite of all she said is attribute for desires. The knight further deprives the woman of power by taking her maidenhead.

The difference is the Wife Of Bath is based on a central character while the Propagule is based on the character of a rapist.” He saw a maiden walking all forlorn Ahead of him, alone as she was born. And of that maiden, in spite of all she said, By very force, he took her maidenhead.”In the Wife of Bath’s prologue describes the central character Chaucer describes the Wife of Bath as a deaf, gap-toothed woman. She has boldface and wears ten pounds of “coverchiefs” and a hat on her head . She wears a skirt with red stockings and tight-laced supple shoes. She is also a great weaver and has been on many pilgrimages. She is described in “The General Prologue” as being a worthy woman who has only had five husbands. She knows all the remedies of love and is an expert at and preaches and practices the art of love.

The similarities in the Wife Of Bath and Wife Of Bath Prologue,Dame Alice is dominant over all five of her husbands and although she struggles with her fifth husband to gain the upper hand in the marriage, Dame Alice, in the end, accomplishes her manipulation. Dame Alice seems to be only happy when she has power over her husband. They have to hand over this power, consciously or unconsciously, because without their consent she has a battle on her hands, both challenging the other for ultimate superiority in the relationship. The old hag similarity gains control over her husband when the knight places her in the power position and that was seen in the Wife of Bath’s Prologue, the knight must willingly to give up this power in order for the old hag to have it, for if he had not given her control of the partnership, both would have continued unhappily. Both the Wife of Bath’s prologue and tale share a common theme of a woman’s control in a relationship with a man.

In conclusion in the prologue, Chaucer shows similarities and differences between the prologue and story. Sharing themes and also different themes for story development.from the themes and the characters

A Leading Theme in Pygmalion Essay

Pygmalion is a play by George Bernard Shaw, named after a Greek mythological figure. It was first presented on stage to the public in 1913. The story focuses on young Eliza, a poor flower girl who is seen as an uneducated and rather unpropper and unpleasant girl because of her strong distinct dialect. Two men, Higgins and Pickering, make a bet to themselves that they can turn Eliza into what they consider a proper duchess and an acceptable respected woman to society. She later agrees to participate to go forward in their bet in hopes of owning her own flower shop in the future. The plan later becomes a success and she is now socially acceptable. Though she later has mixed feelings about how to go about using her beauty and new found high ranking to mary a ‘proper’ man, the story ends with her remaining to be the new lady they made her.

From the very beginning of the play, we can see the unequal relationship between man and woman: Man is superior, woman is inferior. The male character is a language professor who is a gentleman of the upper class. Then there is the female protagonist that is seen as a meer mistake to society who visually that of the lower class. At the beginning of Eliza’s transformation, she is treated like a child rather than a paying customer. In this transformation she not only learns how to speak properly and manners, she finds her own firey spark under the teachings of Higgins. The man has created a ‘real woman’ and a satisfied wife for a man.

The theme of men creating the perfect woman is seen throughout the play. The position of being a woman is seen as the lowest in society. Eliza is seen only as an object for experiment. In professor Higgins eyes, she is only a ” creature,” ” a baggage,” one of the ” squashed cabbage leaves of covert garden ” and a ” damned impudent slut .” She is everything but an equal human being to man. In act two, Higgins even orders his house maid to take Eliza’s clothes off. We the reader don’t know whether his intentions in this order were sexual rather than intellectual. Throughout the play he is extremely verbally abusive to her, not treating her as a human at all. He treats her as how the author believes a woman should be treated.

Author George Bernard Shaw has shown his leading female protagonist bullied and degraded by the leading male protagonist. Though it is unknown about how Shaw feels about women, I believe that a lot of him is seen in professor Higgins. Higgins is a nasty and selfish man who shows zero regards for the feelings and well being of women. 

The Passionate Shepherd to his Love (Theme) Essay

Elizabethan poetry, as the name infers, is comprised of all the poetry written during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. The Elizabethan age was a pivotal point for poetry and it founded the form for literature. In addition to being one of the most famous love poems in the English language, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love is considered one of the earliest examples of Elizabethan poetry as it develops the characteristics of the countryside over those of the city. In other words, the poem is manifesting an idealized image of country life, presenting the opposite of the reality of difficult life in harsh conditions. Nonetheless, the striking imagery in The Passionate Shepherd to His Love has assured that it has remained one of the most memorable poems in the English language.

On the contrary, anyone who lived in a pretty how town by Edward Estlin Cummings encompasses the inner self and the individual in traditional society. It can also be interpreted as a love story between a figure named “No-one” and a figure named “Anyone.” On another level, the poem may be about the passage of time. This work of poetry is fundamental to modern society because it is a reaction to the perceived surpluses of Victorian poetry, with its emphasis on traditional formalism and elegant style. Christopher Marlowe writes The Passionate Shepherd to His Love and sets an idealized version of the countryside, where life is immeasurable and everything is perfect. Marlowe opens the poem by urging his beloved, whom reasonably resides in an urban environment, to meet him in the farmland.

For example, the speaker says: “Come live with me, and be my love, And we will all the pleasures prove, That valleys, groves, hills, and fields, Woods, or steepy mountain yields.” In these lines, the Marlowe means to say that if his lover decides to live with him and be his lover, he will show her all of the wonders in nature. In the next couple of lines, the shepherd is saying that they will sit on rocks and watch the farmers tend to their animals, where the songbirds sing by the streams. While that might not sound romantic to the reader with modern-day expectations, back then, sitting around and watching sheep was something that people enjoyed. These lines are also critical for the poem, as it is the first literary device that Marlowe uses other than of course, a rhyme scheme. “Seeing the shepherds” and “Feed their flock” is the example of the first sign of alliteration used in the poem. The shepherd ventures to lure her by claiming that he will make flower beds of roses, a thousand fragrant posies, a bonnet and petticoat ornamented for the loved one.

For example, the Shepherd says: “And I will make thee beds of roses, And a thousand fragrant posies, A cap of flowers, and a kirtle, Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle.” In these lines, the Marlowe is saying that the shepherd will give the woman flowers of all types, and make lots of pretty clothes for her to wear. The speaker is going to lots of trouble to promise nice things to persuade his love to accept his offer. In other words, the shepherd will give his love a gown out of the finest wool from his prettiest sheep. He is also offering the finest and best fair lined slippers for the cold, which have buckles of the purest gold.

The last lines of the poem are essential, simply because it is a turning point for the reader. For example, the writer says “A belt of straw, and ivy buds, With coral clasps and amber studs.” The shepherd has moved increasingly farther away from promises he can actually keep because coral and amber were costly products in Marlowe’s time. This act of hopelessness can be a sign that the speaker has gone desperate to keep his love forever. It seems that the speaker is willing to do whatever it takes to have her stay. The speaker says he will offer items that he cannot even afford if it pleases her, and that she should go live with him and be his lover. All in all, Love plays a significant purpose in this poem, as the opening line reassures readers to think of it in terms of romantic interest. The lover in the poem makes commitments to his beloved about how they can live an idyllic and typical life in the countryside. The whimsical nature and energy of juvenility can be seen throughout the poem.

On the other hand, anyone lived in a pretty how town by Edward Estlin Cummings is about the loss and lack of identity of people in the modern world. The writer opens the poem with the following lines: “anyone lived in a pretty how town (with up so floating many bells down) spring summer autumn winter he sang his didn’t he danced his did.”Line 3 of the poem discusses the four seasons. It can be concluded that time seems to be progressing through the four seasons while people are just floating among some bells. The imagery still is not pulling together into anything definite. Cummings seems to argue that life is distinguishable only by the change in the weather. The poem goes on to say: “one day anyone died I guess (and no one stooped to kiss his face) busy folk buried them side by side? little by little and was by was” People die, but they are not necessary to live a successful life. The average people in the pretty how town died and was disregarded by everyone else. Notice the use of “I guess,” giving a tone of casualness and uncertainty. When the writer says ’ busy folk buried them side by side’ he is referring to the descriptive phrase that again emphasizes how established routine is into the lifestyle of the townspeople. “Little by little” implies the physical process of burial and the lost significance of anyone to the townspeople. Cummings suggests a continued awareness, almost as if they are sleeping next to each other in death, “dream[ing] their sleep” as the earth renews itself again in April during spring. In the end, this poem is an exaggeration of uniqueness submerged in the ordinary. This poem is the ultimate contradiction of life itself because we are all individuals, but when we are held like cattle into a group, we all become ordinary and alike.

The Passionate Shepherd to His Love encompasses a traditional tale set in the countryside. This poem cases the version of the country as a little bit too good to be right in real life. Shepherding is not a traditionally effective job, and they tended to be relatively mediocre and work their whole lives. With this actuality in mind, the speaker of this poem endeavors to counter that by building a picture of natural riches and beauty. However, anyone who lived in a pretty how town is a complete contradiction because the poem is not traditional or typical in any way. For example, the writer was purposefully vague on the concept that “anyone” means a particular person and that “anyone” can mean anyone or everyone. In turn, people are directed to this absurdity of the human status that few notice us and we are neglected by many. Somehow Cummings achieves to write a deliberately enigmatic poem filled with syntax reversals, using different words and very little punctuation.

The Passionate Shepherd to His Love ends with an ’if’ remark, and contains a somewhat dull note. There is no promise that the woman will find the country lures enough to follow the Shepherd and the reader is left with the genuine but not certain possibility that the Shepherd will be disappointed. This uncertain ending is also evident in anyone who lived in a pretty how town because most of the text has a double meaning, including the title. For example, the story begins with ’anyone,’ which can be considered as a specific person. The choices of language make this poem complex and intricate to just one specific meaning.

The Theme of Revenge in Hamlet Essay

The Chinese proverb, “if you seek revenge, digs two graves,” perfectly explains the mood as well as the events of William Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet. The theme of revenge dominates the play because most of the characters are “out to get” those who wrong them by luring them to their death. In the initial stages of the play, the ghost of King Hamlet appears to Hamlet and makes a confession with regards to King Claudius elucidating, “Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder,” a revelation that current king murdered him and took his throne as well as his wife (1.5.25). The scene where the King Hamlet’s “confesses” sets the stage for the rest of the play because prince Hamlet takes the “oath” of revenge, “with wings as swift / as meditation or the thoughts of love…sweep to revenge” (1.5.25-31). Further, Hamlet is forced to take matters into his own hands in avenging his father because his uncle King Claudius is sovereign. This paper analyzes the theme of revenge as applicable to the protagonist Hamlet. Hamlet is first introduced to the plot of revenge between him and King Claudius through the “confessions” made by his father’s ghost. Even after the “confession”, Hamlet is still faced with difficulty when trying to execute the plan of avenging his father’s death because of trying to apply “excess” logic into the mission (4.4.41) and therefore, receives a second visitation in Act 3, “Don’t forget! This visitation / is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose” (3.4.110-111). Hamlet battles between his revenge mission and the innate feeling of wanting to do what is right. In his attempt to do things with reasoned logic, Hamlet doubts the “confession” of his father’s ghost and as such, formulates the play Murder at Gonzaga “to catch the conscience of the king” (2.2.602-663).

The play is a reenactment of the death of Hamlet’s father whereby, he keenly watches King Claudia’s uncomfortable reaction during the actual death and confirms that he is guilty, a confirmation he shares with his friend Horatio in Act 3 (3.2.276-282). Hamlet still questions his ability to show emotion and avenge his father after he watches an actor in the play Murder at Gonzaga deliver an emotional speech, “But in a fiction, a dream of passion” (2.2.550-555). The actor in the play portrays the “mourning” act so well without proper knowledge of the dead character, while Hamlet second guesses himself in his inability to avenge his own father, “Like John-a-dreams, unpregnant of my cause” (2.2.568). Further, the expression of Hamlet’s shame in “dragging” the revenge is evident in Act 4 when he watches Fortinbras and his army match to their demise with the “purpose” being, “to gain alittle patch of ground / that hath in it no profit but the name” (4.4.18-19) and subsequently in the final monologue that he delivers, “I don’t know / why yet I live to say…Still I have cause, and will, and strength, and means / to do t” (4.4.43-46). Hamlet’s delay of executing his revenge is for all the other reasons that are not premised on Christian grounds because he does not express any remorse or guilt when he slays innocent characters. In Act 3, King Claudius, while in his room alone, presents Hamlet with an opportunity to kill him, one that he does not capitalize on. Hamlet further postpones his revenge mission of killing King Claudius thinking that he is praying and as such, ending his life will be doing him a favor even though he wants a beautiful world that free from characters like his uncle (2.2.307-308).

In his monologue, Hamlet justifies his action of not killing King Claudius when presented with the best opportunity asserting that he will be sending him to heaven rather than to the purgatory with his father because he was praying. Hamlet’s concern of where King Claudius will “go” after his death illustrates the extent to which revenge is engrained in his mission. Additional anger in the thought of revenge is expressed by Hamlet in Act 3, “Now could I drink hot blood, / and do such bitterness as the day” (3.2.390-391). However, the more King Claudius stays alive in the play, the number of characters who lose their lives increases. Among the victims of Hamlet’s revenge is Polonius, his close friend Laertes’ father who was also partly his friend. Hamlet mistakenly kills Polonius who is hiding behind the curtain in a scene where he is having a conversation with his mother. Subsequently, Hamlet does not show any remorse in his actions by dragging away Polonius’ body into “hiding.” The actions of Hamlet after the death of Polonius are evidence of his determined revenge as well as his attitude towards “collateral damage.”

Ophelia, Polonius’ daughter, goes into a state of distress after the death of his father thus ending up in depression and eminent death, “Till that her garments, heavy with their drink, / Pulled the poor wretch from her melodious lay / To muddy death” (4.5.178-181). Upon finding out who is responsible for his father’s death, Laertes takes an oath to avenge his father and sister no matter who he would have to rise against, either enemy or friend (4.5.133-134). After killing Polonius, Hamlet is sent to England where he has more access to King Claudius for his revenge mission to continue. In conclusion, Fortinbras, Hamlet, and Laertes seek revenge for the murder of their respective fathers with different approaches. Hamlet, being unique, applies logic but procrastinates his revenge mission of avenging his father’s unnatural death by killing his uncle King Claudius. Hamlet’s procrastination results in the death of many other characters including his mother Queen Gertrude as well as Polonius, Laertes’ father. Even though Hamlet finally kills King Claudius, it is not a result of his plan but one that backfires from the king. Laertes plan for the revenge of his father’s death have no concern for consequences, “…you will draw both friend and foe / none but his enemies” (4.5.165) and “To cut his throat I’ th’ church” (4.7. 144).

Shakespeare, through the deaths of both Hamlet and Laertes at the end of the play, shows us the importance of being “calculative” when conducting revenge because only Fortinbras remains alive.

What is the Theme of “The Outsiders”? Essay

The story happens in Oklahoma in the 1960’s. It is around two packs or social classes named the ‘greasers’ and the ‘socs’. The greasers are the helpless ones who live on the east part of town and the socs are the rich ones living on the west part of town. The socs appreciate going toward the east side to thrash greasers. The primary person is Ponyboy Curtis, a vagrant living with his two more seasoned siblings. One evening, after a battle at home Ponyboy and his companion Johnny Cade who likewise has issues at home, flee. Rising activity of the film is the point at which the two young men go through the night at the recreation center and get in a battle with a portion of the socs. The socs needed to show the young men something new in light of the fact that previous that evening they permitted themselves to go out with two soc young ladies. One of them was Sherry Valance goes to a similar school as Ponyboy and is Bob Sheldon’s sweetheart. Johnny cuts Bob to death as he was attempting to suffocate Ponyboy in a wellspring. They flee and stow away in an old church away from town. Peak of the story is the point at which the congregation sets ablaze during a school visit and a few kids become caught inside. Ponyboy, Johnny and Dallas Winston (Dally), a companion who came visit the two young men, run into the congregation to save the kids. They thus become saints with their photos spread all around the papers. Falling activity of the story includes Johnny remaining in the clinic on account of his messed up spine and serious consumes. Additionally, after adolescent preliminaries Ponyboy and Johnny are pronounced as not at real fault for the wrongdoing and Ponyboy is permitted to remain in care of his most established sibling Darry Curtis. Be that as it may, the two posses would not like to allow their contentions to rest until they battled a reasonable battle. So they orchestrated a thunder which the greasers won. In the resolution, Ponyboy and Dally go to the clinic to educate Johnny regarding the uplifting news. Obviously Johnny kicks the bucket during the visit. Bitterly and distress Dally ransacks a store and powers the police to destroy him when he won’t hand himself over. Ponyboy discovers a note that Johnny thought of him before his demise. 

The most clear struggle in The Outsiders is the contention between the two distinctive gatherings of people, a class versus class struggle. Greasers are poor and a considerable lot of them need to exit school to help financing their families. While the socs are rich children with costly vehicles and get training without any concerns. The hole between the two classes makes the socs view at the greasers as ‘rubbish’ of the general public. The class versus class struggle brings about an actual clash between the socs and the greasers. All through the story there are actual battles between the two gatherings. Socs principally do it for no particular reason and furthermore to demonstrate to themselves that they are preferable and more grounded over the greasers. There are two different contentions in the story both in which Ponyboy is involved. Ponyboy has all the earmarks of being in struggle with himself. Toward the start of the story Ponyboy is coming back from the films. He is spotted by a gathering of socs who pursue him and beat him up. Ponyboy is very much aware of the contentions between the greasers and the socs and knows the risk of heading back home all alone, yet he actually does as such on the grounds that he attempting to acknowledge the hard daily routine he is compelled to experience. He thinks it is unjustifiable that he needs to stress over straightforward things like returning home from the film when the socs can carry on with their life the manner in which they need to with no limitations or stresses. Also, Ponyboy likes writing and nature which is odd for an ordinary greaser. He battles to uncover himself before others, since he realizes they wouldn’t get him. The other clash would be Ponyboy versus life or conditions. 

Ponyboy’s folks died in a fender bender. From that point forward he has been in guardianship of his most established sibling Darry. He generally contrasted Darry’s activities and those of his folks. He thought if his folks were alive he would be in an ideal situation with them in light of the fact that Darry was excessively severe. Ponyboy additionally deciphered Darry’s severity as disdain. He felt it was out of line for him to have a sibling who just shouts at him and guides him. He likewise felt life was unreasonable towards his other sibling Sodapop who had exited school to work at a service station to help financing their family. 

Ponyboy is the storyteller and the fundamental person of the story. He is a unique person and creates in various ways. Ponyboy is a greaser like his siblings and his companions, yet additionally varies from them in numerous ways. Ponyboy is fantastic and honest when contrasted with most greasers. He isn’t just about as intense and experienced as the others. In spite of the way that he is poor and the climate he lives in is very ignoble, Ponyboy is a decent understudy and furthermore intrigued by writing, nature and films. Ponyboy realizes that this isn’t typical for a greaser, so he hushes up about his musings essentially. In some cases anyway he imparts them to his sibling Sodapop in light of the fact that he doesn’t pass judgment on him and attempts to be comprehension of Ponyboy’s distinctive side. At the point when Ponyboy fled with Johnny to stow away at the congregation, he used to peruse to Johnny “Gone with the breeze”. Likewise, once while watching a dawn with Johnny, Ponyboy refered to a couple of lines from the sonnet ‘Nothing Gold can remain’ by Robert Frost. Johnny was astonished by the lines and Ponyboy discovered that Johnny had an alternate side as well. He could get writing and was energetic about the magnificence of nature as was Ponyboy. This urged him to open up and uncover himself to Johnny. 

All through the story Ponyboy turns out to be more capable, experienced and understanding. He adapts too take a gander at the full picture and not take things just according to his perspective. At the point when Dallas went to visit Ponyboy and Johnny in the congregation, his siblings send him a note revealing to him the amount they miss him and that they need him back home. It is then when Ponyboy understands that Darry’s severity emerges from adoration. He figures out how to comprehend that Darry loves him and that he fears that through any missteps or trouble making Ponyboy is may detracted from him and placed into young men home. Ponyboy adapts likewise not to be uneven and not to pass judgment on individuals by what bunch they have a place with. At the point when Ponyboy returns to town, he gets in a discussion with Randy. Randy discloses to him that he thinks his activities are bold and brave and that he wouldn’t have saved the youngsters in the copying church. Ponyboy likewise becomes more acquainted with from Randy that he laments over Bob’s demise and that he laments what occurred, and that he is burnt out on the on-going struggle among socs and greasers. For the clench hand time Ponyboy views at Randy as a typical fellow and not as a soc. Ponyboy understands that socs are not recently complex and materialistic individuals, they also have issues in their lives that appear to be practically great. At the point when Sherri affirmed in the preliminaries saying that Bob was the one searching for a battle with Ponyboy and Johnny, and chose function as a covert agent for the greasers achieving them data the soc’s arrangements for the thunder, Ponyboy comes to comprehend that not all socs are something similar, not all socs are intended for treachery. Ponyboy likewise acknowledges, with the assistance of Johnny, that he has different alternatives than the remainder of the greasers. Johnny left Ponyboy a note, wherein he advised him to “stay gold”, like in Robert Frost’s sonnet. Johnny needed Ponyboy to understand that there is something else to life besides the contention between the greasers and the socs. By advising Ponyboy to “stay gold”, Johnny needed Ponyboy to remain honest and unadulterated, and not let the issues with the socs make him extreme, forceful, and indiscreet like the vast majority of the greasers. This caused Ponyboy to acknowledge himself and the way that he is not quite the same as others.

Indifferent Nature Theme in “To Build a Fire” Essay

The short story “To Build a Fire” is about a newcomer man who attempts to do a nine hour walk across the Yukon wilderness in brutally cold weather of temperatures dropping to 75 degrees below zero to meet his friends at a mining camp on Henderson Creek. Unfortunately, the man did not know the tragic journey he was in for. Despite the freezing cold, the man is not worried or concerned of the fatal events that could happen. The first mistake out of many the man makes is how he lacks the imagination to realize how unforgiving nature can be when it is not respected.

The man knows how cold the weather is but he ignores it and thinks nothing of the serious signs of his face and fingers being numb until later in the story. Besides the lack of respect the man has for nature he as well makes yet another mistake by failing to not pay attention to the behavior of the only company he has, a dog. The dog has a frightened instinct about the cold and can sense that the ruthless weather is going lead to something awful. The behavior that the dog was showing should have helped shown the man what danger he was in with this weather but the man ignores it and instead underestimates these deadly situations he will soon be facing. Ignoring the instincts of a wild animal is a foolish thing to do as animals are always in a fight to survive in the wild and they are constantly relying on their instincts to help keep them alive.

The most serious mistake the man could have made out of everything was letting his pride get in the way of not listening to the old timer at Sulfur Creek who told him not to travel alone in such severe cold weather. If the man were to have traveled with a companion he would have gotten the extra help that he needed. The companion could have possibly noticed the fragile area of ice and could have prevented the man from falling in the water, which lead the man to be wet to his waist, and the companion could have compensated for the man’s lack of common sense for him to not light a fire underneath a snowy branch. Out of all the mistakes the man had made the worst was him being overly confident in thinking he could do this trip all alone without any help and ignoring all the warning signs that was given to him was the biggest mistake he could have made as it ultimately led him to his death and making nature win in the end.

The Existential Theme in Jack London’s “To Build a Fire” Essay

“In Jack London’s “To Build a Fire” the setting plays a major role in how the story is told. London uses precise methods to show the us the readers the tone and depth of the story. London starts the story off with describing the setting to us in fine detail. He prepares us for a dark depressed and fear-invoking experience. The main character starts off in a isolated environment of frigid weather and completely unaware of his surroundings. He was a newcomer to the land, he only known the world he created for himself. None of us ever been exposed to such degrees of chilling weather. So he really didn’t know what to expect especially from the unforeknown tundra that awaited him.

London’s vivid imagination of the mans adventure was the determining factor of the mans survival paints an amazing picture. No matter where the man and dog went there was almost a immediate danger lurking around the corner. Which created a expectation for a disaster for every action the man made. Sir Jack London expressed the use of death and dying to show us the man’s lack of warmth and terrible luck long his trip back home to his boys. He uses the word dying to show the mans decreasing ability to stay warm in dangerous climate of Alaska. The man’s problem slowly gets worse one level at time till he finally dies in tundra. He makes sure we can picture the gloominess by repeating “ the day had broken cold and grey, supremely cold and grey”. London says theses line over and over to stress the impact on the setting to the man and his dog.

The neutral colors of his surroundings causes the man and dog to constantly fight depression. Do to the lack of imagination he only had his practical knowledge on this new area. His ignorance puts him at a disadvantage to adjust to frigid weather and constant stress that surrounds him. The man really never wanted to deal with the reality of things especially if it was unpleasant. But the extreme cold and the sunless sky had no effect on him. While he continued his journey down the trail. He was able to withstand the heinous temperature and climate, but he could face his biggest challenge within him. Which was ultimately what would he do if the inevitable was to happen.. The man couldn’t handle coming complete understanding that his relaxed attitude to everything could be his possible downfall. His fear made him more selfish focused on only the actions and thoughts that are pleasurable to him.

To Build a Fire by Jack London: Theme and Analysis Essay

Jack London which was born January 12, 1876 with the name John Griffith London. He was a novelist, journalist, and social activist. Jack was a pioneer in the world of commercial magazine fiction. He was one of the first writers to become a worldwide celebrity. Jack made a lot of fortune from writing. He had a love for writing since a kid, every day Jack would write 1000 words just because. Jack would just sit in his room all day and write great stories.

Jack London was great at writing short stories. Many of his stories were well known in the world. Three well known short stories are The Heathen, The Law of Life, and To Build a Fire. These are just a few famous short stories that Jack had written. Even though he had a hard life growing up he still managed to write every day. Jack London is one of the best writers to live on this planet. In this paper I will be talking about Jack London short stories and

To Build a Fire is one of Jack London best stories he wrote two versions of this story one published in 1902 in the other in 1908. I’m going to talk about the 1908 story. This story is about a man that was in the cold and how he tried to survive while looking for somewhere. On his way there he meets a dog hat knows how dangerous it is to go where he going many times the do tries to get him to turn around even build a fire. He doesn’t listen to the dog and ends up dying. This story main idea is that he was prepared for what he was trying to do which cause him to die. This could go for a life lesson for anyone if you don’t prepare yourself you are going to fail.

The law of Life takes place in Alaska the same as To Build a Fire. But this story is about a tribe and the main character is Koskoosh the leader of the tribe. He is soon to die and the whole tribe is prepared to leave him to die. They set a fire next to his body and the tribe left after saying goodbye to him. While he is next to the fire he start to think back when he was young and all the fun things he did. He remembers a moose event and how he tried to fight of wolves but sadly lost. As Koskoosh lays down dying slowly he see wolves come to him and wonder if he should fight but then again remember the moose and choose not to fight back. This story is mainly about death and how it slowly creeps up on you and when it does you shouldn’t fight because you are going to lose.

The Heathen was a story about two people Otoo and Charlie. Otoo is the main character this story is about a black men and white men. The story start with them being on a ship and it wrecks. They will have to learn to like each other and work together if they want to live. This story mainly is about team work and how it’s not wrong to need help. This story opened many people minds. During the time of this story blacks and whites didn’t get along so this was a story that blew people away.

To build a fire is about a man in Alaska that is trying to make it through a storm but ends up dying. In this short story he uses a lot of imagery. When Jack wrote this story he wanted to put a big image in your head with a very cold Icey place and a cold man walking with a dog. To help him paint this picture in your head he also uses metaphors and similes. He says things like “for the absence of sensation in his feet left him unrelated to the earth” to put an image in your head to show how cold the man in the story was. He writes this story in a way where you don’t know what’s going to happen next and keep you on your toes. Jack also didn’t end the story with a happy ending either, he ends the story with the main character dying in the storm. He wrote this story as a lesson learner. The man in the story wasn’t fully prepared for what he was trying to do and for that reason it cost him his life.

Jack lived in a foster home for some of his life. Jack mom tried to kill herself while being pregnant with him. Jack father wasn’t in the picture which put him in foster home. He mainly just wrote while he in his room his foster mom was once a salve. She treated him well while he was there. “Virginia “Jenny” Prentiss was a key to Jack emotional support during his formative years” (). Although his mother Flora Wellman had her problems she took care of Jack as much as she could. Flora was from a rich Ohio family growing up she didn’t have to worry for much. She was well educated and determined to take care of her very talented son. Jack father William Chaney wasn’t in his son life into adulthood. Growing up Jack seen his stepfather as the father figure his stepfather was John London.

Jack was really very social he didn’t have many friends just mainly because of the fact he didn’t go to high school. The fact that his family was kind of weird. which made him the left out kid when he was in school. He just shows you don’t need friends to be great. He still managed to also get married twice.

Jack like to use imagery a lot in stories he wants to paint a pic in your head of what’s going on. He use this the most when he talking about a person or place. He also uses naturalism he likes to bring nature in his stories as well they play a big part in what he writes about. Jack use foreshadow as well in all his stories something that happens in the very start of the story plays a big part at the end.

Jack is one the best writers to walk this planet. He had a hard life and still made it to the top. Jack is a role model for many writers. He was one of the first big time writers. Without him story writing wouldn’t be how it is today. His stories will always be remembered.

Work cited:

YouTube,, google,

“Jack London: Biography.” Header, free, Audiobooks Youtube. “To Build a Fire by Jack London | Audiobooks Youtube Free | Short Stories Youtube.” YouTube, YouTube, 7 May 2018, Jack London.” NPR, NPR,

Very Common Theme Essay

Satire is a literary device that uses comedy, sarcasm, and irony to get a point across. Jonathan Swift uses satire in his piece, A Modest Proposal where he employs the idea of selling and eating Irish babies to end poverty. Swifts work is actually titled as A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People of Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public and is commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal.

However, simply by looking at the title, it would never be guessed of the satirically awful solutions he was proposing. Today, there are many modern modest proposals to get other issues recognized. One such proposal is Jonathan Safran Foers Let Them Eat Dog in which the issue of the euthanization of cats and dogs is being brought to attention as well as the concept of food as being socially constructed.

In comparing these two texts there is a very common theme: the consumption of what would be considered taboo. Although it is may be quite certain that both Swift and Foer do not actually think that society should eat babies and dogs, they do propose good reasons as to why they should. Although his main points are to poverty, Swift talks about other issues such as abortion. He stated that there were other good reasons for eating babies like that it will prevent those voluntary abortions and that horrid practice of women murdering their bastard children (Swift 6).

As for Swifts impressions on poverty, he gives many issues that are initiated by poverty that could be prevented if they eat the young. These include but are not limited to that vast number of poor people who are aged, diseased, or maimed .every day dying and rotting by cold and famine, and filth and vermin (Swift 9). The same goes for Foer and his reasons for eating mans best friend.

A main reason for Foers insistence on the consumption of dogs has to do with the fact that both dogs and cats are being killed. He gives the statistics that Three to four million dogs and cats are euthanized annually and that to get rid of their bodies is a big issue on both the economy and ecology of Earth (Foer). So, in order to end both the death of these cats and dogs and to help the economy and ecology of the world, he proposes eating dogs. Another issue that is equally as important is the fact that factory-farmed meat is the No.1 cause of global warming, it systematically forces tens of billions of animals to suffer in ways that would be illegal if they were dogs, it is a decisive factor in the development of swine and avian flus, and so on. (Foer)

Just like Swift, Foer is using something considered as taboo to get rid of an even bigger issue. They both use their taboos as preventive methods. For Swift, he used the consumption of babies as a way for poor people to get themselves out of poverty. His ideas involved selling pieces of them to the rich for money, and without the babies the poor would have less mouths to feed and bodies to take care of for multiple years (Swift 10). Foer used the dogs as a way to save the economy and ecology of Mother Earth, feeding a world of billions of omnivores who demand meat with their potatoes and stop the issues that factory farming meat causes (Foer).

Another main point of Jonathan Foers article is that the concept of food and what should be eaten is socially constructed. He brings up the fact that although dogs are considered quite exceptional Pigs are every bit as intelligent and feeling so why are they in such high demand to be eaten (Foer)? To assist in understanding the social construction of food, Foer gives the famous line from George Orwells Animal Farm: All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others. Another way to comprehend social construction is to look at a place where a lot of humanity get their morals: the Bible. In the context of food practices, the Seventh-Day Adventist Christian diet is a good one to look at. They take their beliefs on what to eat directly from the book of Leviticus.

It says there that [They] may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews cud (The Holy Bible, Lev. 11.3). Seventh-Day Adventists also have a core belief that their bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit (The Holy Bible 1 Cor. 6.19). The concept that their body is not wholly their own but one of Gods allows them to be careful in what they put in their bodies. Although, this is a main reason that a lot of Seventh-Day Adventists became vegetarians, even though it never says in the Bible or in their belief systems that they cannot eat meat. The Bible actually gives examples of what animals can be eaten:

There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you . (The Holy Bible, Lev. 11.4)
And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew cud; it is unclean for you. (The Holy Bible, Lev. 11.7)
Seeing that there is a vast majority of animals who do not have both a divided hoof and chew cud, its no wonder why so many Adventists became vegetarian. However, due to this form of religion, there is a group who has a belief system on what they eat. Their form of eating was socially constructed due to their religion.

In conclusion, both Swift and Foer use satire effectively to bring attention to their respective issues. Both of them also have many similarities in the way they use their satire. The two of them use the devouring of things considered taboo to prevent and stop their particular problems: children and mans best friend. They both also include exact ways to cook these taboo items to the chagrin of the audience. However, as much as there are similarities between the two writer, there is also a difference. In Foers argument, he additionally gets the idea across that food is socially constructed, just like many things in todays society. 

Theme of Death in Hamlet Essay

Shakespeare’s Hamlet– solemn tones of questioning existence and a romance within a tragedy– a solemn man’s story, mixed with a fiery ambition for revenge, with a trail of blood leading to it. In Scene III, pages 56-88, Hamlet performs his famous soliloquy, “To be or not to be, that is the question..,” Hamlet’s soliloquy is full of deep thoughts of existential crisis, and the indecisiveness of Hamlet with his life decisions.

The tone of Hamlet’s first soliloquy starts as sorrowful and depressing, but later on turns bitter and hateful due to his mother’s relationship with his uncle. Shakespeare’s use of words such as flat, stale, and weary contributes to the tone of sorrowful thinking. The long, drawn out sentences also create a tone of distress and panic, as if he is rambling. These factors can be concluded to a troubled mind, battling with the decision of death. Hamlet during his soliloquy bounces between being satisfied with answers, and then questioning his conclusions again, in a never ending cycle. This nervous indecisiveness matches with Hamlet’s characteristics of not being able to act upon his thoughts.

Hamlet proposes the question, “To be, or not to be: that is the question: / Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind to suffer / The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune / Or to take arms against a sea of troubles” (III.i.59-61) clearly showing his troubling thoughts of death. The imagery of a “sea of troubles” really portrays that Hamlet’s mind is like a ship lost at sea, beaten and weary with every oncoming wave of emotion. Hamlet asks such a question in a logical way, but he is still left without an answer of whether the “slings and arrows of outrageous fortune” can be proven since life after death is a mystery. Hamlet then ponders about the nature of his death and proposes that it may be like a deep slumber, which at first seems to be a redeemable answer, until he speculates on what will come in such a deep sleep, “To sleep: perchance to dream:—ay there’s the rub; / For in that sleep of death what dreams may come” (III.i.68-69). The “dream” that he fears is the agony that the afterlife might bring. Since there is no way to prove that there will be a weight lifted from his shoulders from his sufferings through death, he ponders about the possibility of death again.

Hamlet ponders about the sufferings men are prone to in their life, which makes it seem as though he is contemplating suicide yet again.”Whether ’tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them” (3, 1, 56-60). In this quotation, Hamlet questions his validity and if he should live and suffer the hardships, or kill himself in order to end the suffering. Again, the imagery of a “sea of troubles” is portrayed, but in this circumstance Hamlet questions if he should fight against the current of emotions and life troubles. Alas, Hamlet believes that life is so closely connected with suffering, therefore fighting against the “sea of troubles” seems to be a lost cause. The “whips and scorn of time, Th’oppressor’s wrong, the proud man’s contumely, The pangs of disprized love, the law’s delay, The insolence of office, and the spurns That patient merit of th’unworthy takes” (3, 1, 70-74) are the only thing he sees in life, he does not get the satisfaction from living through the good moments life gives.

By the end of this soliloquy, he realizes, “But that dread of something after death, / The undiscover’d country, from whose bourn / No traveler returns—puzzles the will / And makes us rather bear those ills we have” (III.i.81-84). Even though at this last moment Hamlet realizes that many choose life over death because of the mystery of an uncertain afterlife, the soliloquy remains as an example of Hamlet’s deep contemplation about the reasons for death and suicidal tendencies.

A Theme of Cell Phones in Modern World Essay

 Cell phones, as interesting as they may be, raise the question as to whether or not they should be allowed in school.  Many schools across the country are lifting bans on cell phone use during class hours.  Although there are two sides to the argument, the costs of allowing phones in school outweigh the benefits. Some examples of costs of cell phone use in school are as follows: they may be used to cheat, students can access and share dangerous or inappropriate information, and they are disruptive.

The first problem with cell phones is that it is simple to cheat and hard to detect.  The Benson Strategy said that in 2009, 35% of students used their phones to cheat on tests.  This advantage is simply unfair to the students who do not cheat.  Additionally, another study supports this claim.  This study was  done by The USN.  The study asked students if they had stored information for tests on their phones.  The study revealed that 33% of students did cheat by storing information for tests on their cell phones.  Additionally, students cheated on their homework or test by texting their classmates.  Although there is really no good solution to using cell phones to cheat outside the classroom, it just shows the extent of students’ laziness.  These studies show how devices make it very easy to cheat.

Using a cell phone is a continuous thing we do in our everyday life..  From searching the web or shopping to texting or watching videos, there is always a reason to be on your phone.  However, access to the internet and texting can be harmful to students.  Pew Internet conducted a study that showed 65% of students search the web during class time.  Also, searches on the web can be dangerous and inappropriate for younger students.  The following piece of evidence goes along with the first one.  The University of Michigan found that 71% of students have received texts in class.  Students can use texts to share inappropriate information or cyber bully their classmates.  Therefore, the dangers of internet access through cell phones does not belong in schools.

As phones become progressively more popular, they also become more distracting.  Media Education conducted a survey of 675 students which says that students check their phones  at least eleven times a day.  The results of this survey become very problematic for students if they are not paying attention in class.  Use of cell phones during class time may cause students to not listen to the lesson, which may result in bad grades.  Not paying attention is especially problematic in older students, where grades matter much more for college acceptance.  The following study’s results falls right in line with the earlier one.  According to Pew Central, 88% of kids from thirteen to eighteen have access to a phone.  This means a majority of students own a phone, which they will most likely bring to school.  The many distractions of having a digital device in school are numerous, which does not create a good work environment. 

An emergency is one situation where cell phones may be useful in class.  School shootings are becoming a more common occurrence in today’s society.  According to Youth Beast, one in ten kids from the ages of six to ten have cell phones in school for emergencies.  The students could use these cell phone to tell the police or their parents if there is an emergency.  Additionally, one high school has shown another way cell phones can help prepare for an emergency.  Chardon High School is teaching their students the code word ALICE.  It means alert, lockdown, inform, and evacuate.  Cell phones assist everyone in this process by texting the students to evacuate.  However, even though cell phones help during emergencies, they are not useful in school for many other things.

Although cell phones are very popular, they have no place in school.  They are very distracting to other students.  Students like to cheat on test and homework with them.  Lastly, phones are connected to the web, which can be very harmful.  Phones should not be allowed in school, because there are fewer pros than cons.

Masque of the Red Death and its Main Theme Essay


Edgar Allen Poe delivers his theme that no one escapes death in his short story “Masque of the Red Death” through symbolism, setting, and narration. The short story was set in the 14th century when the Red death has begun to devastate the cities of Europe. The Red Death swept throughout all of Europe, including the land where Prince Prospero ruled. In an attempt to hide from the misery that lurked just outside their gates, the prince picked out a group of friends that would live with him in the seclusion of his castle. For five or six months, the prince’s friends resided in the castle. They distracted themselves with extravagant masquerade parties where they were required to wear masks of eerie nature. However, at the top of every hour, the clock would ring and make a thunderous sound that would silence everything in ears reach. But as soon as the sound finished, the guest would revert back to the party and their joy. Then, an unexpected guest arrives; he went on unnoticed at first, but then his ghoulish mask and demeanor were noticed and feared throughout the ballroom. After noticing the guest, Prospero chased him down the corridors into a black and red  room where he met the mysterious character??”and his demise. Throughout this story, Poe establishes the theme that no one can escape death, through his gradual introduction of symbolism within the room colors, the grandfather clock, and the masquerade ball.


Through the course of the story, Masque of the Red Death, Poe displays different symbols to act as a warning to all in Prospero’s castle that they can never escape death. The masquerade ball can be seen as a distraction for the residents in the story from the dread of the Red Death. Poe uses the masquerade ball to show how Prince Prospero and his guests are under the illusion that they can escape the Red Death. The grandfather clock is one of the symbols that interrupts their illusion, simply for a moment, to remind them of their realities. Everyone is forced to acknowledge the panging of the clock in spite of his or her own will: there strikes the ebony clock… all is still, and all is silent save the voice of the clock. The dreams are stiff-frozen as they stand(Poe). The guests at Prince Prospero’s castle have been convinced that the prince has saved them from the horrors of the outside world, that the prince is able to hide them all from death. But the clock forces them to remember that he can’t save them. Their time is ticking away just like everyone else.

Poe also utilizes the room locations in Prospero’s palace to remind the guests of their own transient condition.  The easternmost room had blue stained windows and corresponding decorations. The rooms continued to mirror this pattern with purple, green, orange, white, and violet. It was only the last room furthest west that was distinct with black decorations and red stained windows. The locations symbolize one’s journey through life, resembling that of the sun’s journey. Rising, being born, in the east and setting, dying, in the west. In the corridor, there was no form of lighting other than natural light from the sun that would illuminate the stained glass in each room and make odd figures appear. However, no one would dare go near the westernmost room for the light created a figure so intense and terrible. No one was ready to confront death.  Poe writes the red and black room as a  symbol of death, and the illuminated figures as a symbol of how Death’s reach can come anywhere and to anyone.


Being set in 14th century Europe during the bubonic plague, Poe augments his theme by capturing the sheer magnitude and terror of the plague. The bubonic plague, otherwise known as the Red Death, was an illness that spread through rats on trade ships coming in from the East. This disease was highly contagious and it spread throughout the cities like wildfire. The disease was so infectious that it wiped out almost ?…“ of Europe’s population at the time. People were so terrified of dying that shop owners closed down, priests rejected the infected wanting last rites, and doctors refused to see people( The Red Death induced a number of symptoms on its victims including aches, pains, swellings that leaked blood and pus, fevers and then, ultimately, death. Poe describes the plague as ha[ving] long devastated the country. No pestilence had ever been so fatal, or so hideous. Blood was its Avatar and its seal(Poe). By utilizing this setting Poe is, therefore, able to capture the population’s fear and their longing to escape from the death that is engulfing Europe. This fear guides the residents to find comfort in the walls of Prince Prospero’s castle because they act as a barrier, a false sense of security, from the Red Death. But the walls of the castle cannot stop the death that comes for Prospero and his guests. Poe places them in the castle simply so the Red Death can infiltrate the walls, and their illusion, to display his theme.


Poe ends the short story with the bubonic plague killing everyone hiding in Prince Prospero’s castle. Consequently, the reader can assume that the story is told by Death himself. By making Death the narrator of the story, Poe conveys that Death is more powerful than any other man. When Prince Prospero invites everyone into his castle, he thinks of himself as an all-powerful god who cannot fall to a mere sickness. He has his guests wear non-human figures on their masks to disassociate themselves from their own morality. But living in their own illusion of immortality could not stop Death: [The Red Death] had come like a thief in the night[a]nd Darkness and Decay and the Red Death held illimitable dominion over all(Poe). Prince Prospero, despite all his efforts, was helpless against his fate; Death is the last one standing. By making Death the narrator, Poe is able to make it appear as if Death was there all along, watching and waiting for the right time to seize the castle residents. Death was the one in control the entire time, who would come for everyone, no matter who they are. Even though Prospero thought he was escaping Death, in reality, he wasn’t. He ignorantly thought that he could hide from Death but all he managed to do was distract himself with frivolous things leaving him ultimately unprepared for his eternal rest.


The Masque of the Red Death is a tale of horror, distraction,  and futile attempts to escape death. Poe uses multiple elements to convey that no one can escape death. He begins by using the setting of Europe during the bubonic plague to enhance the feeling of fear. By enhancing the fear in the story Poe is able to display one’s natural desire to seek refuge from sickness and death; then, he allows death to take them despite their instinct to hide. Poe also uses several symbolic references, such as the grandfather clock and the shadow figures, to act as a constant reminder that though they may try, one cannot hide from death. The grandfather clock was able to break through their fallacies and force them to recall their inevitable situation; while the shadow figures served as an indication of death’s tremendous reach that no one can escape. All the symbols Poe utilizes reminds as well as warns the guest of the death they were unable  to elude. Finally, Poe uses the narration itself as tool to display what everyone must face in the end. As the story concludes the Red Death gains control of everyone inside of Prospero’s castle leaving everyone else dead. By doing this it emphasizes that in the end death will conquer us all despite wealth or status. The use of several literary elements throughout the story acts as continuous support for the theme: no one can escape death. Poe’s Masque of the Red Death is a frightening story set in the 14th century that makes the audience recognize their own mortality and establishes that in the end Death will come for anyone and everyone.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream Theme Essay

A Midsummer Night’s Dream is one of the William Shakespeare’s comedy plays which is so profound in literally elements. The Duke of Athenian and Hippolyta, the four Athenian lovers and the actions surrounding these characters are the major components of the play. These comprise of the events of young lovers from Athens as well as a group of six inexperienced performers who are influenced and directed by the fairies who dwell the woodland where a substantial part of the play’s setting takes place. One of the literary works that are prominent in the William Shakespeare play. Themes are quite essential and, in most cases, universal ideas reconnoitered in literary works such as narratives, songs, and poems. In this play, the themes are fundamental to the plot and structure development where Shakespeare is able to bring out relevant issues through them. It is therefore quite imperative to explore the important themes and how the characters facilitate the founding of themes.

One of the most widespread themes in the play is love. Time causes individuals to change their view concerning the people they perceived as attractive. At one stage in the play, the story of the four Athenian young lovers proclaim that even though “”the course of true love never did run smooth”” (Shakespeare Edited by Bevington I.I.134), portraying that true love is triumphant in the end, conveying happiness as well as harmony. On the other hand, at another stage, the audience may be compelled to make a consideration what a seemingly unreasonable and fanciful thing love is, at best when experienced amongst young people.

The other important theme in the play is the theme of magic. The magic from the fairies that present majority of the weirdest, as well as hilarious occasions in the plot, is another component key to the whimsical atmosphere of the play. Shakespeare makes use of magic both to exemplify the nearly unnatural strength of love (with love potion as the embodiment) in addition to establishing a strange world. Even though the abuse of magic results to muddily affairs, as when Puck erroneously smears the love potion to the eyelids of Lysander, magic, in the end, gives solution to the tensions in the through reestablishing love to equilibrium between the four Athenian youths.

The relationship between Hernia and Lysander plays an important role in developing the theme of love in the play. In the beginning, Demetrius tries to woo Hernia, but she refuses to marry him. Theseus is informed by Egeus that Hermia declines on entering into marriage with Demetrius, desiring in its place to get married to Lysander. He requests for the appropriate time to give Hermia a death punishment if she does not obey. Theseus holds to the traditional requirement and instructs that Hermia’s sole duty is to give in to her father’s will, and issues her with threats to abjure forever the society of men or to can become a nun You can endure the livery of a nun (Shakespeare Edited by Bevington I.I.70). So it is ordered, get married to the person her father desires. Lysander disapproves, but the law overrules the decision. Lysander and Hermia then resolve to run by night into the forest adjacent to Athens, where they are in a position to evade the law and then get married. They inform Helena concerning their plan. Helena, on the other hand, is deeply in love with Demetrius. In hopes of gaining favor with Demetrius, Helena tells him of the plan.

HERMINA. I will go tell him of fair Hermia’s flight.

Then to the wood will he tomorrow night

Pursue her. And for this intelligence

If I have thanks, it is a dear expense.

But herein mean I to enrich my pain,

To have his sight thither and back again. (Shakespeare Edited by Bevington I.I.246-51)

Lysander then falls in love with Helena. Issues of charm play a role in the separation of Hernia and Lysander, but they still end up together.

The Theme of Feminism Essay


Theme is the main subject or agenda passed on by author to the readers or audience. In this book I intent to explore how the theme of feminism is brought out the readers and also how the characters portrays this them. The story revolves around Akoko. The buck stops with women in the fight against oppressive testosterone. It is upon women to tap into their innermost strength to transform the world it what they imagined. Akoko, being on the losing end in a male dominated family fought her way to earn her father’s love. She had to put her feet on the ground to make the world recognize her. Aloo, the family spokesman said that Akoko’s hard work had been incorporated into a saying that women sending their children on errands would mention her. She did not show any female shyness when she was introduced to her husband to be. With her head held high, Akoko stirred into Owuor Kembo a feeling that had not earned vocabulary among the Luo love.

Akoko did not forbid the chief to marry only one wife. She was satisfied with him marrying as many wives as he can depending on his ability. It was the chief’s decision, to do has per his will and remain faithful to his wife .We are not told of any arm-twisting but sure as the sun rises in the east, Akoko build Chief Owuor Kembo to stand in her defence and love her unconditionally. I don’t want to give out details on how managed it, and I don’t intent to sound melodramatic about it. One thing that is for certain is, women have the power to change oppressive traditions to accommodate them. Otieno Kembo treated his wives like sluts. He thought he would do the same to Akoko, short as she was; she had the height in confidence. She stood him down on various occasions. She earned his fear and she cherished it. The difference between Akoko and Otieno’s wives are, she was daring where the wives were submissive, she was confident where they were shy and she was loving where they were just doing their duty to their husband.

Many women in oppressive regimes choose to me dutiful. To ask little, oppose little and take in as much as they can. (Read Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Sun’s). In most occasions, women wait until it is too late to do too little. Akoko stood before the DO and DC to demand for the birthright of her grandson. She did not have to use men to right a wrong; she did what any mother would do in the face of uncollapsible wall. She forwarded the case before the white man herself, defiant like Mekatilili before the British who were conscripting young Giriama men into a war they knew little about. She knew her days in Sakwa were over, she therefore packed, having won the war, and went away. Let me shift gears and burrow into other characters that bore a mark on feminism in the book. First on the list is Vera. Vera as a young lady broached a question which by standards of the time would have brought the earth to a standstill.

Even in some societies today, such acts are despicable. She asked her father for permission to go out on a date with Tony Muhambe. This was an atrocity that could lodge a fishbone in any father. Her mother of course intervened in the matter but this act alone marked Vera as a woman daring to stand against forces that had defined her community. She turned down Tony’s proposal for marriage! Who does that? She therefore decided to live unmarried life! This alone would have earned her father shame that would have landed him hanging on a tree in a banana plantation shame written over his face. A girl’s destiny was determined by her father. Vera did the despicable and her dad was okay with it. Wandia Mugo the wife of Aoro sigu is a significant woman too. She did ask Aoro to marry her! Further on in the book, she becomes the first Kenyan woman to earn a doctorate in Medicine. Men should shallow a hard pill on this! A woman! A doctor! A doctor Woman!


Entirely, the trendsetters in this book are ladies who stand out to struggle and live their own life and do away with regimes that are oppressive and fail to recognize woman. Woman in this book have proved that they can still perform tasks that man can do. The sense of equality is created by the characters in the play. It is unfortunate that more communities culture does not support this idea of equality between woman and men. This theme of feminism is argued out briefly as per the context.

The Theme of Discrimination in the Crucible Essay

Persecution is considered to be an inhumane act of torturing and killing people. Persecution is most commonly committed on the basis of religion, sexual orientation, gender, race, and different belief systems. Discrimination is commonly shown on a basis of fear of change or someone being different in some way. Reputations are often tarnished upon opinions of others.

The Theme of persecution is represented in the film The Crucible because the women are accused of witchcraft. Many of the women in Salem were accused with little to no evidence supporting the accusations. As said in The Crucible, We cannot look to superstition in this. The Devil is precise; the marks of his presence are definite as stone, and I must tell you all that I shall not proceed unless you are prepared to believe me if I should find no bruise of Hell upon her. (Hale, Act 1) The main persecution in The Crucible was of Elizabeth, a young woman who is accused of witchcraft and brutally punished. During the Salem witch trials many people were hung after being convicted of being a witch without any evidence to incriminate them. In this movie if a finger was pointed at another and blamed as being a witch Deputy Danforth would then look for evidence to incriminate them. Many times throughout the movie friends and enemies incriminate each other by falsely accusing others by assuming they practice witchcraft. In the movie Abigail accused her enemies, friends, and family. But God made my face; you cannot want to tear my face. Envy is a deadly sin, Mary (Abigail, Act 3, p. 106) Abigail is envious of Elizabeth because she is John Proctorr’s wife. Abigail is shown for what she really is and uses her power to send Elizabeth Proctor to jail. But Proctor later becomes a voice of reason and common sense when stating Why do you never wonder if Parris be innocent, or Abigail? Is the accuser always holy now? Were they born this morning as clean as Godr’s fingers? Ill tell you whatr’s walking Salem – vengeance is walking Salem. We are what we always were in Salem, but now the little crazy children are jangling the keys of the kingdom, and common vengeance writes the law! (Proctor, Act 2, p. 73), Proctor understands that accusations are most times are as truthful as the accuser. Proctor knows many accusations are being thrown out by vengeance.

It is shown that anyone in the community can turn against those of their own very quickly after perceiving someone to being different in some way. People were accusing one another of being a witch or practicing witchcraft without any proof or evidence and knowing the consequence the person being accused is going to face. The people accusing are not looking at their own behaviors. No man may longer doubt the powers of the dark are gathered in monstrous attack up on this village. There is too much evidence to deny it (Hale, Act 2). I believe this quote means the community is under attack in a way but not how Hale thinks it is. Salem is surrounded with fear, suspicion, and lies. Proctor: A fire, a fire is burning! I hear the boot of Lucifer, I see his filthy face! And it is my face, and yours, Danforth! For them that quail to bring men out of ignorance, as I have quailed, and as you quail now when you know in all your black hearts that this be fraud God damns our kind especially, and we will burn, we will burn together! (Proctor, Act 3)

The Crucible applies to 21st century America because the whole country is obsessed of what other people around them are doing. By turning on the Tv or opening social media we are able to keep up on everyone’s daily lives. Many times when seeing a person one will judge them by looks, sex, religion, or how much power or money they have. There are many horrifying stories of brutal acts being committed such as shootings and beatings being done out of hate for one another. Fear is all across America just like in Salem being scared of what the future is going to be. Being scared of change and accepting others for who they are. People of all kinds have a belief system of moral goodness but their actions do not match just like in Salem. The Crucible also applies to 21st century America because makes the audience find a piece of themselves whether it be personal despair, failings, blaming, being envious of another, or overall judgment. The Crucible is just as important to all people in the 21st century as Salem in 1692. America has an over abundance of discrimination and in the crucible almost all the witches are judged on reputation in which all people in American have a reputation to uphold. The play shows how power is corrupt just as it is in America and often times leads to unfair and brutal events events for people to get their way.

In America and Salem many people are faced with discrimination leading to persecution. Persecution is an inhumane act of torturing and killing people commonly committed on the basis of religion, sexual orientation, gender, race, and different belief systems.

Theme of Christmas in “A Christmas Carol” Essay

When Christmas is near, everyone loves to listen to Christmas music, including the traditional carols. You usually hear it everywhere you go, but where did it originate from? Carols were first sung in Europe, but they were not quite like the ones we hear today. They weren’t even Christmas carols, they were pagan songs. For the Winter Solstice, Pagan songs were sung. People danced around stone circles to celebrate. Later on, Christians took over the pagan songs and changed them to be sung for Christmas as Christian songs. The Christian songs were sung in latin, which made it hard for people to understand and led to everyone not celebrating Christmas by the Middle Ages.

During the Medieval times, the Christmas music was deep and spiritual and about Christ and the Virgin Mary. They were very solemn and religious compositions. It wasn’t as much of the holiday joy and celebration as we know today. Only the rich could enjoy the musical art holiday carols in the 1400s and 1500s. When the 1600s came, a lot of the Christmas carols were banned. They thought of it as inappropriate towards the church. A lot of the classic carols from that time have now been forgotten.

Later on in 1223, a man named St. Francis started Nativity Plays in Italy. Some of the carols were in Latin but most were in a language all could understand and actually enjoy. These new carols spread throughout European countries. An early carol that doesn’t really exist anymore was written in 1410. That carol was about Mary and Jesus meeting others in Bethlehem. A lot of these carols were not true and were used for entertainment. Then travelers sang these songs in public and would change the words for the people wherever they went.

Christmas carols and the celebration were soon put to a stop again when Oliver Cromwell and puritans took power of England. Luckily, people sang in private and the songs survived until victorian times when they could sing them again in public. Two men had collected Christmas music from villages of England and brought back the carols. However, before it was popular to sing in public, waits were who sang on Christmas Eve. They were a local band and were called waits because they had only sang on Christmas Eve and everyone had to wait to hear it. Celebrations of Christmas began once they sang. Also during this time, many people wanted to hear more Christmas music, so orchestras and choirs began to play in the cities of England. The victorian time was the rise for the popularity of carols.

In England and northern European countries, caroling wasn’t as much of a religious celebration. Caroling was a celebratory act of the singers drinking too much of their favorite holiday drink. Then in the 1900s, caroling was for charity and not just the treats and warm drinks they received. Now a lot of the carolers we hear today are from their local church or organization.

The most famous carol service is held at the King’s College in Cambridge, UK called The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols. It was created in 1880 by a bishop named Edward Benson. The first one was held in a temporary Cathedral on Christmas Eve. This soon began to spread in the UK after hearing the choir sing at the King’s College in Cambridge. One of the first performances was performed to celebrate the end of the first World War. The college dean had been in the army and thought of it as a positive way to celebrate Christmas and the end of the War.

One famous carol, I Saw Three Ships, is a traditional English folk song. The words were written by traveling minstrels in the Middle Ages. Throughout time the words have changed with different Bible characters being on the ships. Today, the song is mainly about Mary and Jesus traveling to Bethlehem. Another carol is Silent Night. The words were written in 1816 by a Priest in Austria. The music was later added in 1818 by a school teacher. It was performed for a Christmas service by the children of St.Nicholas Church. It was originally supposed to be accompanied by an organ, but the organ broke, so they had to accompany the song with a guitar at the service. The words were also originally German, but were later translated to English in 1863.

A tradition in Austria, Belgium, and Germany is that the children dress up as The Three Kings. They carry a star and a pole and go around singing religious songs and carols. They recieve gifts such as sweets and money, which goes to charity and their church. Two traditions of singing and visiting were first merged from Victorian England. Festivals were held for the Christmas celebration. We now to this day have our own traditions that we use every year. Everyone has their own, but the thing that has stuck the most, and most everyone loves is caroling, whether it be for school, a choir, or an organization. The songs have transformed from not being about Christmas, to being in different languages, and have traveled all over the world. They used to be hymns in Latin and are now holly jolly Christmas songs we love today. Many people don’t know the great significance and the creation of carols.

The Theme of Coming-of-age in to Kill a Mockingbird Essay

In To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee uses diction and symbolism to promote the theme that coming-of-age requires time for reflection to accept the painful truth. In chapter 11, Atticus delivers the news of Mrs. Dubose’s death to Jem to which he responds with the word “well.” Harper Lee uses “well” to imply Jem’s feeling towards Mrs. Dubose’s death. “Well” is a word with a neutral connotation: it does not have a negative nor a positive nuance to it. In this passage, Jem simply responds with “well” to indicate that he is not affected by the sad news. The purpose of the language is to indicate Jem’s dislike towards Mrs. Dubose to a point where he does not show concern even after he learns about her death. After hearing about Mrs. Dubose’s death, Jem continues to hold grudges towards her, indicating his level of maturity at the beginning of this passage.

After delivering the news, Atticus continues by explaining Mrs. Dubose’s morphine addiction and her goals of breaking from it before she dies. Harper Lee uses many question marks in the dialogue to illustrate Jem’s sudden curiosity. Jem’s sudden curiosity indicates that he is beginning to open his closed mind; therefore, Jem shows progress in terms of understanding. Atticus then gives Jem the candy box containing a camelia. Harper Lee describes the camelia with words such as “white,” “waxy,” and “perfect.” “White,” “waxy and “perfect” symbolizes purity; thus, the purpose of this language is to imply Mrs. Dubose’s sincere intentions towards Jem. This was Mrs. Dubose’s way of expressing her gratitude for Jem’s help when he read to her as a distraction. However, Jem does not realize her sincere intentions for he hysterically reacts to the present he receives. Lee’s words such as “popped,” “hell-devil,” “screamed,” and “flinging” creates a mood of anger and furiousness. The purpose of this language is to depict Jem’s reaction and imply his anger and hatred towards Mrs. Dubose. Jem’s anger indicates his unwillingness to accept and understand the truth; thus, making him immature.

After Atticus explains why he thinks Mrs. Dubose is the bravest person, Jem starts to finger the camelia he receives. Jem fingering the camelia represents his acceptance of the truth. Initially, he shows hatred with the present he receives and refuses to accept Atticus’s words of wisdom. His refusal to accept and understand the truth indicates his immaturity. However, at the end of the passage, Jem realizes what Atticus said was true. He accepts it despite it being difficult for him due to the fact that his past encounters with Mrs. Dubose were not pleasant. Being able to understand and accept truth does not occur at an instant, especially when the truth requires pride to be set aside. For Jem, it took him a few moments to fully understand Mrs. Dubose’s situation and why she had said all the harsh words. He went through various emotions such as anger to finally accept the truth. His realization of the truth led him to forgiveness and letting go of grudges; therefore, at the end of chapter 11, Jem’s level of maturity rose.

An Impact of Women’s Rights Theme Essay

Gender equality is defined as the giving of rights and or opportunities unaffected by the gender of an individual. The female gender has struggled through hardship for over a hundred years due to the lack of women’s rights. Unfair rights of the female gender have been noticed and individuals have taken action throughout history to resolve this issue. Females have taken notice throughout their journeys to encourage women rights worldwide. Individuals that have influenced a theme for these rights include Pocahontas, Margaret Brent, and Molly Pitcher (Mary Ludwig Hays). Pocahontas contributed to the power of the female gender. Margaret Brent influenced the start of gaining legal rights for women. Lastly, Molly Pitcher modeled different roles of a woman.The theme of women rights impacted America through gained power, law positions, and increased roles.

Lack of power is one thing women had throughout 1492 through 1789. Men were always held accountable for power in the community and even at home. Pocahontas was an individual who helped increase the respect given to women. She was the daughter of a powerful Chief Powhatan Leader. ( One event particularly that took place happened in 1607 right after settling in Jamestown. Pocahontas’ brother kidnapped John Smith, a colonist. Warriors prepared to kill him by smashing stones at his head. Before the stoning took place Pocahontas placed her head on top of his, protecting him. Her father exchanged agreements with Smith and this lead to him leaving the colony. ( From this the reader can see that Pocahontas stood up to what she believed in. She took control and fought for Smith, this led to the gaining of her power as a woman.

Women with lawful positions throughout this time period were rarely acknowledged. Females were not looked to for legal issues or property control. Margaret Brent was known as a notable woman figure in early history. She was the first woman in the North American colonies to appear in court. Margaret Brent’s parents struggled financially and after their deaths her and her siblings were on a financial decline. ( One event took place in 1645 changed Margaret’s status in the colony. There was an attack on the Catholic settlers in Maryland and the governor fled along with the colonies people. Years later the governor returned with soldiers to protect the land of the colony. He soon became ill and gave his will to Margaret. She was responsible for the paying of his debts and getting rid of his land. She was not the first female in America to gain rights or even vote, but she help with the colonies success and protection. (

The roles of women throughout history were set in stone. They would stay at home to take care of the children and keep up with the house or living space. Molly Pitcher on the other hand, was a woman who fought in the battle Monmouth in 1778. During war, women were assigned to water duty. They would carry water jugs to the soldiers while at battle. ( Molly Pitcher was assigned to this job while her husband was an artilleryman. In June 1778, she was carrying water for the men when seeing her husband wounded she deserted her water jugs and took her husbands position. This act of Molly Pitcher was heard around by the people. George Washington was informed upon this act and he praised her for her doings. Her role of water duties were gone and she was working side by side with her husband. ( From this the reader can see how this one act of leadership from a female changed the perspective of many. After this event women were given a variety of different jobs during wars that impacted society today.

The roles of women throughout time began to increase. One event particularly involved Oberlin College. Oberlin College is located in Ohio. ( This college was founded in 1833 and was one of the first colleges to accept men and women to the school. Throughout this time period women were not able to go to school. Women provided for the family by staying at home and caring for the children and house chores. This all changed in 1841 when three women earned their bachelor’s degree from Oberlin College. Mary Caroline Rudd was one individual who earned her degree.( She was the one of the first woman ever to receive a bachelor of arts degree. ( This was the start of something great. The roles of women would dramatically change after this event.

The next woman out of the three to earn their bachelor’s degree was Mary Hosford. She also earned her degree in arts. The education of women was something that Oberlin College believed would increase the amount of success for women at home. Women’s rights just began to take off from this point. The increase in education would lead to many different roles and jobs for women worldwide. ( This is something that was going to take months or even years. It was a step in the right direction for females in the United States.

The third women to graduate from Oberlin College was Elizabeth Prall. When enrolling in this school she was twenty one years old.( All three women greatly impacted the future of all women. Education for women is a vital part of the United States. Educating both men and women increase the success in the nation. Studies show that the education of women now, has lowered poverty rates and also has lowered the amount of sexually transmitted diseases by education women.( From this the reader can see that if these three women would have never enrolled in Oberlin College the world would not be how it is today.

In 1848, the Seneca Falls convention was the first convention held for women’s rights. It took place in Seneca, New York and seven years later lead to the right for women to vote. One individual that was involved with this convention was Mary M’Clintock. (

M’Clintock put together the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery society. She was also involved with organizing the Seneca Falls Convention. This convention launched the start of the women’s rights movement. M’Clintock was assigned secretary for this movement in New York. This movement allowed women to gain power in many ways.

The theme of women’s rights impacted America through gained power, law positions, and increased roles. If these events would have never happened things today would not be the same. These three individuals influenced the idea of gender equality. Women’s way of living was changed and grew from these past events in history.

Theme of Religion in Persepolis Essay

Persepolis, an autobiography of Marjane Satrapi’s, uses the manifestation of graphic novel to depict the Iranian revolution through her own eyes. Marjane’s experiences consist of wars, revolution, rebellion, culture clashes and social classes, which mostly derive from the Islamic Republic and the fundamentalists. The theme of religion in Persepolis displays the constraint of women’s freedom, propaganda of nationalism, and rationalization of persecutions.

Marjane depicts the influences of religion on the Iranian female under the Islamic Revolution. Marjane’s mom gets assaulted by two fundamentalists when her car breaks down. The fundamentalists said she deserves to be abused and thrown in the garbage because she does not wear her veil as other female Iranians do. Later on the television, a male host says all males lack of morality and get excited when they see female’s hair, therefore veiling protects women from all potential rapists. Furthermore, Guardians of the revolution arrest and punish women if they wear casual clothing in public, ranging from severe verbal reprimands and imprisonment, while Iranian men only need to obey relatively simple rules. The double standard interspersed by religion severely suppresses female’s freedom and rights.

The religion’s nationlist propaganda concludes in the youngsters’ indoctrination. The Islamic Revolution and unjust ruling of the King leads to the outbreak of rebellions and daily demonstration. However, Marjane adores the King and approves of the King’s sovereignty, indicating that the government and the king use propaganda in children’s textbooks to convince people of his divine power, which makes religion condones his tyranny. Moreover, the torture sessions which highlights the beating of the breast, serve the purpose to mold students into desired citizens who unyieldingly support the Islamic regime by instilling a sense of nationalism. In this panel, Marjane drew all students identical and arranges them regularly, shows how such propaganda make populaces malleable ideologically and behaviorally for the government.

The government also utilizes religion to justify persecution. Shahab tells Marjane that the government recruits poor children for the front and utilizes religion to lure and defraud their loyalty. Holding the conviction that they can enter paradise after becoming the martyrs in war, the children use flesh to fight against the explosion in minefields. Also, The Islamic Republic executes political prisoners who are the legitimate heirs of the revolution and who constituted the country’s intelligentsia if they don’t promise fidelity and loyalty. The government justifies their killing.

Organized religion harms the community in Persepolis. It shows negative portrayals of the Islamic Republic and fundamentalists by depicting its suppression of female, indoctrination through propaganda, and persecution of opponents. In Persepolis, religion no longer serves as people’s spiritual consolation, but a tool for authorities to control the populace and to subdue any disagreements.

A Theme of Racism in the Kite Runner Essay

Racism is the belief that a particular race is superior or inferior to another, that a person’s social and moral traits are predetermined by his or her inborn biological characteristics. Racial separatism is the belief, most of the time based on racism, that different races should remain segregated and apart from one another. Racism has existed throughout human history. It means that the hatred of one person by another or the belief that another person is less than human because of skin color, language, customs, place of birth or another factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person. It has influence wars, slavery, the formation of nation and legal codes.

The Amir figure who acts as the main narrator in the story as well as the central figure attempts to disguise repression with a character from the low-ranking social strata of Hazara named Hassan. Amir is a Pashtun boy who lives in luxury and facilities because his father is one of the richest men in their district to live, Wazir Akhbar Khan in Kabul. In his daily life, Amir was always accompanied and served by the son of his servant Ali named Hassan. However, Hassan tried hard to please Amir. In the deep down, Amir never considered Hassan as a friend. Hassan was only a servant for him. “The curious thing was, I never thought of Hassan and me as friends either” or in another quote:

“But he’s not my friend! I almost blurted. It’s my servant! Had I really thought that? Of course I have no. I treated Hassan well, just like a friend, better even, more like a brother. But if so, then why, when Baba’s friends came to visit with their kids, did I never include Hassan in our games? Why did I play with Hassan only when no one else was around?

The quotation above shows that Amir could never regard Hassan as equal to himself. There will always be differences and distances that Amir and society create.

In this novel there is one character that hold grudges and be racial to Hassan, He is Assef. He really hated to Hassan because he throw Assef with slingshot and because Hassan is Hazara people. Here, there is one incident that interested my heart. The incident happened when Hassan chased after Kite’s opponent that broke up. On the road, he met Assef and his friends. Assef asked the kite for himself but Hassan didn’t give it, then Assef rape him in there. From the story above we can conclude that racism asserts that blood is a marker of ethnic-national identity.

Theme of Journey in Grapes of Wrath Essay

In John Steinbecks famous novel, The Grapes of Wrath, Tom Joad and the rest of the Joad family go through a wild journey in search of jobs in California during the great depression. When Tom gets out of prison, he sees the effects the Oklahoma Dust Bowl. He meets Jim Casy on his way home, and they find the rest of the Joads family together after they got kicked out of their family home by the landowners. The economy is very poor as a result of the Stock Market Crash. It is often time referred to as the worst economic downfall in United States history. There are no jobs in Oklahoma anymore because there is no farm and soil to grow anything, leaving thousands of families with no income. As the Joad family travels across the country, they encounter a various amount of different people, some help them, and some do not. Throughout the novel, the reader learns about how difficult it really was to live in this time period. Before all this everything was fantastic, jobs everywhere, people were just throwing money away because of how much they were making. After the crash, nobody had any money saved because it was all invested in the stock market. People had kids they could not feed, they had to deal with plenty of death and their well-being. Although the text is fiction, it captures the things people had to do to survive. It shows the important of family and how working together is extremely important in a time of need.

In the beginning of the novel, once Tom and Casy make it to Uncle John Joads house, the family gets ready to start their journey to California. The familys first struggle was trying to get money in order to make the drive. we sol all the stuff at our place, an the whole bunch pf is chopped cotton, even Grampa (page 83). From selling everything, they only got $200. This shows how hard the times were during the Great Depression, nobody was looking to buy anything. This was because there were very few jobs and the people with a job, saved all their money in case they lost the job. After buying a truck for seventy-five dollars, the Joads were not left with a lot of money, considering they are traveling with a very big group of people. It was a very tough car ride for the family as well. With so many people and only one car, people were forced to go on the rough in the blazing hot sun. Another struggle people had to deal with was just leaving everything they ever knew behind. I never had my house pushed over, she said. I never had my fambly stuck out on the road. I never had to sell ever’thing Here they come now”” (Page 81). Ma Joad never imagined this would happen to her. Her and her family are losing everything, and it is not even their fault. Granpa even refused to leave, he had to be drugged in order to get in the car. It was extremely difficult to live in these times not only the challenge of staying alive, but the ability to just get up and leave everything.

During this disastrous time in American History, people came together to help others in need. The Joads family needed to stop and rest and for a little and the Wilsons were so happy to have them. The appeal to hospitality had an instant effect. The lean face broke into a smile. Why, sure, come on off the rad. Proud to have ya (Page 134). When everyone is in distress, people come together to help people. This is weird that it happens this way, but people are just more likely to help others in really bad times. Another example of this was on September 11th, 2001. 9/11 was one of the worst days in American history, but after it happened, all Americans came together. It didnt matter their race, gender, or religion. This is the same for the Great Depression. The Joads are from Oklahoma, and the Wilsons are from Kansas. During these times people from different states are not very fond of each other, but in this moment, they are helping each other out. Tom and Al even fix the Wilsons car when it breaks down for them. The Joads and the Wilsons begin to work together in order to make it through this terrible time. Along the way, they encounter more and more families, and they continue to make their group bigger. In the evening a strange thing happened: the twenty families became one family, the children were the children of all. The loss of home became one loss, and the golden time in the West was on dream (Page 193). All the families come together here and something special happens. They all realize that they need one another, everyone has something to contribute on their journey for a good life. None of the families want to be doing this alone, and because of this, they chose to work together. In the last scene, the whole idea of family really comes together when Rose of Sharon breastfeeds the half-starved man (Page 455). The starving man is a father to his son, and the reason he has not eaten anything is because he has been giving his son all his food. This shows that even through all these hard times, family is still the most important thing to him. When Rose of Sharon feeds the man, she is treating him like family. He is a complete stranger, but he needs help, so she helps him. Now he is part of this big family. Throughout the novel the theme of family is showed and how important it is to really stick with one another.

Although this novel is about people working together, there are always going to be people who only think about themselves. When Tom and Al try to find a tire to fix the truck, they encounter a selfish car salesman. Take it or leave it. I aint in business for mu health. Im here a-sellin tires. I aint givin them away. I cant help what happens to you. I got to think what happens to me (Page 120). The cars salesman only cares about himself and feeding his family. The man is making the tires so expensive because of the high demand Tom and Al have for a tire. He knows that if they do not get this tire, they cannot go anywhere. Although the salesman is extremely selfish, it is his business. It is a basic business strategy, the higher the demand for a product, the more expensive one can charge for it. Although he is just trying to run a business in a time of terrible, he is very selfish and not interested in helping others at all. In this time, social class and wealth had a very big part in the way people act, I’m learning one thing good, she said. Learnin’ it all the time, ever’ day. If you’re in trouble or hurt or need go to poor people. They’re the only ones that’ll help the only ones”” (Page 398). This shows the way society was during this time, and still is today. The rich only look to get richer and do not care who they are hurting in the process. Poor people understand other poor peoples trouble, and often times will put somebody else in front of themselves.

The historical novel about the Oklahoma Dust Bowl, The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck displays what life was truly like during this time period. The author takes the reader on a journey making them feel a part of what is going on. The Joad family went through extremely difficult times but displayed excellent teamwork with the families they met on their journey. With the economy crashing and people having extremely different views on how society should or should not help people, the Joad family displayed great courage and teamwork in helping themselves out, but most importantly their family. This novel shows that no matter how hard times can get, family will always be there for each other.

Theme of Isolation in Jane Eyre Essay

Jane Eyre, a gothic novel by Charlotte Bronte, depicts the orphan Janes experience of isolation and alienation in Gateshead Hall. She is physically locked in the red-room. The red-room, a prominent symbol in this novel, represents isolation, terror, and represents a prison for Jane. In the first few chapters of the book, Jane describes the red-room, noticing how it was a spare chamber, very seldom slept in, and having a bed supported on massive pillars of mahogany, hung with curtains of deep red damask. Jane also described the carpet to be red, the table to be covered with a crimson cloth, the walls having a soft fawn colour, with a blush of pink in it, and the wardrobe, the toilet-table, the chairs were of darkly-polished old mahogany in order to emphasize the significant presence of the color red in that room.

Red is normally referred to the color of extremes, and the color of this room represents how Jane is trapped in a dark and oppressive stage in life. This refers to the red-room symbolizing a prison for Jane because of the mistreatment and class conflicts that exist between her and the Reed family, as John called her a dependant. John implies that his family is in a higher class than Jane, and as a result of their quarrel, Jane is ordered to go to the red-room. Jane also describes her feelings in the red-room after using a disheartening tone stating I was a discord in Gateshead Hall; I was like nobody there; I had nothing in harmony with Mrs. Reed or her children, or her chosen vassalage. She also calls herself a heterogeneous thing a noxious thing, and a useless thing to portray how shes useless at Gateshead. Jane feels isolated when she used the words nobody and discord, and makes it seem like shes locked out of society also. This reveals how Jane feels out of place in Gateshead Hall, due to the oppression she felt from the Reed family. This as a whole connects to the red-room representing Janes isolation.

Finally, the red room is also a place of terror for Jane. As Jane is trapped inside the red- room, she saw a streak of light and convinced herself that it was her Uncle Reed who was rising from the grave. To support that, she mentions I thought the swift-darting beam was a herald of some coming vision from another world. This supernatural gothic experience had brought fear at the same time when Jane felt oppressed, abused, and alienated. This relates to the symbolism in the red-room because she expresses her true feelings of fear and isolation as shes in the room experiencing the rising of her Uncles ghost who wouldve saved her from trouble. This portrays violence surrounding Jane in a prison, and Jane should use this room to overcome her struggles in life and find freedom and happiness. In conclusion, the red-room is a prominent symbol that represents imprisonment, isolation, and terror, and this symbol will continue to be prominent throughout the novel as many events will take place.  

Theme of Family in the Grapes of Wrath Essay

Today if anything is trying to hold you back, give no attention to it. Get your hopes up, get your faith up, look up, and get ready to rise up (Germany Kent). These words of encouragement by Germany Kent advise others to stay sturdy in the toughest of situations. In the novel, The Grapes of Wrath, the author John Steinbeck strongly emphasizes the theme of poverty, unjust, and the human spirit. Based on the migrant workers during Americas Dust Bowl, the Joad family faces many difficult struggles such as hunger and the loss of their home.

Despite the various factors that pushed the family away from each other at times, Ma Joad stands there as a backbone who helps pull the family back together promising to assuage the future in hope of prosperity. Jim Casy is an ex-preacher who ends up coming across Tom Joad; he teaches the family members about the impact of any situation in an individuals life and the search within, to find out ones identity. The Joad family is forced to start a new life in California with their heads up in search of better opportunities and new jobs. Expressed through their actions and beliefs, both Ma Joad and Jim Casy exhibit strong leadership that fuels the perseverance of their surrounding characters.

Ma Joad exhibits an immense amount of self-control and selflessness during her familys frustrations and struggles during their journey. Nevertheless, Ma realizes that the family will only be successful if she remains serene in any situation that approaches her. She does not get furious like the rest of the family, but rather stays tranquil and does not remonstrate with Ruthie when she tells others about Toms secret. Warren Motley discusses in his work how Ma Joad acts as a cohesive force within the family to survive the long expedition. By usurping the patriarchs role as the head of the family, Ma breaks tradition to achieve what is needed for the family (Motley 6). Before the journey even takes a start, Grandpa refuses not to come in the Joads truck, so Ma Joad mixes in sleep time cough medicine in his coffee, which makes him go to sleep. During the journey to California, the family takes a pit stop because of a truck damage. Tom suggests that the rest of the family keep moving forward and that he will see them in California. Ma, however, is desperate to prevent the family from breaking up and insists, I aint a-gonna go (Steinbeck 168). Shortly after the Joad family enters the Route 66 to California, Grandmas health begins to decline.

Grandma becomes seriously ill shortly after; therefore, Ma Joad nurses her. In fact, Ma wants the family to cross this strenuous journey and to have unity throughout. She tries to keep Grandmas death a secret because she knows this will cause the family to be discouraged. When the family pulls their car into the patrol area to cross the border, the officers ask to see Grandma. Ma persuades the officers that Grandma is extremely ill and that she needs serious assistance, letting them pass through. During Rose of Sharons pregnancy, Ma stands by her side: providing her food, taking care of her health, and fulfilling her needs. She continuously shapes Rose of Sharon into the independent women she needs to become. Nonetheless, she nurtures her so later in life she can provide for others. Mas sweet voice is expressed to be, so soft, so full of love, that tears crowded into Rose of Sharons eyes (Steinbeck 110). Rose of Sharon understands Ma because she knows that she is preparing her for all the burdens that come into a woman’s life. Warren discusses the final disastrous chapters where Ma Joad takes in hand the family’s money, handles Ruthie’s betrayal of Tom’s hiding place, finds the family work, leads them away from the flooded railroad car, and finally urges Rose of Sharon to suckle the starving man (Motley 9). Ma Joad is the battery of this family since she always keeps it going in the right direction to achieve their dreams.

This novel discusses many of the diverse characters who experience uncertainty through growth and many hardships. Jim Casy is an ex-preacher who comes across a former preacher, Tom Joad. He performs several sacrifices for the better of the family. During a crime scene when Tom nearly gets arrested, Casy takes the blame and gets arrested for the scuffle in Hooverville symbolizing Casys god-like behavior. Casy Jim realizes through the actions and behaviors of the people, when he is in the unemployed and homeless campsite; he realizes that the people do not have sufficient amount of wage to live. His sympathy and desire to better those around him lead him to create a workers union: demanding a better pay for the poor migrant workers.

In contrast, the employers do not like this so Jim is labeled as red which means someone who stirs up many problems. Jim Casy guides Tom to follow his footsteps. As shown in Chapter 28 when Tom is giving Ma an explanation regarding Jim and his death, he strongly expressesWherever theys a fight so hungry people can eat, Ill be there. Wherever theys a cop beatin up a guy, Ill be there… See? God, Im talkin like Casy. Comes of thinkin about him so much. Seems like I can see him sometimes (Steinbeck, 419). Exhibited from this quote, Casy led people in finding their faith. The critic Rachel McCoppin makes a powerful connection on Jim Casys role in the novel: he compares Jim to Jesus Christ in the bible by saying, Casy does not merely want to preach God’s word, but to experience life’s hardship first hand alongside others–in a way Jesus did as well (McCoppin 6). Similar to Christs sacrifice, Jim ends up dying due to his act of resisting the injustices of the people. Jims legacy is passed on to those like Tom who will continue what he has started.

Ma Joad and Jim Casy keep the family glued together through thick and thin. Ma Joad in the novel focuses on one goal which was to put humanity first; she exemplifies this when she kindly asks for Mr. and Mrs. Wilson to accompany the Joad family to California. After a lengthy time in the jail, Jim comes up with ways he can be salutary to earn money for the poor migrant workers. Ma and Jim convey the same perspective when Jim vents, They’s gonna come somepin outa all these folks goin’ wes’- outa all their farms lef’ lonely. They’s gonna come a thing that’s gonna change the whole country”” (Steinbeck 117). To sum up,Similarly, Jim Casy preaches the fact that everyone is part of the same soul; through this statement we can see the reason that Ma Joad wanted everyone to go to California together was so they can become more united, and hit the same struggles.

Through the actions and words of Ma Joad and the preaching philosophy of Jim Casy, the Joad family stays intact throughout their journey to California. Ma Joad believes in togetherness and makes suitable decisions for her family and others accompanying them. Through various examples of Mas leadership qualities, Ma always exhorts the family to stay as one because if they are together they can carry out any task given. Jim Casy tries to fight for justice for the workers, but in doing so he gets killed. At first, Tom only cares about himself and focuses on how he can succeed on his own, but soon his thoughts line up with Jims. Ma Joads selfless acts and Jims death gave everyone a new beginning, and a reason to live with hope and endurance.

Theme of Cultural Transition Essay


The theme of cultural transition is well portrayed throughout the two books; Things Fall Apart and The Lion and The Jewel. On the other hand, the elements of change in both books defer, as in Things Fall Apart, what brings the change originates from the outside, that is, the missionaries; while Lakunle acts as the element of change from inside the community. Lakunle understands the customs, and he even grew up practicing them, but after he comes into contact with the outside world, his views are changed. The cultural transition is seen when Lakunle tries to oppose the custom of bride price and calls it uncivilized. He tries to win Sidi’s love using the tactics he has learned from the modernized world but fails terribly. The missionaries in Okonkwo case also seek to change the ways of the people, they introduce formal education and try to bring civilization to Umofia. Their efforts are derailed when Okonkwo opposes them and kills one of their messengers.

Conflict is also in both stories; Lakunle fight against the community’s customs is a sign of conflict. Baroka Sidi and the rest of Ilunjule village are traditionists who are uneducated who conflicts with the educated Lakunle a school teacher educated and influenced by the western culture. In the play, The Lion and the Jewel tradition wins against modernity which is evidence by Sidi marrying the traditional chief. The issue of the bride price causes Lakunle to be considered as the village fool. He also fights alone as no one else in the community is willing to share his views; not even his beloved Sidi. Where there is a conflict there is bound to be consequences, in Okonkwo case, his conflict with the missionaries resulted in death and feelings of betrayal. This paper will discuss the various instances where both the jewel and the lion and things fall apart portray the theme of cultural change and theme of conflict.


Change and conflict go hand in hand; especially in a place where what is being changed has been there for a long time. Culture is collectiveness of behaviours acquired by a member of a given group or community. Thus culture is the practices, social behaviour, and beliefs of a given community. In the books we are looking at cultural conflict is shown between the modern and traditional cultures. Cultural transition in both The Lion and The Jewel and Things Fall Apart is eminent as portrayed in the characters of both Lakunle and Okonkwo. Both characters try to bring change to their environment; Okonkwo tries to fight against cultural change while Lakunle is for the change.

Cultural African practices were regarded to be sacred, and anything or anyone that interfered with them was considered to be an enemy of the community. The cultural beliefs that the African communities held were believed to hold a certain purpose, and they were what united them with their ancestors. Common belief and practice also symbolized a sense of unity, and it was rare for individuals to separate themselves from this kind of life. For those that managed to separate themselves, they came back and shook these foundations and were regarded with suspicion and even considered to be fools or slaves of the colonists.

Conflict is said to be the disagreement between individuals or ideas. In the case of our study conflict can be defined as the clash or disagreement of cultures. Culture is a unique phenomenon cherished and protected dearly by a given community. The two books; the Jewel and Lion and Things Fall Apart show how African cultures are subjected to imposition and displacement by the western culture. Whenever there is change conflict comes long for instance in the case of Lakunle, Lakunle a school teacher feels that he is modernized than any other person in the village. Thus he is not ready to pay the bride price and take Sidi as his wife. Sidi, on the other hand, does not agree with Lakunle she feels that when she accepts to be married by him without the bride price, the village people will be against her. Later on, Sidi is married to the traditional chief and leave Lakunle who is considered a fool by the village people and face opposition from them.  The piece shows that in the instance of change there exist disagreement of given ideas.


Confronted with complications

Lakunle is not convincingly representing the modern ideas as he claims. It is evidence that he misunderstands the modern books he reads and the cultural beliefs. For instance, Lakunle tell Sidi that she has a small brain, meaning women brains are deemed to the smaller and dysfunctional compared to the males brains. His thinking on the women brain capacity is dictated by the traditional belief in his community while he calls himself civilized while in the civilized community everyone is equal be it a man of women. Lakunle is also full of fascinations of the superficial modern way of life, for example, the dances, and ballroom and night clubs, showing that he believes in half-baked ideas that justify his actions of refusing to pay the bride price to Sidi. Baroka the 62-year-old chief oppose development brought about by the white people, he believes that the development destroys the way people live. On the other hand, he feels that he should learn a thing from Lakunle as well as Lakunle learn from him.

In the Things Fall Apart we see Okonkwo confronted by complications due to cultural conflicts presented by the white men. After he leaves to exile, the white men were able to thrive and to spread their gospel in the village. When he came back, he meets a different community in which he is unable to live in. Everyone including his son had converted to Christianity. Due to his strong belief in the traditional culture, he chooses to die rather than complying with the white men.

The role of women in two texts

Women in both Things Fall Apart, and The Lion and The Jewel are considered to be man’s property. They can be purchased and accumulated to man’s wealth. Their only role is to get married and have children. In things Fall Apart Okonkwo acquires many wives who he expects to bear many children to promote his legacy in the community and rival that of his father who he regarded as a failure (Achebe, 13). Baroka on the other hand in the Lion and The Jewel acquires wives to promote his status in the community (Soyinka, 4). He is surprised that in five full months he has not acquired a wife, meaning he considered wives to be an addition to his vast wealth. Lakunle undermines the tradition of purchasing a woman by proposing to Sidi and telling her he will marry her without paying the bride price. In this case, the tradition of paying the bride price is condemned by Lakunle while Baroka embraces it and win Sidi. Women are not supposed to make key decisions in the society, but with modernity, women take roles which there were not supposed to like the harvesting of yams in Thing fall apart. We also see Sidi admiring her picture in the magazine and feels that she deserved better men from outside world since she is being seen by people in the western world. She is held up by the culture and even fails to marry Lakunle a modernized man since he does not want to follow the culture by paying the bride price.

 The role of chief in two texts

In The Lion and the Jewel, Baroka is the chief, and he represents traditional norms and customs. He stands against any foreign change such as the building of railroad near his village. He agrees with the rail contractors signs a letter that states that the village soil is unfit to support the train engine. He does this so that the rail can be moved away from the village. Being a staunch traditionalist, he understands that the presence of rail in the village will lead to penetration of more white who will change the village people culture to western culture.  He promotes the paying of bride price that is why Sidi prefers him to the modernized Lakunle (Soyinka, 6). In Things Fall Apart, the chief also represents the community customs and also moral authority. He struggles with the new political and religious orders introduced by colonialism which he terms as unmanly and feels that he will betray the community if he complies with the new ways. Okonkwo condemns cultural change since he fears losing social status. After coming from exile, he is unable to adapt to the colonizer way of life which leads to his suicide. Although his stand is not as rigid as that of Baroka in the face of the British Colonists; he maintains law and order in the community.

Contexts colonial versus city/technology/modernity

In both texts, any change that is introduced by either colonist or modernity is met with resistance. Okonkwo opposes anything that is related to the British administration. Such that when he returned from exile, he could not tolerate the colonizer’s way of life and ended up taking his life (Achebe, 58). Baroka resists any form of development pioneered by the colonialists, for example, he rejects the construction of the railway line, saying that the soil along the village is fragile and cannot sustain the weight of the engine. Lakunle, on the other hand, a modernized school teacher tries to modernize his community by changing the rule of the bride price. He faces rejection from Sidi and the entire village for going against the culture that dictates marriage rules in the community. He also wishes for construction of motor roads and railroads. His desires and conversations are met with less enthusiasm than he had expected.

Cultural values/impacts/reaction

Cultural values are highly upheld in both texts, and that is why any threat towards these values is met with negative reaction. Baroka is a staunch traditionalist that is why he enjoys being a polygamist and does not tolerate the introduction of the modern railroad (Soyinka, 4). He also uses traditional knowledge and practices to win Sidi unlike Lakunle who denounce the cultural practice of paying the bride pride price. Lakunle support modernization he wishes that railroads were built in the village which never happened due to the highly upheld cultural values. Lakunle does not understand why the community promotes backwardness and choose to stay in darkness. He tries to change the cultural values, but he fails terribly. Okonkwo seems like the only one still concerned with the Umuofia’s cultural values. He denies the white men entry into the village and strongly refused their cultural value to be changed especially in the context of religion. He also sent away anyone who complied with the white men and considered as an outcast in the community. His reactions, although meant to maintain stability, causes a lot of instability in the community that causes Okonkwo to take his life.

Education and religion/tradition

The educated people in the two books seek to spread the modern ideas to the uneducated people who believe in their old ways of life. They preach out their knowledge with the aim of changing the tribal people to modern ways. Education is strongly rejected by the traditional people who do not see any good the education can offer to them in sustaining their daily lives. Lakunle is the educated person in the village he is rejected by the people in the village due to his modernized way. The rejection is portrayed by the way he dresses and talks to Sidi. He is also considered a fool by the village people when he refuses to pay the bride price to Sidi and loses her to chief Baroka. Sidi is also not willing to be associated with Lakunle due to his modernized behaviours which do not respect their culture.

In the things fall apart the colonization is mostly addressed religiously unlike the Lion and the Jewel. The whites condemn the traditional people religion where they tell them that their gods are evil and cannot help them since they direct them to kill and discriminate innocent people. They introduce their God whom they believe takes care of them and is just and good to all. The traditional people reject their religion and fight against it lead by Igbo. After Okonkwo come from exile, he finds a changed community where everyone has turned to the white man’s way. He finds that some churches have been built together with schools. To his surprise, he finds that even his son has converted to Christianity. His staunch belief in the traditional way of life make him feel out of place, he cannot put up with the new ways and eventually commit suicide.


The two books prominently discuss the theme of culture clash as a result of rapid modernization brought about by the colonial people. Culture transition is highly advocated by the white people who want to see the last outdated African culture in the featured communities. On the other hand, Africans fights any change advocated by the white people. They feel that they have a rich culture and they should preserve it. Conflict arises when the two culture meet since each side wants to stand by culture and beliefs.

The Theme Pride in “Moby Dick” Essay

Throughout the novel, Moby Dick, by Herman Melville, the theme pride, or hubris, can be followed from the beginning to the end. It did not take long to see that Captain Ahab had a heart that was driven by revenge and because of that strong drive the Pequod was destroyed and all but one of the crew members. Ahabs sense of pride and longing to search for the White Whale, the Evil of the Earth, Moby Dick caused him to commit the ultimate sin, being prideful. When Moby took Ahab’s leg, Ahabs life turned completely around but for the worse. Ahab had once lived what most would consider a normal life to a life full of revenge and turmoil. He believed he was doing good for the world but in all actuality, he became evil and twisted and ultimately turned his back on God by following a path that Satan himself would walk. This story started slowly at first and the twisted relationship between Ahab and Moby Dick was not very noticeable but as the book progressed the evil grew and the full presence of the devil could be felt and seen in each move that Ahab and Moby Dick were making.

Although one of Captain Ahabs drives was revenge, his pride was the death of him because of his infatuation with acquiring the accomplishment of killing Moby Dick, the white whale. Pride killed Captain Ahab. Herman Melville was an American novelist who was born in New York City on August 1st, 1819, to Allen and Maria Gansevoort Melvill (it wasnt until Marias husband’s death that they added an e to the name). When Herman was just a young child he fell ill to scarlet fever and his vision was left permanently impaired. He had a good life though because his father was a successful high-end importer and merchant. Although the family enjoyed a prosperous life, Allan had borrowed heavily to finance his business interests. In 1830 the family moved to Albany because Allan was attempting to branch into the fur trade but the business failed and the family’s fortune took a significant hit. After the sudden passing of his father and continued financial struggles with his family, Melville took to sailing with merchants for work. He enjoyed working on the ship, but did not dedicate himself to the sea immediately (Melville, Herman. Pullman Strikes Out Introduction, after the first time he sailed. He kept working in other ways to try to help his family. Because he never found the work he could enjoy, he returned to sailing with whalers. Once he returned home, his family was much more stable financially and they encouraged him to take up his passion for writing.

With their support, Herman recorded his tales of the South Seas and began to seek out a publisher (Melville, Herman. Pullman Strikes Out Introduction, He wrote two novels that were successful, Typee in 1846 and Omoo in 1847 but his subsequent book, Moby DIck (his masterpiece) in 1851 sold very poorly. Melville knew he had to keep working so he delivered a series of lectures throughout the late 1850s. The following decade Melville began a 20-year career as a customs inspector in New York City and he also turned his creative interests to poetry during this period and published a collection called Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War in 1866. Finally, In 1876, he published the grand Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land that was based on a previous trip to the region. Following his sudden death of an apparent heart attack in New York City in 1891, he posthumously came to be regarded as one of the great American writers. Before his death, he was working on a novel and although his popularity had vanished at that point, his books were reprinted and he slowly started becoming popular in the literary world. By the 1920s, Melville had become a well-known figure among readers and critics alike and his last novel was published in 1924 as Billy Budd, Sailor.

Today, we regard Herman Melville as one of America’s greatest writers, his masterpiece Moby-Dick adapted for the big screen in 1956. School reading lists still have Melvilles work and interest in his works spiked again in 2015 with the release of the Ron Howard-directed, In the Heart of the Sea, about the ill-fated voyage of the Essex. The novel, Moby Dick, was written in 1851 and tells the story of a sailor named Ishmael and his experience on a whaling ship. The novel was written during the Antebellum Period in the United States of America, a very chaotic time in American history. The Antebellum Period marks the years leading up to the Civil War. During the years leading up to the Civil war, there was a significant divide between races, where many of the Caucasians in America wanted to keep the African Americans enslaved. Many claimed that the Constitution of the United States sets out with the declaration that slaves are property(Secession Era Editorials Project. Furman: New Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860 (by Region), menu&%2Bsequence=dsmenu&location=%3E%2BDred%2BScott%2BDecision%2B) Being that the novel was written during the Antebellum Period, it could be argued that the white whale symbolized the inevitability of the monoculture of whiteness to devastate the nation (Kouroubetes, Michael Moby-Dick: From a Multi-genre, Multi-Cultural Perspective, IUSB Graduate Journal, /index.php/iusbgrj/article/download/22103/28057/).

Although pride can be seen in multiple characters, the character that pride follows mainly is Captain Ahab, the captain of the whaling ship Ishmael was on. Captain Ahabs character was formed in the image of the King Ahab in the bible. King Ahab in the bible was known for the evil he did in the sight of the Lord (1Kgs 16:30-33) (Eric Ziolkowski, “”Melvilles Ahab””, n.p. [cited 22 Nov 2018]. Online: https://www.bibleodyssey .org:443/people/related-articles/melvilles-ahab). Captain Ahabs enormous amount of pride is seen in his own quest to vanquish the white whale (Eric Ziolkowski, “”Melvilles Ahab””, n.p. [cited 22 Nov 2018]. Online: -articles/melvilles-ahab). Captain Ahab did not name himself (Melville 264). Although Ahab may seem arrogant because of how he placed himself on a pedestal, I believe this goes back to his pride. Ahab did not show his face for so long, only because he felt he was better than everyone because of his lifes accomplishments. He was, clearly, a veteran to the sea and he felt that made him better than everyone else. His position of authority and his ailment of missing a leg built upon his pride.

Ahab in all his thoughts and actions ever had in view the ultimate capture of Moby Dick (Melville 681). After Ahab showed himself, his fiery pride was quite evident in his actions and behavior. He felt such a strong need for revenge and had built a pride within himself based on his personal need to take down Moby Dick. He wanted to have the achievement of killing Moby Dick and he would not rest until that was accomplished. What ultimately builds such a strong case for pride in this quote is that he was not thinking what if I kill Moby Dick, he knew that he was going to do it. He felt that he was the king of the sea and nothing could stop him from defeating Moby Dick. In his fiery eyes of scorn and triumph, you then saw Ahab in all his fatal pride. (Melville 1663). What becomes apparent is that the ship was no longer being led with thought, Ahabs willpower and pride were leading it. Had he not had such a deep infatuation with killing Moby Dick, he would have survived, as would have the rest of his crew. He felt no remorse towards the lives of his crew being lost because he saw himself as superior.

Ahab seemed an independent lord (Melville 1717). The way Captain Ahab carried himself with his pride was evident to everyone on the ship. He made his superiority clear by leading the ship and his crew to their demise to fulfill what his pride yearned so deeply for. Ahab created an image of himself as an almighty being equal to God. As the theme pride is followed, it is apparent that it is extremely hazardous, and cost Ahab not only his life but his entire crews lives as well. Older people can sometimes be heard saying, Idle hands are the Devil’s tools,” and I think this can be applied to the novel because Ahab proved that “”The Devil will drive a man without a drive.”” While Ahab sat idly seeking revenge, the Devil planted seeds of pride within him which caused Ahab to become the evil man he was.

The Theme of Survival in Life of Pi Essay

Life of Pi is a novel by Yann Martel that illustrates man’s will to survive and an unlikely alliance that rises as a result. This is a story that plunges deep into every aspect of human nature, giving the reader an experience that is hard to forget. I recommend this book for those who need a new adventure in their life, as the mesmerizing words, phrases, and heart-stopping moments woven within the pages of this story are a blessing to the mind and soul. The story opens on the colorful life of Piscine Patel, an Indian boy whose family owns a popular zoo. Although his family business already gives him a remarkable title to bear, Piscine is quite the character all on his own. For instance, at only age fourteen, he practices Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam, melding the three religions together by finding what connects them all to each other. He is as equally faithful to one practice as he is to another.

Although this is frowned upon, Piscine is content with his faith and his life, with one exception: his name. It is often misheard, said incorrectly, or made fun of. When Piscine begins attending a new school, he introduces himself as “Pi”, and that is how he is known or the rest of the story. Over time, Pi’s parents grow unhappy with the Indian government. They wish to find freedom and a new life, and so they make plans for their many species of animals and set out on a ship to Canada, taking the creatures with them. But on the third night, Pi is awoken by a sound that is alien to him. Searching for an answer, he makes his way up to the main deck, where a state of pandemonium occurs. The ship’s crew are all hustling and bustling about. When Pi finally has a chance to recollect himself, he asks a few crew members what is going on, only to have a life jacket thrust into his hands and be thrown overboard, landing on one of very few lifeboats. There are no other human survivors. Pi’s family is lost. Pi is now trapped on a lifeboat in the middle of the Pacific, along with one hyena, one zebra, one orangutan, and one bengal tiger, who is called Richard Parker. Before Richard Parker, who has been hiding under the lifeboat’s tarpaulin, even shows himself, the hyena soon has both the zebra and the orangutan dead within several days.

Pi leads himself to believe that it is only himself and the hyena left aboard, until Richard Parker brings the creature’s life to a sudden and violent end. Terrified, Pi constructs a raft out of supplies found on the lifeboat, and attaches it to the end of the boat, putting as much distance between himself and Richard Parker as possible. For a while, Pi accepts the inevitable probability of his imminent death. And then he discovers something within himself; a fighting warrior who drives him to face his fear, and place his life back into his own hands. From then on, he decides to become dominant over Richard Parker, realizing he has nothing to lose. He works every day to show that he is superior, while also using some of his resources to keep Richard Parker alive. Soon, his fear is vanquished, and he and Richard Parker seem to be living in a civil manner, a relationship that, although rocky, depends on mutual trust.

They grow not only to tolerate each other, but to need each other as well. Remarkably, Richard Parker becomes the only thing keeping Pi’s sanity in check. Things are going well, until they find land. Their relationship, or alliance, or whatever it might be called, was unfortunately at an end. Pi was quickly rescued from the island, whereas Richard Parker, his only companion for months, stayed behind to begin a new life in the vast jungles of the island they had discovered. Confused, half out of his mind, and heartbroken, Pi watches with weary eyes as his last friend, the last connection to his past life, grows farther and farther away. For the rest of his life, he is forever grateful for this unexpected friend, who turned out to be the only thing keeping him alive through the tragic accident. Even as an old man with a family, he knows with every fiber of his being that Richard Parker is the reason he is still standing there today. Life of Pi may be fiction, but its effects on the human spirit are very real and very beneficial. If you love to read, and even if you don’t, this story is one that will keep you intrigued and intellectually stimulated. Yann Martel has created a masterpiece that will remain timeless forever.

The Theme of Revenge in “Hamlet” by William Shakespeare Essay

To avenge ones fallen father was seen to be a moral obligation in most revenge tragedies during the Elizabethan era and it was certainly no different in Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet. The act of revenge was a major theme that revolved around Hamlet, Laertes, and Fortinbras who all share a desire to kill their father’s murderer yet contrast in terms of character. Hamlet and Laertes the two that pursued vengeance the most ultimately met their end, while young Fortinbras who was convinced to not enact on his desires to get revenge lived and rose to power. Shakespeare is intent in developing the persistent developing the persistent ambiguities of emotion, rhetoric, and acting to their ultimate riddling potential, to the point where they have the power to not only delay the movement to revenge but to subvert and even abort it (Mercer, 121) In this Shakespeare implies that vengeance shouldn’t be so sought after and is better left to the heavens to decide the killers fate. Revenge can be seen as The returning of evil-for-evil (Benditt,8) and although the revenge tragedy was a popular genre, a majority of the Elizabethans condemned the idea of revenge as both the church and state believed that it would cause immense amounts of civil disorder Private revenge could lead to quarrels, thence to a public tumult thence to dissension between families, and thus to national quarrels. Since punishment was the prerogative of the state, every possible argument was induced to convince the private citizen that he must leave revenge to god. (Prosser 5)

Instead of seeking out vengeance Elizabethans believed that seeking revenge was sin and was better left to god. Those who decided to pursue revenge lost any chance of forgiveness and were eternally punished in the afterlife. The thought of being punished in the afterlife was the leading cause of delay in Hamlets revenge as he puts all his trust on Heaven as the providential means to the resolution to the crises he’s facing.(Zak,85) . Although Hamlet claims that his revenge will be swift at first, he puts it off because he thought the ghost was a devil imitating his father in order to convince him to sin in order to punish him eternally in the afterlife. The problem with this logic is that even if the ghost is telling the truth Hamlet still would be punished in the afterlife. The only thing that hamlet would gain from taking revenge would be honoring his father’s wish. The second instance being after Claudius is trying to pray: And now I’ll do’t. And so he goes to heaven And so Am I revenged. That would be scanned: A villain kills my father, and for that, I, his sole son do this same villain send To heaven (3.3.74-8) Because Hamlet believes that a man who is killed while praying will be sent to heaven he puts off his revenge until he can find a moment where Claudius is committing a sin. Because Hamlet puts off his vengeance it causes his downfall as it creates more problems later and allows Claudius to plan out his schemes to get rid of Hamlet. In seeking revenge no matter how just the cause may be, it essentially makes the person seeking revenge as bad as the person who committed the crime. though it would insist upon the singularity of the villainy it would punish, inevitably it duplicates the crime. (Kastan, 199).

No matter how see it Although Hamlet constantly hesitates about taking revenge, the one time he decides to act he kills Polonius an innocent bystander essentially making him as a bad as Claudius in the eyes of Laertes. In enacting revenge, the revenger potentially harms those around them in their quest for justice. In Hamlet’s case his desire to enact revenge led to the death of many characters such as Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, but most importantly it led to Ophelia’s madness and untimely death. Although hamlet did love Ophelia, his plan to study the king involved him to feign madness. In his false madness he would constantly push Ophelia away from him which made her believe that he rejected her love. Hamlets killing of Polonius then proceeded to push her off the edge both mentally and physically. The pursuit of revenge also affects the revenger mentally to the point where it deteriorates their mind to the point where they are consumed by anger and revenge is the only thing they focus on. Laertes best exemplifies this as he contrasts with hamlet in the fact that he takes immediate action and will carry out his revenge if given the opportunity. Not long after Polonius died Laertes returns to Denmark from France. without even gathering information about his father’s killer or considering any sort of consequence, Laertes rallies a mob to kill Claudius.

After Claudius somewhat clams Laertes down, he manipulates Laertes enraged state to encourage him to take revenge on Hamlet. Shortly after the announcement of Ophelia’s death, Laertes once again becomes enraged now to the point where vengeance is the only thing that is on his mind and at this point there is nothing that could quell his anger more than revenge. Although he managed to secure his vengeance, in the end his pursuit of revenge cost him his life, and in his final moments he felt nothing but guilt and regret. Even if the law does not persecute the offender they recommend that doing nothing and being patient will resolve everything as god begins punishing sins immediately, with lamentable calamities many terrible frights remorse of conscience, desperate repentance and continual troubles and unquietnesse (Prosser,11) This can be seen in hamlet more specifically right after the performance of the mouse trap when Claudius is trying to pray: Whereto serves mercy serves mercy But to confront the visage of offense? And what’s in prayer but this twofold force, To be forestalled ere we come to fall, Or pardoned being down? Then I’ll look up. My fault is past. But, O, what form of prayer can serve my turn? Forgive me my foul murder That cannot be since I am still possessed of those effects for which I did the murder. (3.3.46-53)

In his soliloquy, Claudius expresses his guilt for killing his bother by asking for forgiveness, but his sins cannot be forgiven as long as he retains all he has gained by killing so now he has to live the rest of his life. Shakespeare implies that doing nothing resolves everything with the survival of young Fortinbras at the end of the play. Hamlet, Laertes, and Fortinbras all share the desire to avenge their father. while they all succeed in Hamlet puts too much thought into his revenge and because of it he constantly puts it off which causes his downfall. Laertes acts rationally and acts the moment he is given the opportunity thus causing his downfall. While young Fortinbras is also quick to act yet he loses his desire to get revenge, so he puts more focus on restoring the land Norway lost. As a prince who happens to also be a solider Fortinbras is very calculating, although his father was killed when he was just a child he waited until an opportunity to strike. In this case he knew about the current state of Denmark and began rallying troops to reclaim the land that was lost to former King Hamlet. He was also very open about declaring his revenge, unlike hamlet who only tells a very small amount of people.

Fortinbras establishes that he wants to get revenge and everyone in Denmark knows about it: And this, I take it, Is the main motive of our preperations, the soure of our watch, and the chiefs head Of this posthaste and rummage in the land (1.1.108-11) Because nearly everyone was informed about Fortinbras’s desire of reclaiming the land lost to Denmark, Claudius was able to address the situation by sending Cornelius and Voltimand to seek out the bed ridden king of Norway. Although the king of Norway was aware that Fortinbras was going around and gathering troops he thought it was to attack Poland, so once he found out he was able to put an immediate halt to it. And out of respect to his uncle he made a vow to ‘nevermore more to give th’ assay of arms against Your Majesty (2.2.70-1) but because his Uncle respects Fortinbras’s ambition he allowes him to keep the army he’s gathered and What made Fortinbras more successful than Hamlet and Laertes is that he had an uncle that convinces him not to pursue revenge unlike the ghost of Hamlet and Claudius who encourages Hamlet and Laertes to get revenge. He also has an immense amount of respect for his family and complies with their wishes, unlike hamlet who is seen to throw witty remarks at Claudius and Gertrude.

The Theme of Puritanism and Piety in the Minister’s Black Veil Essay

The story is about when Reverend Hooper enters the church to give a sermon. On this day, the reverend was different because he had a unique dressing style. He had a black veil, which covered the larger part of his face apart from the mouth and chin. People were surprised with the dressing style of reverend on this day (Colacurcio, 373). However, when he began to deliver the sermon, the congregation was unusually moved. The reverend starts by greeting the congregation but people felt astonished and no one was ready to interact with him. Hooper’s veil become relevant during the funeral in the afternoon. She bends down towards the body as his veil hangs down. In this case, the reverend believed that the she could see his face if she were alive. After viewing the body, he covered his face with the black veil. He then walks out of the church and left people in suspense. Some people asserted that he could be walking with woman’s ghost. Finally, he presided over the wedding in the same evening while in the same dressing code.

Many people questioned the dressing style of Reverend Hooper but they could not gather strength and ask him. Some people believed that the reverend was insane because he appeared in a unique dressing code. Consequently, certain people perceived him as sinner and he could be atoning for participating in a crime by hiding his face. A section of the congregation decided to go and see him but could not inquire about his veil. Elizabeth, fiancee of the reverend was the only person who did not fear him despite appearing in an astonishing dressing code. Elizabeth played a pivotal role by creating ease among the congregation. She demanded the reverend to uncover his face and explain to the people the reason for appearing in such a dressing code. Elizabeth warned her fiancee that people were talking ill about the dressing code. For example, she explained to the reverend that the congregation believed he committed a grave sin. However, Hooper declined to uncover his face and asserted that all people were sinners. After that, Reverend Hooper begged Elizabeth to live with him forever because he was lonely. He also promised Elizabeth that their reunion would make his veil to come off. Elizabeth was not at ease because he believed the reverend was evil. She was afraid of the veil and decided to break off their engagement. Hooper then later remained isolated from the rest of Milford.

Despite the fact that people perceived Reverend Hooper as a sinner, the veil made the reverend an impressive preacher. His sermons were different when he wore the veil. For example, before wearing the veil, his sermons sounded mild and pleasant. People also believed in his speeches when he did not wear the veil. The narrator of this story suggests the sermons are not that different hence the reverends are supposed to deliver similar sermons. Other people also believed that the black veil converted them into Christianity. Precisely, Hooper gained reputation across New England.

After some years, Reverend Hooper fall sick and Elizabeth was nursing him in the deathbed. Despite the fact that they did not marry each other, Elizabeth still loved reverend Hooper. Some clergymen including Reverend Clark praised his moral reputation while he was in the deathbed. Hooper was still putting on his veil while lying on the bed. The clergymen pleaded with him to allow them to remove his veil to see his face. However, he remained ardent that his veil should not be lifted on earth. This persistent prompted Reverend Clark to ask him what made him to hide his face. He asked reverend Clark why Milford feared him for that long instead of fearing each other. He also asserted that he could be condemned after all people confessing their dishonesty and feel free with each other (Sadoff 247). In this case, he confirmed that the dishonesty of people made him to wear the black veil in his face. He did not want to see dishonest people. The clergymen were shocked because Hooper did not want to uncover his face. As a result, the clergymen decided to bury him with his face covered.

Religion is one of the themes that come out clearly from this story. The narrator brings forth tenets of puritans. The story takes place in a puritan community with unique understanding of the role of religion in the society. The puritans were Christian Protestants who existed in early 1600s. However, the rulers banished them from the country for having subversive beliefs. After that, they moved to certain parts of America to establish small colonies. According to the puritans, ell human beings were sinners by default because they inherited it from Adam and Eve who were the first human beings to live on earth. For this reason, they believed that education and morals were the only ways of entering the Kingdom of God. They lived a simple life to avoid troubles and sins (Levine 374). For example, they did not believe in dancing, singing, wearing bright colors or playing. They concentrated on their piety and believed their behaviors were outward manifestation of their good deeds.

Hawthrone also dig deeper to bring out the conflict between Hooper who believed in puritanism and Milford. At the onset, the town’s people are thinking secular as they make their ways to church. Some people were laughing while others were admiring the opposite sex. Hooper decided to cover his face using black veil as a sign of believing in puritan virtues. He behaved in a way that opposed the beliefs of Milford. For example, he did not have the pleasure of marriage and friendship (Glausser 375). When Elizabeth failed to love him, he decided to be alone. Hooper remained solid that he did not mind what people said about him. He asserted that he was concerned with the reward in the heaven instead of earning marks from the human beings.

The narrator of this story also brings forth the flaws and contradictions of puritanism. Reverend Hooper covered his face with the intention of attracting the attention of people while delivering sermon. However, people had a conflicting perception about the black veil. They believed that Hooper committed a grave sin that made him to cover his face. People pleaded with him to uncover his face but he refused because he was trying to observe and obey the virtues of puritans. The narrator also brings out the aspect of love in the story. The love between Elizabeth and Hooper did not work out because of the conflicting beliefs. Elizabeth feared the black veil of Reverend Hooper while the reverend expected Elizabeth to love him regardless of the black veil that covered his face.

The Theme of Perseverance in Forrest Gump Essay

On July 6 of 1994, the two hour and twenty-two-minute film, Forrest Gump, hit movie theater screens. The movie was adapted from a book Forrest Gump written by Winston Groom in 1986. The movie was directed by Robert Zemeckis, who also was the director of The Polar Express. The movie grossed more than 660 million dollars! There were so many different storylines throughout the movie that allowed almost anyone to connect with the characters. We could say the genre is a romantic drama, but it also has scenes of action and even a little comedy. This movie won six Academy awards to include: Best Picture, Best Actor in a Leading Role, Best Director, Best Visual Effects, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Film Editing. If that does not define a hit movie, then what does?

Tom Hanks played the main character, Forrest Gump. He was amazing in this role because he stood up for himself and made a way for success in his life. Hanks has a lot of acting experience. He has acted in 76 movies, a popular one being the Disney movie Saving Mr. Banks. Sally Fields played the role of Ms. Gump. She has also starred in numerous movies, one being Mrs. Doubtfire where she also played the role of the mother. Jenny, who was Forrest’s childhood love, was played by Robin Wright who has also acted in many movies but an all-time favorite, Wonder Women.

Forrest Gump is the story of a special man who sits on a bench at a bus stop in Savannah, Georgia as he tells his life story. As a child, he was at a disadvantage having braces on his legs and a low IQ, but that never stopped him from leading a full life. He attended college at the University of Alabama to play football, signed into the Army and fought in the Vietnam War, saved the life of Lieutenant Dan, became a ping pong champion, ran across the nation, and was a successful businessman establishing a shrimp boat business named Bubba Gump. Throughout his whole life, he managed to always keep his sweet childhood love, Jenny, in his mind.

Forrest was a nice dressed fella. His mama told him you could always tell a lot about a person by their shoes. Forrest had many different shoes throughout his life. Beginning as a child he had shoes with braces. Forrest broke out of these braces when he was being bullied and Jenny yelled Run, Forrest, Run! as he was being chased. Then as Forrest grew up, he experienced football cleats and combat boots from war. Jenny added to his collection, buying Forrest a pair of Nike running shoes, which were used to run across the nation.

Forrest went on to play football in college and later enter into the war. He was not intentionally supposed to play football, but the speed he had made him an unintentional athlete. Gump was also an unintended hero in the Vietnam war, as he saved Lieutenant Dan and tried to save his best friend, Bubba, along with other survivors.

The sound effects and music choice were very impactful in this movie. When Jenny returned home to Forrest in Alabama, they dance to the song Sweet Home Alabama. Another song is Fortunate Son which was played when Forrest went to the Vietnam War. This song has references to those who serve and represent the flag and the colors red, white, and blue.

The theme revealed in Forrest Gump was perseverance. My mama says you gotta put the past behind you before you can move on. Forrest never looked back, viewed life positively and dealt with whatever came his way. This Academy-Award Drama has a message for everyone Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you are going to get. Keep living!

The Theme of Huck’s Development Essay

The theme of Hucks development from a young boy to a young man is heavily portrayed in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by its author Mark Twain. The gradual growth and maturity of Huck since he was a young boy helps to build on theme and depicts him as a young protagonist. Generally, it gives a clear picture of his adventures with Negro Jim and the Mississippi river. Hucks growth is mostly embodied on the independent choices that he makes through changing his attitude that helps and contributes to his moral growth. Just like many other young men he is split between the societal status quo and the beliefs it holds and making conscious decisions on his own (Twai, 2003) From being uncivilized Huck continuously learns the art of following his instincts to make the right decision and not allowing both the internal and external factors to play the major role in shaping his decisions. The paper will categorically analyze three scenes that show how Huck development from being a young boy to a young man is progressively depicted in the novel.

Scene 1: Hucks interaction with Negro Jim

During the first parts of the play Huck is portrayed to be very immature and mostly complies with the societal standards that had been set. Before meeting with Jim, Huck suffered from inferiority complex that had resulted from living with a drunken father whom was also abusive. During this point and stage it was very difficult for him to have any concept of morality since he was very young. After meeting with Negro Jim he undergoes several events that enables him to make his own judgments and also become a critical thinker as well. At first Jim is not so clever and intelligent but he is very honest and trustworthy and always aims to help others. He played an important role in teaching Huck the true definition of friendship and loyalty which helps him to undergo a transformation in his early stages. First Jim loves his family very much and hence treats the little man as his own son. This helps to bring out real change and transformation considering the fact that, Huck always felt alone and came from an abusive family that did not care a lot. This helps to build his trust and loyalty and even realize the importance of friendship. Overcoming the slavery mentality where the society never cared about each other was an attitude change that Jim wanted to impact on Hucks. During their adventure a fog separates the two and Jim is filled with a lot of joy to see Huck alive again. At this point it is clear that Jim was willing to sacrifice a lot in order to ensure that his friends safety was maintained. Jim also has a strong sense of self-esteem that makes him to believe that everyone is equal in the society despite their background. Even though after the fog that separated them, Huck later fooled him, he gained his respect and trust. Therefore, this scene is of ultimate importance in helping to shape the young man mentality and also how he treats others. At first he did not reciprocate by treating his friend well and even fooled him; however this paved way for his later transformation in life after he was able to make individual decisions. The external factors of coming from an abusive family would have been the major contributors of his actions but he learned that he had to control them, and do the right thing to people and the society as a whole.

Scene 2 Hucks instincts are tested: His Role model Tom sawyer is a gang member

There is always a very thin line between a teenagers decision to do good or bad. There are always faced with a big dilemma and more so if their role models and people they look up to succeed by doing evil. During these scene Tom Sawyer was Hucks role model and he was a member of a local gang that killed and terrorized people. In order for someone to be enrolled as member they have to agree with the group rules where you are required to kill your family members if you break any of the rules. One of the boys however realized that Huck did not have a real family and hence would not have anyone to kill incase he broke any of the group rules. It was therefore very unfair to them in case he joined them. However, Huck had to find his way in into the group and therefore he offered Miss Watson to be killed in order to join the group offering an innocent person to be killed in order to join a gang is very unethical and hence at this very point his immorality was at the peak. He had to make a conscious decision to do good or bad and this was a vital point of his moral transformation.

Huck also encountered a major dilemma when he and his friend Jim were sailing on small boat came across a wrecked steamboat that had three criminals. At this very point Huck decided to sail away and left the three criminals stranded. However he realized that he had left them to die and even if they were criminals they also deserved to be offered some help. Huck also thought that he may also become a murderer one day and probably find himself in the very same situation and need some help as well. This is the very first occasion that he considers what how actions could probably affect other people and hence he decided to call the captain who investigates the wrecked steam boats and helps the three men to get out of the situation. Although these three men were murderers he could not justify their death and hence the right thing to do at this point was to help them and leave the rest to them to decide. His moral progression from being a young boy to a young man had taken place in this scene. His major role was to make a conscious decision based on his instincts of whether to do good or evil to the men. If he left them to die their deaths would be on him justifiably because he was the only one who saw them but never did anything to solve the problem. This improved his moral judgment and problem solving capability as well.

Scene three: Friend versus society differentiation by Huck

Through the entire book both Jim and Huck are good friends and Jim plays a major role in his moral progression and helping him makes right decisions. His loyalty to him is undivided and always wished Huck well. However, upon arrival to Cairo Huck is faced with moral dilemma that differentiates a boy from a man. He either had to keep his promise to his friend Jim or turn him in as a runaway slave. There was a thin line between complying with the societal standards and fighting for his friends freedom. Jim had been a loyal friend all along but the society could change anytime and leave him alone. At this point he felt guilty and does not think it is right to help Jim steal his family considering he was a slave. However, he was finally able to make the right decision, that proved that he had progressed from being a boy to a man. He states that he would rather go to hell but get his friend the ultimate freedom. At this point he was able to set his own moral standards that were different from societal expectation. The ability to become a critical thinker and make the right decision was proving that he had finally progressed from being a boy to a man. It would be very unfair and ethical if he complied with the society and left his all time friend Jim alone to suffer and his family to die in slavery. This was the true test of his loyalty and moral intelligence.

The Theme of Freedom in “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” Essay

Freedom is Americas greatest attribute and characteristic, nevertheless, one can debate whether or not the idea has always been present in the country. Authors such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, and Emily Dickinson demonstrate true American pride when writing. However, the dark side of the thought is shown as well. Slavery is a part of the sinful history of America, which in turn, inspired authors such as Mark Twain to write novels like The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The book and character, Huckleberry Finn, face many struggles with freedom such as his need to become free from the Widow’s confinement, the choice of society or himself, and a debate of whether the book should be banned or not due to the choice of words Mark Twain uses.

Mark Twain introduces the protagonist of the novel, Huckleberry Finn, as an uneducated, wild, and independent child. Shadowed by the Widow, Huck is “sivilized” into being well conformed and polite. However, the reader is quick to realize that Huck is an independent and adventurous person. Huckleberry’s drive for freedom pushes him away from the Widow, and more towards himself. Being bound to the Widow does not allow him to express his personality, but steer him away from it instead. Near the beginning of the book, Huck argues, “Then she told me all about the bad place, and I said I wished I was there. She got mad then, but I didnt mean no harm. All I wanted was to go somewheres; all I wanted was a change, I warnt particular. Huck expresses how he prefers to leave to a “bad place” than to spend himself trapped with the Widow’s teachings. Huck also understands that being free means that he can live his own life, by his own rules, and not worry about how he looks, talks, or acts.

Throughout history, society has dictated man’s rights to how one must act, look, believe, do, etc. Huckleberry Finn lived in a society where the color of a person’s skin determined the result of one’s life. Jim, the Widow’s African American slave, joined Huck on his adventure to freedom. Jim has convinced Huck to help him in his reach the North. Huck realizes that Jim IS a human being; despite Jim’s ethnicity and social principles. At the end of the book, Aunt Sally questions Huck and Tom about why they would want to help free a slave. Huck simply replies, “No, I aint out of my head; I know all what Im talking about. We did set him free – me and Tom. We laid out to do it, and we done it. And we done it elegant, too. Assertively, Huck defends Jim against the remarks that Aunt Sally is making. Mark Twain wanted to indicate that Huckleberry did not care about how Aunt Sally thought of him, because he was already used to that as a free-thinking person. The novel The founding fathers created a nation based on the preservation of mans unalienable rights: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

The Theme of Freedom and Childhood in Jane Eyre Essay

Jane Eyre From her trials during childhood with her abusive Aunt and relatives, to her time at Lowood, her affection for Mr. Rochester, and her teaching and encounters with the Rivers. Jane learns many valuable and worthwhile lessons throughout the book. From childhood Jane was forthright, and slowly she learned how to stand up for herself; starting with her reproaching John Reed for hitting her. The outcome of this unfortunately lead to Jane being sent to Lowood an institution for orphans; there it was very harsh, cold, and mean, but Jane was lucky enough to make friends with Helen and also Miss Temple. Jane remained at the school for eight years, six as a student and two as a teacher. Finally with the education she had gained she became a governess at Thornfield Manor for a French girl named Adele. Jane worked under the command of Mr. Rochester.

The many events that happen at Thornfield cause Jane to feel many different emotions; joy, despair, frustration, love and hope. She finally becomes a teacher and lives with the Rivers. Later finding out she has an inheritance from her uncle. Which she shares with the Rivers. Theres a lot to this book and Jane changes a lot. from Gateshead to Lowood school, Jane freedom andwas no longer confined to her cruel aunts house. No more bully, no more ignorance and no more loneliness, Jane was able to adjust herself into a normal girl. Through learning from Helen and God, since Lowood School was Christian, Jane realized the sense of obedience. This learning helped her attitude to accept challenges and difficulties, instead of complaining. Her life at Lowood gave her peace even with the poor living condition.

From Lowood to Thornfield, even freedom was given both mentally and physically since there were less rules. Jane had to set her own rules and give direction to herself. Her confidence and thoughts caught Mr. Rochesters attention. After the outbreak of Mr. Rochesters former marriage, Jane remained calm. Jane kept aware of her self-worth and left Thornfield to keep learning and to keep searching for her own meaning of life. From Thornfield to Moor house, she lost everything herself. Without the job at Thornfield, she was poor. While she stayed at the Moor House, Jane was given a job to help St. John to manage the school. From Moor House to Ferdean Manor, with her uncles fortune, Jane had become a wealthy, independent, woman. Instead, great difference was made when she was back to help Mr. Rochester. Compared to how she went to him before poor and needing help to now going to the opposite. I told you I am independent, sir, as well as rich: I am my own mistress.

The Theme of Deception the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain Essay

In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the theme of deception is clearly portrayed by Mark Twain throughout the entire novel. The motives for this deception are different depending on the situation and also on the character. The book starts off with deception right away when Huck sneaks out the window of the Widow’s house at night and then sneaks back in later, pretending nothing happened, and the deception continues steadily throughout the novel until the last few pages when the truth seems to finally come out. Huckleberry also seems to be struggling through an identity crisis throughout the novel, and the characters he meets show him in very extreme levels who he wants to be and who he doesnt want to be. His upbringing may have played a part in Huckleberry being so deceitful. For starters, his dad would steal things and call it borrowing. His mother seems to have died when he was young and his dad abused him and still abuses him, partly because he is most often found drunk. In the book there are countless examples of deception, both big and small, so much that I could never fit it all in an essay or else wed be here all day, so Ive decided to focus some of the bigger acts of deception.

On page 51 of the book and continuing through the 7th chapter, Mark Twain presents the first big act of deception where Huckleberry fakes his own death. His dad would come home drunk every night and either beat him or just go crazy, and Huck would always tolerate it, but a few nights prior his dad had came close to killing him in his drunken state. Huckleberry didnt feel safe where he was, but he didnt want to go back to living a civil life with the Widow, so he decided to run away. But he wanted to run away without anyone going after him, so he decided to fake his murder, and he created a pretty good case. He killed a pig and dragged its blood everywhere, and also took many belongings from the cabin he lived in with his dad in the woods, making it look like someone had murdered him and looted the house. He also made tracks going the opposite way he was planning on going. He had recently found a canoe floating down the river at high tide, so he packed this with some belongings and sailed off down the river. I believe in this case, deception by Huck was used for good, because he was running away from a bad situation that no child should have to endure.

When Huck meets Jim on the island he first stays on, he doesnt turn Jim in as a runaway slave, but instead decides to travel with him. During their travels, Jim was often thought to be a runaway slave, so they had to come up with many different stories to keep him safe. The hiding of Jim was deceptive, because they werent letting anyone know his true identity. But this kind of deception was to protect Jim, and to keep him safe and out of the bonds of slavery, so I would argue that it was a good kind of deception. Huck thought that for sure he would go to hell because he helped Jim, and many times considered not helping him at all and turning him in, but in the end he stuck with him. Jim had a good soul, and it turns out in the end of the book that he actually was a free man all along because the Widow set him free in her will.

Much later in the book on page 192, near the end of chapter 19, Huck and Jim meet two men who claim to be kings and dukes but actually werent. They just wish to be treated well and loved and respected, probably because because they had never gotten that. They in themselves were deceiving, but they also came up with plans of deception to trick people out of their money. They did phony shows that werent legitimate, but they made lots of money because people came thinking it would be great. They pretended to be people they werent, just so that they could get donations and then use that money to become rich. They even tried to pretend to be the heirs of someone wealthy who had just died, and it became a huge scandal that they just barely escaped. They used deception in a bad way to gain wealth for themselves at the expense of others. Huck didnt want to be like these men and he also didnt want to have anything to do with them. He was tired of their deceptive ways. Eventually the men got what they deserved, and Huck became free of them, though afterward he also pitied them.

Deception can be used in so many different ways, and I believe this book does a great job at highlighting all the different ways that deception is used. It is used to protect Jim from being taken into slavery again. It is used to cheat people out of their money by pretending to be something they arent. It is used to protect Huck from his abusive father and also to set him free to a lifestyle of adventure instead of being cooped up. It is used to hide the characters identities and also to create new identities for them. And those I just mentioned were only a few out of many others. This book has shown me even more clearly how deception can be used in both good and bad ways, and also that deception is never completely good or bad.

Additionally, I kept record of the deception I recognized throughout the book, and here are the page numbers I recorded: pg. 48, 51, 92, 116, 141, 156, 192, 204, 214, 222, 250, and 317. Now I obviously didnt write down all the page numbers of deception, for there would have been far too many. And I didnt include page numbers from the end of the book where Huck and Tom set free Jim in the most dangerous and extravagant way possible even though Jim is already a free man by law. I just wanted to include these numbers for future reference.

The Main Theme of the Story of Mice Essay

In the book Of Mice And Men, by John Steinbeck I believe the main theme is friendship. This story takes place in the Great Depression in California. The book was about two men who had a strong friendship and the man named Lennie had something wrong with him, so he acted like a child. George was Lennier’s caretaker since Lennie wasnt able to take care of himself very well. This book showed how much George cared about Lennie by taking care of him even though he didnt have to.

The book, Of Mice And Men, has many themes but friendship stood out the most to me. George was always taking care of Lennie and sometimes George got frustrated with Lennie. In the book it said, The little man jerked down the brim of his hat and scowled over Lennie, so you forgot that awready,did you? I gotta tell you again, do I ? This shows that George gets mad a lot but still stays by Lennier’s side, even when Lennie forgets what George tells him just after he says it.

George is very patient with Lennie even though he gets furious. Lennie doesnt think like most men do as was shown when George asks this, What you want of a dead mouse,anyways? I could pet it with my thumb while we walked along, said Lennie. This shows that Lennie acts like a child by wanting to pet the mouse. People like Lennie dont understand that they are men and strong and could hurt someone even if they are just playing around. God, youre a lot of trouble, said George. George never leaves Lennie because her’s his friend and thatr’s what true friendship is about even though you might sometimes feel annoyed or mad.

Another way that the reader can tell George cares for Lennie is by him saying. I aint takin it away just for meanness. That mouse aint fresh, Lennie; and besides, youve broke it pettin it. You get another mouse thatr’s fresh and Ill let you keep it a little while. This shows that George does really care about him even when Lennie is making problems. George was always giving Lennie hope. Hope that they would get their own home and Lennie could have a puppy and a rabbit.

In the end of the book it shows what a real friendship is when the writer wrote, the voices came close now. George raised the gun and listened to the voices. Lennie begged, Ler’s do it now. Ler’s get that place now. Sure, right now. I gotta we gotta. And George raised the gun and steadied it, and he brought the muzzle of it close to the back of Lennier’s head. The hand shook violently, but his face set and his hand steadied and pulled the trigger. The crash of the shot rolled up the hill and down again. Lennie jarred, and then settled slowly forward to the sand, and he lay without quivering.

This part of this book is so important because George cared so much about Lennie he shot him so Curley wouldnt shoot him and make him suffer.

This book is an amazing story that shows what true friendship means. Of Mice And Men, was very powerful to me and helped me understand what a true friend really is. Back in the Great Depression real friendships meant a lot to people. Today most people dont understand what being a friend means. Now I see people calling everyone their best friends and thatr’s not what true friendship is. A true best friend is someone you trust and can tell your darkest secrets to and can trust them to not tell anyone. Itr’s sad that people dont know what true friendship is, but George and Lennie did and they made me think more about what having a true friendship really means. I hope people realize how important close friendships are.

The Faith to Persevere: a Theme of Night Essay


How much faith and confidence can we place in the scripture of Hebrews 11:1, now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see (BibleGateway)? How much faith is necessary for practically blind confidence and optimism for the future? In Wiesel’s book Night, unwavering faith is the final bulwark against submission to the Nazi’s inhumanity and murderous tendencies. Mr. Wiesel perseveres through the darkest of times when the future may have seemed bleak and his life teetering at the mercy of death. He perseveres due to his seemingly unshakable Jewish faith, despite moments of doubt. Elie Wiesel emotionally conveys the unbreakable bond of faith in face of numerous, insurmountable adversities in his novel, Night, through the use of intense internal conflict, poignant personifications, and deep, emotional symbolism.

Internal Conflict

Wiesel utilizes the concept of intense internal conflict between himself and his faith to vividly express the theme. While being in a concentration camp, Wiesel is questioning his once solid faith in God. He questions his faith by emotionally asking many impossible questions about God, he says, Why, but why would I bless Him?… He caused thousands of children to burn in His mass graves?… Because he kept six crematoria working day and night, including Sabbath and the Holy Days? (Wiesel 67). Wiesel spends so much of his short life abiding by his Jewish faith hoping that God would protect him, but God now places him in Hell on Earth. Naturally, it is human to question their protectors when they let them down. This terrible nightmare possesses the ability to shake the faith of any person, religious or not. This scene also highlights the major transition undergone by Mr. Wiesel with regard to his religiousness. Before he was in the iron grasps of the Nazis, he was devoutly religious. Wiesel, at the tender age of thirteen, was already reading the Talmud nightly, weeps while praying and compares it to living and breathing. Also, Wiesel says how emotional he gets to the historical events of the destruction of the Temple and the suffering of his Jewish forefathers.

In addition, he wants to study Kabbalah, a concept that only Jews at the age of thirty can explore and study. It is not until he arrives at Birkenau he starts feeling this terrible loneliness; this abandonment by God. Despite these feelings, he stills prays. When being inspected by an SS Officer he so eloquently calls the Angel of Death, he says prayers of thankfulness when the officer notices nothing glaring at him. This scene, while showing thankfulness of God’s grace, wholeheartedly supports the theme of perseverance through faith. The theme is demonstrated by these actions through the fact that God gave him the strength to persevere, to not have anything glaring about him. Due to prolongment of his life, Wiesel thanks Him for practically saving his life. That scene shows that despite the tests of faith portrayed in this story, he never lost faith and that was essential to his survival. His survival is secured by faith due to referencing John 3:16, that whoever believes shall not perish but have eternal life, (BibleGateway). As Wiesel believes in God, he is scripture-wise endowed with strength and life and this carries on in the physical world helping him survive. Though that Wiesel’s intense, emotional internal conflict present in the story it is supplemented by the use of piercing and impassioned personifications.


Through Wiesel’s use of poignant personification, it exemplifies how the virtues of fidelity and spirituality are shaken to their very core. On the way to Auschwitz, Wiesel has a moment of self-reflection. He personifies the aspects of fire and silence, ghastly moments that make an impact on his relatively short life. He concludes that mental thought with the personification, Never shall I forget those flames that consumed my faith forever…Never shall I forget those moments that murdered my God and my soul. (Wiesel 34). Wiesel is personifying the killers of his essence and highlights the suffering that he has endured. This heart-wrenching personification helps prove the thesis because it illuminates that despite the flames consuming his life and faith, he still gives his body and soul to his God. That allegiance towards Him allows him to persevere and give him a reason to live. Wiesel must remember the killers of his faith and to do that he must live. He must tell others his story because those who do not learn about it are destined to repeat it. Wiesel’s memories are preventing another Holocaust; another genocide by religion. His faith is one of the few things keeping him alive.

In addition, in this scene, he keeps repeating the dramatic anaphora, never shall I forget (Wiesel 34). This shows that Wiesel still cares about his God, especially for a teenager in times of overwhelming circumstances. This shows that he still cares about his God because he specifically mentions how the circumstances murdered his God, who was a part of his soul. He had the chance to mention anyone in that situation, his family, his people, but he chooses his God. That meaningful bond to the young Wiesel is evident and in this instance, he seems even more passionate and even shares bitter resentment to the killers that killed his God and effectively killing himself in the inside. In addition to personification, the final piece of this grand literary trio is symbolism for it adds a heightened emotional sense to this sorrowful story.


The use of deep, emotional symbolism by Wiesel develops the theme in a very dramatic way during one of the lowest points of his captivity. During Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, it is customary to fast. On the other hand, due to the already evident food deprivation and the continuing loss of faith, he turns his back on his religion. He says with the feelings of abandonment worsened by the suffering experience he proclaims, no longer any reason for me to fast…I swallowed my ration of soup, I turned that act into a symbol of rebellion, or protest against Him. (Wiesel 69). While Wiesel is practically renouncing God. The ever so important symbol in this scene is defiance defiance of God and defiance of self. He deliberately goes against the teachings of God by eating.

He also goes against himself by going against a religion that has dominated his life. This relates to the theme of perseverance by faith. While defiance is an important element in this part of the book, he aims that defiance towards God. Like the personifications, he could decide to aim his sorrow, his anger, his confusion towards anyone or anything. In this instance, he chooses God. The spiritual fuel for his perseverance to live is his faith, his fidelity towards the resentment yet belief of his God. The literal fuel in this instance is that by defying God, he breaks fasting fueling his body with a meager meal. That meager meal allowed him the energy to survive, to persevere through the Nazi’s savagery. Wiesel’s faith, while uncertain, protects him physically, spiritually, and emotionally from something no human should have to endure.


It takes a considerable amount of faith to have blind optimism in the future. It also takes a substantial amount of faith to persevere with that faith. Through all of the difficulties and misfortunes on his road, his faith, even though flickering, keeps him moving. Vivid, deep internal conflict enables the reader to understand the perseverance factor of faith since that it empowers him with the necessary items to survive. The pithy and stark personifications come to aid when it empowers Wiesel to continue fighting and never to give up on himself and his family. Finally, symbolism, it illustrates the fidelity that fuels his desire to live, only to resent those who place him in constant danger. Faith, as former President Jimmy Carter says, arises in almost every area of human existence (Faith). That is so significant because of how true it is, especially in the context of perseverance and conviction. In conclusion, the only question that is left to ask; how can faith lead us through all of the senselessness of modern society and how much trust should be in it?

Works Cited

Bible Gateway. Acts 3:9-10 NIV Bible Gateway, Bible Gateway Blog, earch=Hebrews+11:1&version=NIV.

Faith. Simon & Schuster, Scribner,

Wiesel, Elie, and Marion Wiesel. Night. Hill and Wang, 2006.

Social Oppression of Women Theme in Trifles Essay

What are the “trifles” that the men ignore but the women notice? Author shows us stereotypical men whose words and actions shows us they egotistical, thoughtless, self-important, and condescending personalities. And kind and carrying women that have strong sense of female intuition. One of those trifles we can see when Hale states that John Wright never cared what his wife wanted to county attorney. He stopped Hale because he did not find that to be significant to the crime. Where women in the different seen talk to each other and Mrs. Hale says to Mrs. Peterson that John Wright was a difficult man to live with, she tells her that Mrs. Wright use to be social beautiful soul who loved to sing and after marrying her husband she gets locked up in the cage that she can not get out of. Mrs. Hale even feel guilty for not coming and checking on her long-lost friend Minnie Wright. Both women feel pain and broking emotions of Mrs. Wright and see significant signs for a murder motive. Then we see how county attorney goes thru the kitchen finds a dirty towel and messy dishes and assumes right away that Mrs. Wright was just a dirty housekeeper. Where two women notice that kitchen is not dirty it is in the middle of being cleaned up. Table is half cleaned, Mrs. Wright was trying to bake some bread, and the towel is not dirty is just guy who came to fire the stove cleaned his hands with it. That is just few trifles that men ignore but women notice. In the play Trifles we see difference of men and women way of thinking. The things that men consider insignificant women find very interesting.

The play Trifles has been written in the early twenty’s century when male dominated society still limited women opportunities. Men was a King and women was his dependent. In my opinion authors point here is that the women are very strong, smart and way tougher than any men, when they want and need to be. That nothing can brake us, and if the women will come together, they can protect one another; they can stay strong and empower each other in the time of need.

Slavery as a Major Theme in Robert A. Gross Essay

Slavery acts as a major theme in Robert A. Gross’s The Minutemen and Their World and Maya Jasanoff’s Liberty’s Exiles. As a result, racism is integrated in the societies of both works, furthering the point that racism is and will continue be a problem we face in our society today. Racism is instilled within the colonies, Britain and their territories, the Caribbean, and the world as a whole through many instances. The instances of slavery and oppression explained in The Minutemen and Their World and Liberty’s Exiles create a foundation for racism, dehumanizing and making black people out to be burdens, creating major obstacles for blacks- both free and enslaved – to practice religion, hold basic human rights, and exist without fear of assault or being wrongly sold into slavery.

Black people are dehumanized in numerous ways in both of these historical monographs. In chapter four of Liberty’s Exiles, black people were said to be “begging about the streets of London, and suffering all those evils, and inconveniences, consequent on idleness and poverty” (Jasanoff 128). This fueled what Jasanoff describes as racial hostility. This hostility instills a toxic ideology within London and beyond. The idea that black people are all poor beggars in need of saving creates a negative stigma that dehumanizes the group as a whole. Although people like Jonas Hanway came up with solutions to this problem (the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor), the stigma still exists that black people are the ones who need help. This creates a hierarchy in which white people are above black people because of their position to help. This hierarchy reappears in The Minutemen and Their World, when it is explained that the war was being fought mainly by “landless younger sons, by the permanent poor, and by blacks” (Gross 151). This, again, associates black people with poor people, placing them below wealthy land owning white people.

What is interesting is the association of landless younger sons with black and poor people. Land, as well as economic status and the color of your skin, were important factors to an individual’s place within a society during this time period. The huge population difference between black and white people is pointed out multiple times in Liberty’s Exiles. By the time of the Revolution, “only about seventeen hundred whites and twenty-three hundred blacks (about half of these free) lived on New Providence, Eleuthera, and Harbor Island” (Jasanoff 219). With black people outnumbering white people in so many instances, one might think it absurd that black people can’t do things like vote. Free blacks were excluded from the right to vote in New Brunswick and other colonies. It is evident that before the Constitution was written, colonists did not view North America as a government for the people, by the people especially when the specific group of voters at the time didn’t represent the entire population. Denying voting rights to people because of their skin color is just another factor that contributes to the dehumanizing of blacks during this time period.

The initiative to help the black poor was followed by Henry Smeathman’s persuasion of the committee to send the black poor to Sierra Leone to be the first colonist’s there in Liberty’s Exiles. This action makes black people out to look like a burden to the community, but still uses them as commodities to experiment with. In The Minutemen and Their World, slaves were seen as badges of status because “the profits of slave dealing built the elegant mansions of some of Boston’s and Salem’s best families” (Gross 95). Only wealthy white families could own slaves and the number of slaves per family served as a testament to their wealth and status. Black people are consistently seen as products, especially when referring to the slave trade. In both monographs, slaves were talked about like items to be sold and traded among other goods like rum and molasses. Slaves were also treated as items; they were often crammed in ships with no room to move much like a product. This is the worst form of dehumanization in both texts, creating a barrier between white and black people. If someone can disassociate blackness with being human, it is easy for these individuals not to feel bad for them and their conditions. This ideology acts as a major foundation for racism and is seen in both Liberty’s Exiles and The Minutemen and Their World.

As expected, religion became an issue when it started to bring slaves hope. A name brought up a lot in Liberty’s Exiles was David George. George was a black loyalist who escaped from slavery in Virginia and founded different Baptist congregations. When he went to Nova Scotia in 1783, he founded his first black congregation where he sang hymns and baptized people in the community while instilling a sense of hope among slaves. At Shelburne, he sang hymns that attracted both black and white people and on his first Sunday, he “could not speak for tears” of joy (Jasanoff 173). The Baptist preacher eventually took his congregation to Sierra Leone. In Jamaica, George Liele came and preached the same things David George did in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The slaves learned a lot from him and they gained a newfound culture of African spirituality. Because of their poor conditions, Liele’s message was a source of hope.

Leile built the first Baptist chapel in Jamaica and baptized converts in the river, but his actions were not met with tolerance by white slave-owning supporters. “The idea that too much prevails here amongst the masters of slaves is, that if their minds are considerably enlightened by religion or otherwise, that it would be attended with the most dangerous consequences” (Jasanoff 267-268). Slave-owning supporters would rather black people remain illiterate and at their disposal than practice a religion and possess a mind of their own. This ideology drives home the point that white people wanted to literally own black people, both physically and mentally. The fact that there were more blacks than whites created a fear among white people of a slave revolt, which they acted on before any such thing happened. Liele had to assure white slave-owners that he was not trying to threaten slavery and slaves had to be let into the church at the discretion of their owners. In Saint Domingue, racial laws were created to keep blacks and whites safely apart.

The fear of being sold into slavery because of the color of your skin, free or not, was just one of many fears that black people of the time faced. In Liberty’s Exiles, Britain needed to do something about their overcrowded prisons so they sent a fleet to Botany Bay in 1787. On that ship were seven black loyalists. Whites often seized black loyalists and sold them into slavery in the United States and the Caribbean. These events could be seen as merely an accident or, an attempt to get rid of black people. In Birchtown, many black people were either forced into low-paying jobs or indentured to white people in Shelburne where their jobs “replicated their former positions of slavery” (Jasanoff 174). Another fear instilled in the lives of black people was something as simple as appearing in public in Kingston in 1971. White Jamaicans were scared of a slave revolt at the time so violence was common. In The Minutemen and Their World, slavery is seen in a different light. Although it is clear slaves are denied many rights, Gross is sure to mention that in New England, slaves could “hold property, sue for freedom, and testify in court against both whites and other blacks” (Gross 95). There is a slight contrast in the way slavery is explained in these two books. Liberty’s Exiles is sure to paint a picture of misery and oppression while The Minutemen and Their World explains the advantages certain slaves had over others, making their situation appear to be, in the slightest of ways, tolerable.

The word “slavery” was used in a different context throughout The Minutemen and Their World for white colonists. The white citizens of Concord saw blacks as “embodiments of what British ‘slavery’ could mean”: “deprived of independence, denied the fruits of their labor, [and] always subject to the will of others” (Gross 94). This comparison shows the attitudes of white colonists towards what is considered to be oppression. When faced with what extreme oppression looked like for black people at the time, this use of the word “slavery” is arbitrary. In Liberty’s Exiles, Jasanoff keeps the word “slavery” exclusive to the oppression of black people and the industry of such oppression and objectification.

The different accounts explained in Liberty’s Exiles and The Minutemen and Their World offer an explanation for the deep-seated racism in our country and how dehumanizing and making black people out to be burdens created major obstacles for blacks to practice religion, hold basic human rights, and exist without fear of assault or being wrongly sold into slavery. These two historical monographs give a deeper look into what makes our country what it is today. When looking at American and world history, slavery is an immensely important theme and explains the racism black people experience even in today’s world. There is a big need for change in America’s attitudes towards black people even today. Racism has deep roots in our society and it is our duty to uproot them and continue to progress together for a more compassionate world.

Significant Theme of Love in “A Farewell to Arms” Essay

In Hemingway’s novel A Farewell to Arms, one of the most significant themes Hemingway emphasizes on in the novel is love. He showed this theme through the novel by descriptively describing Lt. Henry and Catherine Barkley’s relationship. Although in book one of the novel, Hemingway’s view on love is very cynical. He expresses this cynical idea on love through describing Lt. Henry and Catherine Barkley’s relationship as a game where Lt. Henry must plan each action out like moves in a chess game to get what he wants from Catharine. Early on, Lt. Henry thinks he is playing this game alone. However, later in their relationship Catherine to his surprise reveals that she is also playing what she refers to in the text as a rotten game we play. This indicates that they both were playing a game with each other in which they were both trying to get something out of one another.

At first sight, Catherine Barkley was attracted to Lt. Henry, it was also the same attraction that Lt. Henry had for Catherine. After first meeting Catherine, Lt. Henry promised to come and see her every day or as often as he could, which is what he does. Them seeing each other leads to their somewhat fake relationship leading to a very serious and meaningful relationship over time. Lt. Henry’s leg injury later in the book also strengthens their relationship even more when he gets to see her again at the hospital in Milan after being moved there to treat and have his leg operated on. In fact, when he first saw her come into his hospital room, he described his feelings for her upon seeing her as I was in love with her, everything turned over inside of me. Given these feelings, the current state of Lt. Henry and Catherine’s relationship is very meaningful and strong.

Although Lt. Henry has been in many relationships over the years of his life, none of them have been prolonged enough or meaningful enough to him to be considered as anything more than the same game he plays with Catherine early on in their relationship. In fact, in the text he even states that I had never been in love with anyone and then again later in the text he states that I had not wanted to fall in love with her, but I had as he referred to Miss. Barkley. This shows that although he may have told Catherine differently, all he had wanted their relationship to amount to was nothing more than a game or as he describes it a good time. Despite his original plan, Catherine ends up being his perfect match and he ends up falling in love with her.

Catherine’s story on the other hand is much different from Lt. Henry’s. Prior to their relationship, we only know of one other relationship she had been in, which was with her deceased boyfriend. They had been engaged for nearly eight years until he was killed in a battle called the Somme. Although, Catherines view on their relationship seemed more serious even from the start, she too had been just looking for someone to play games with. However, as with Lt. Henry, she too eventually falls deeply in love with him and they soon become inseparable.

Ultimately, Lt. Henry and Catherine Barkley’s relationship has been through a lot of different things. Some of these, include the two of them being fake at first and Lt. Henry getting a horrible injury causing them to be separated for a while. However, given all these trials and tribulations, they seem to have only strengthened their relationship to become an unbreakable bond that will likely continue to grow as the text goes on and the plot develops.

Shakespeare’s Major Theme in King Lear Essay

Compassion in Tragedy: Shakespeare’s Important Topic in King Lear

Albert Schweitzer when claimed that The goal of human lifestyle is to serve, and to exhibit compassion and the will to enable other folks. Compassion is feeling sympathy, staying form, and caring for many others. In William Shakespeare’s play King Lear, an vital concept is that it’s crucial to present kindness to other individuals, even in complicated periods. Shakespeare demonstrates this theme by means of King Lear’s discussions with his daughters, specially the youngest, Cordelia, and his discussions with his pals. King Lear follows the story of an aging king and his daughters as he gives up his throne. The majority of the perform focuses on Lear’s descent into insanity at the cruel hands of his daughters Regan and Goneril, and concludes with their loss of life and Lear’s reconciliation with his other daughter Cordelia. Together the way, Lear’s interactions with his close friends and daughters show the viewers the ability of compassion.

King Lear’s daughters are a principal instance of Shakespeare’s demonstration of this concept. Pretty early in the enjoy, after Lear has divvied his kingdom up amongst his daughters, his noble advisor Kent makes an attempt to persuade Lear that he’s judged his youngest daughter Cordelia’s enjoy as well harshly. Response my existence my judgement, thy youngest daughter does not love thee least, nor are individuals vacant-hearted whose low sound reverbs no hollowness. (I, i, ll. 151-153). Soon after the untrue, flattering words and phrases from his daughters Goneril and Regan, Lear’s incapability to see that Cordelia’s enjoy was as well great to be put into phrases caused him to reduce his daughter and his advisor Kent, who was exiled when his compassion induced Lear to come to be furious at him. Kent appreciates his try to present the king how to repair his romance with honesty and compassion will price him his title, his standing and Lear’s trust, nonetheless he does it anyway.

Sooner or later, Lear attempts to mend the rift he’s brought about with Cordelia. Be your tears soaked? Yes, religion. I pray, weep not. If you have poison for me, I will consume it. I know you do not love me, for your sisters have, as I do bear in mind, finished me erroneous. You have some trigger they have not, King Lear says in Act 4, Scene 7 in lines 69 to 73 as he apologizes to Cordelia when he realizes he was wrong and misjudged her. Cordelia’s response, No result in, no result in, (IV, vii, ll. 74) shows her continued like for her father, as is also demonstrated in Act 4, Scene 3, traces 25-30 Religion, after or two times she heaved the name of father’ pantingly forth as if it pressed her heart, cried sisters, sisters!

Shame of women, sisters! Kent, father, sisters! What, i’ th’ storm, i’ th’ night? Enable pity not be thought.’ There she shook the holy water from her heavenly eyes, and clamor moistened. Then absent she commenced to deal with grief by itself. Even with currently being banished by her father, she even now loves him and grieves for him. Her like resonates through the story and she is the only character to stand by Lear following he has dropped anything – his crown, his brain, and his cruel, oldest daughters.

Regan is one of people cruel older daughters, and incredibly early on in the tale she shows the audience her cold heart. …Shut up your doors: he is attended by a determined teach, and what they may perhaps to incense him to, remaining apt to have his ear abused, wisdom bids anxiety. (II, iv, ll. 348-351). Her husband Cornwall responds with Shut up your doorways, my lord. Tis a wild evening. My Regan counsels effectively. Arrive out o’ th’ storm. (II, iv, ll. 351-353). Not only does Regan power her father out into a perilous storm, she locks the doorway behind him as effectively. Cornwall, and especially Regan, present no kindness to Lear through the total tale, even however he is Regan’s father and their previous king. The drastic consequences of this absence of kindness to Lear at some point lead to the deaths of both of those Regan and her spouse, as Cornwall is murdered in a duel by Lear’s friend and Regan is poisoned by her jealous sister Goneril. They would under no circumstances have started fighting except Lear had pushed a wedge between them with the division of the kingdom.

Goneril, Regan’s older sister, also reveals no compassion for Lear. Gloucester, a mate of Lear’s, tells Regan that I would not see thy cruel nails pluck out Lear’s poor aged eyes, nor thy fierce sister in his anointed flesh adhere boarish fangs. (III, vii, ll. 55-57). Regan’s nails are explained as cruel, and Goneril’s boarish fangs depict her as a savage animal who reveals mercy and kindness to no one, not even her personal father.

Regan and Goneril were every single given 50 % the kingdom by their father, and ruled over it for a shorter period of time even so, at the conclusion of the play, Goneril poisons Regan and kills herself. This commentary by Shakespeare demonstrates the audience that though cruelty and anger may perhaps originally get you farther than compassion, kindness will be greater for anyone in the conclude.

In addition to his daughters, Lear’s mates are amongst the other characters who display Shakespeare’s theme of compassion in the course of the story. In Act 3, Scene 4, Lear, whose mind is rapidly deteriorating, asks Kent, Wilt break my coronary heart? Kent, who remained undyingly faithful to the aging king, replied with I had alternatively split my have. (III, iv, ll. 4-5). The determination, loyalty and empathy toward Lear that Kent demonstrates as a result of the entire participate in present the audience the toughness of Kent’s really like towards the king, even following the king banishes him early in the story. The adoration that Kent has for King Lear reveals his strength of character and loyalty to the king, as not lots of individuals could carry on to appreciate and support another person just after they have been mistreated by that anyone the way Kent was.

Just a little bit afterwards in Act 3, Scene 4 all through strains 23 to 27, Lear exhibits his own compassion for one particular of the initial moments in the perform. Prithee, go in thyself. Seek out thine own simplicity. This tempest will not give me go away to ponder on points that would harm me much more. But I’ll go in. (To Fool) In, boy. Go very first. You houseless poverty- nay, get thee in. I’ll pray, and then I’ll sleep. His telling the Fool to go in ahead of him and make himself snug displays how he is placing his pricey servant ahead of himself, even in the depths of his madness. His managing a servant greater than himself, a previous king, demonstrates how a great deal empathy Lear has obtained through the tale.

Many scenes before in the story, Lear realizes how uninformed he was when he states Inadequate naked wretches, whereso’er you are, that bide the pelting of this pitiless storm, how shall your houseless heads and unfed sides, your loop’d and window’d raggedness, defend you from seasons this kind of as these?

O, I have ta’en far too minimal care of this! Acquire physic, pomp expose thyself to truly feel what wretches feel, that thou mayst shake the superflux to them, and demonstrate the heavens extra just. (3.2.65-71). He’s emotion for the initially time what it is like to battle and be poor, and he needs, now that he appreciates what the poorest people today go by, that he experienced carried out a little something a lot more about it when he was king. It took getting rid of his electric power and his brain to make Lear understand that he could have carried out something to enable these people, which is Shakespeare’s way of telling his audience that they ought to normally attempt to greater others’ life, even if they never completely recognize what other folks are heading by way of right up until they knowledge it by themselves.

The topic of It is significant to show kindness to many others, even in hard situations is heavily implied during Shakespeare’s King Lear, demonstrating why caring about other people today is useful. His quiet, loving daughter Cordelia’s adore is described by Kent soon after Lear banishes her, and Lear afterwards apologizes to Cordelia, mending their romantic relationship just after a interval of argument. His other daughters, Regan and Goneril, finish up dead immediately after they clearly show no kindness to their father. Even Lear’s possess compassion was demonstrated by means of his sympathy for the Idiot in his wild insanity. Kent, also, confirmed good kindness to Lear despite Lear’s hatred of him. Throughout the story, Shakespeare demonstrates that we should really constantly try out to be kind even when negative issues may be happening in your everyday living. Soon after all, according to Albert Schweitzer, the this means of lifestyle is to show compassion to some others.

Functions Cited:

Shakespeare, William. King Lear. Trans. John Crowther. Spark Publishing, 2003.

Research on Social Justice Theme Essay

Most  of  the problems have  different applications of the demise penalty, police brutality, racial profiling, sentencing disparity, and different  treatment method of minorities by the Criminal  justice procedure. Anything that takes place in courtroom is suppose to be lawful and took into consideration, that your daily life could be on the line and how quite a few several years currently being expended could affect you and the people today about you. The colour of someone skin shouldn’t be a purpose to place them in jail but the supreme court should be a rationale to send out a human being to jail if their in a completely wrong of undertaking illegal routines. The United States is incredibly corrupted in my view and also other international locations as perfectly is manipulated by judges and their views of what they imagine individuals stand just before them deserve in terms of how lots of years they could be serving if the judge doesn’t arrive to a summary in which could be the correct way of sending them to prison. Inspite of the point that whites interact in drug offenses at a higher price than blacks do, blacks are incarcerated for drug offenses at a amount that is 10 times larger than that of whites.

If you see how when the same human being dedicate exact same criminal offense with unique coloration is judged in another way than the particular person that dedicated the exact specific criminal offense.The legal justice program is mainly incapable of avoiding criminal offense is that law enforcement, courts, and corrections are establishments they reply to crimes previously committed rather than addressing the root will cause of prison conduct just before they get into crime. This is not a prolonged period of the attempts of law enforcement or corrections officers that will work in jail. The prison justice technique just does not have the sources, and men and women with help or the abilities  to deal with most  of criminal actions. About the earlier various decades, the use of race by legislation enforcement,  in their policing competencies has gained a massive amount of money of  focus across the place. The variation in talking about racial profiling has usually been on police departments tactics inspecting no matter if law enforcement have qualified motorists centered on their race or ethnicity.

A good deal of sources that evidence has prompt that some departments may perhaps be managing drivers of some races or ethnicities in a different way than white motorists. Working with different definitions have made  the discussion in excess of racial profiling a tiny little bit identified. A smaller percentage among the these usually means that people today are often discussing different sorts of law enforcement procedures, and conduct. The point continues to be that racial profiling commenced prolonged in the past ahead of their impressive authorities viewed on highways and town streets alike where minorities are stopped.

This nation has a history of profiling minorities, from the inhuman enslavement of hundreds of thousands of Africans through the period  of slavery, to the unlawful imprisonment and minorities all-around the place have continuously been the targets of racial profiling. The dilemma is significantly deeper than just black and white its roots lie at the financial, social, and political disparities that African Us residents take pleasure in about minorities in this nation. These discrepancies are a outcome of a program based mostly on class position and, two characteristics appreciated far far more broadly by the mainstream population than minorities. For hundreds of years race relations concerning persons of colour and white people in the United States have been strained. From slavery, to Reconstruction, to put up Reconstruction to Jim Crow, privileges for white individuals and discrimination against individuals of colour have been the rule, not the exception.

Nature of Sin: the Progression of the Theme by Character Dispositions in “The Scarlet Letter” Essay

While one particular may perhaps attempt not to sin, all human beings, in because of program, succumb at some time or a further. Even though folks may possibly not be capable to dismiss the destiny which comes for them, the ability of no cost will permits men and women to establish how they will respond to sin. Nathaniel Hawthorne, an writer through the 1800s, produced a character who witnessed the mother nature of sin and how it bestowed havoc, not only to a single human getting but to an whole location in his novel, The Scarlet Letter. This topic, character of sin, revolves all around the four main people of the narrative and it continued to progress as the plot grew to become much more riveting and as the people personalities started to uncover. In Hawthornes piece of creating, it reveals this thought by exposing the citizens of New England, all through the Puritan era, and the harmful consequences of sin by way of Hester Prynne, Pearl, Roger Chillingworth, and Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale. In the novel, The Scarlet Letter which was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the narrator develops the topic of nature of sin by analyzing the unique characters steps from the beginning of the tale to the close.

The narrator of The Scarlet Letter makes use of Hester Prynne as the introduction of the character of sin by recognizing that sin initial commences with disgrace. Hester Prynne, by the eyes of the Puritans, is a sinner. She experienced gone against the Puritan religion ways and fully commited adultery. Hester is introduced to the viewers as a young female who had shed all command of her lifetime due to this conviction. She was forced, by New England citizens, to dress in the letter A on her breast as punishment for her sins. When she was sentenced to stand on a scaffold for three hours with her newborn in entrance of the whole local community, Hester puzzled, Could it be legitimate? She clutched the boy or girl so fiercely to her breast, that it sent forth a cry she turned her eyes downward at the scarlet letter, and even touched it with her finger, to guarantee herself that the infant and the shame ended up true (Hawthorne 51).

The reader was able to plainly depict that Hester could not imagine the posture she was in that extremely second and had to remind herself by coming upon the objects that conveyed her shame. She stood in entrance of hundreds of people today, and all eyes were being on her with their scorching, judgmental faces. Hester experienced hassle to take the quantity of disgrace she now consumes, but she certain herself to consider and now everyone will now glimpse upon her in a different way. Shame is a agonizing experience of humiliation prompted by wrongful actions and now the citizens of New England, and the reader, look at Hester Prynnes new life as the starting of her shameful and sinful route. The reader experienced only a glimpse of what Hesters aged lifestyle was like, but that did not issue any more. Mother nature of sin very first begins with disgrace, as proven by Hester Prynne and it follows with a newborn toddler. All through the duration of the novel, the theme of mother nature of sin was even further progressed by Pearl, who was represented as a continual reminder of the acted sin. Pearl is the illegitimate daughter of Hester Prynne and Arthur Dimmesdale. In the course of the novel, she became identified as a demon in angels clothes to the townspeople. She was a curious kid who, some saw, experienced aspects of devilish like traits since she was the solution of sin. As the narrator was introducing Pearl, he talked about, God, as a direct consequence of the sin which male hence punished, experienced provided her a lovely baby, whose put was on that similar dishonored bosom, to hook up her father or mother for ever with the race and descent of mortals (Hawthorne 74).

Readers are able to exemplify that simply because Pearl is a products of Hester Prynnes sin, she has the exact benefit as the scarlet letter A does, which is also to be a reminder of the sin. It can be mentioned that one of the facets of sin is getting able not to ignore it, so the author created Pearl a residing, respiration reminder. Pearls worth of remaining a human rather than a piece of fabric is more unforgettable for the reason that to the Puritans, Pearl is a immediate consequence from God. The Puritans foundation their entire life all-around God and religion so that tends to make them feel Pearl is a far more devious child than any other and that she is right here to prompt Hester and the other citizens that people are in a route to eternal damnation. Pearls reoccurrence embarks the continual journey the topic of character of sin endures in the novel and it persists by turning into anything more destructive. As the novel ongoing, Roger Chillingworth portrayed how sin can manifest a man to become extra malicious and immoral. It was discovered that he was keen to go to any length to get his revenge on the gentleman who committed adultery with his wife, Hester Prynne.

Chillingworth is a new persona he had occur up with immediately after remaining presumed lifeless for two yrs. He remade himself as a medical doctor and vowed his entire existence to get vengeance on Pearls father, Arthur Dimmesdale. When Hester and Dimmesdale both realized Roger Chillingworths true character, Dimmesdale experienced advised her, “”We are not, Hester, the worst sinners in the planet. There is a person worse than even the polluted priest! That previous man’s revenge has been blacker than my sin. He has violated, in chilly blood, the sanctity of a human heart (Hawthorne 161). It can be depicted to the reader that Chillingworth’s sin is far from comparable than any other character in the novel. Chillingworths thirst for vengeance has manufactured him a cruel human being and that is the greatest sin of all. Throughout the yrs he remained in Boston, his character modified so radically from admirable to evil that even individuals who did not know him individually seemed to observe an evil character deep inside his soul attempting to break no cost. His obsession with this kind of evil can make a person turn sin into anything considerably darker than it has to be. The nature of Chillingworths sin is based mostly on a darkened heart that has permitted the character to get an immoral persona and the concept can commence by as an finish of lifestyle as properly.

In The Scarlet Letter, the theme of character of sin was concluded by rendering Arthur Dimmesdales character that sin could lead to dying. Dimmesdale is a quite properly respected member of the neighborhood for which he is a reverend and preaches the term of God to the Puritans. Dimmesdales system refuses to reveal his own sin, which is that he is Pearls father, so he tortures himself and at some point engraved a scarlet letter A to his chest. The concealment of his sin was at some point discovered to the users of New England in the direction of the conclude of the novel. On the verge of Dimmesdales death, the narrator contains, Then, down he sank upon the scaffold! Hester partly raised him, and supported his head versus her bosom May possibly God forgive thee! claimed the minister. Thou, as well, hast deeply sinned! (Hawthorne 209). The reader is evidently equipped to discern that Arthur Dimmesdales sin has led him to his personal dying. Despite the fact that Dimmesdale questioned for forgiveness from God, his sin towards himself was much more sinful than his sin towards everyone else, together with God. Dimmesdale hurt himself a lot more than any person else could have by starving and by bodily and mentally torturing his body. He concealed himself with this sin and did not reveal it to everyone but himself, and that has resulted in him to pay the rate of demise. The progression of the topic of mother nature of sin, that was portrayed in Arthur Dimmesdale, was concluded as the close of lifestyle.

As it was revealed in the novel, the progression in a person of the themes, the mother nature of sin, can be scrutinized by the figures the narrative revolves close to. This improvement above the system of the tale adds to the all round text of The Scarlet Letter. 1 sin induced several other people and, in a result, led to the revelation of various aspects of the major figures. Hawthorne takes advantage of sin as a way to remind the reader that sin can start off as something healthful, but then affect the lives of men and women who did not inquire for it. It can also be deduced that sin follows the system of life in some methods. It is born into the world as a thing purely harmless and uncomplicated, then mother nature will take its course and more manipulates sin. Sin will impact and abet the sinner all through its existence and will quickly die into the hands of the sinner. In some cases, it may well basically abide by them into the afterlife and live on. In the 21st century, sin like Hesters adultery is not described because there are much more urgent difficulties in modern society, but the all round nature of sin can ruin the life of lots of and really should be far more extensively observed.

Material Concerning the Theme Management Essay

1 Management

In this sub-section material concerning the theme management will be presented.

Project objective

In total five questions were asked concerning the category management. In all cases uncertainty was encountered by all respondents concerning the term project objective. When this was exchanged for project goal the respondents were able to answer. When respondent 1 (R1) was asked what significance he attached to the projects goal with regard to a successful software project an acknowledgement for its relevance was acquired. This is apparent from the following excerpt: The goal of the project naturally has relevance. The project usually has a relatively clear goal. (R1)

Respondent 2 (R2) commented that delimitations were important and that such delimitations were usually defined.

Respondent 3 (R3) laid a particular emphasis on this aspect, stressing its importance for the project: Its importance is decisive. Without a clear goal which is possible to verify then you have no way of knowing if you have completed the project or not. In other words, you have no way of knowing if you have a project or not. (R3) R3 continues, emphasising further the importance of the project goal: Unclear goals have a tendency to collapse projects. (R3)

Respondent 4 (R4) emphasised the importance of roles when considering the objective of the project. According to R4 your position in the project influences a particular persons requirements/needs from the project objective: It is heavily role accentuated […] I believe that the goal should be adapted to fit both the person and the task that person is undertaking. (R4)

Respondent 5 (R5) explained that a well defined goal was essential for a project. A clear goal according to R5 was necessary in order to know exactly what to create: It is extremely important that one has a clear goal to steer towards. A clear goal is extremely important in order to know exactly what to create. (R5)


The respondents were not familiar with the term objective. When this was exchanged for the term goal all respondents were able to answer. All respondents acknowledged that the goal of the project was a very relevant and important factor. Some respondents were more specific than others. For example, R3 maintained that the objective was decisive for the project. According to R3, if the project does not have a verifiable goal then one has no way of knowing if the project has been completed or not. R5, in line with R3, placed considerable emphasis on the importance of the project goal in the sense that without a clear goal one cannot create the requested product.

R4 offered an interesting perspective on the goal of the project by implying that the goal should be adapted to fit the individual and the task that individual is undertaking. A particularly strong sentiment is captured by R3 who maintains that unclear goals had a tendency to collapse projects.


When asked for their opinions regarding a project sponsor three respondents shared a similar interpretation of this term whereas the fourth had a slightly different interpretation.

R1 used the term internal customer. R1 emphasised the sponsor’s role as bridging the gap between developer and customer. Yes, definitely. A project should include such a person, someone who we call an internal customer. As we usually have difficulties communicating with the customer we create a fictitious customer […] a person who both the development team and customer can liaise with. R1 explains the consequences of a project lacking a sponsor:

[…] it becomes very difficult if you don’t have such a person. The risk is great that the project will become very expensive. (R1)

R2 acknowledged the term sponsor and that it had, for several years, been present in a project management model used at R2s company. R2 considered a sponsor to be a valid inclusion in this model.

R3 emphasised the economic role of the sponsor, laying emphasis on the fact that the sponsor provided the necessary funds needed to finance the project.

R4 considered the relevance of the sponsor in relation to the size of the project. In either case R4 considered the sponsor to be a valuable asset: I believe it depends on the size of the project. In any case a sponsor is a very valuable person, someone who better sees continuity in the project. (R4)

R5 was of the opinion that sponsors contributed with important elements to the project: We have a steering group of which the sponsor is a member. The steering group is assigned the role of supporting the project manager in certain issues, for example resource issues.


When asked for opinions regarding the relevance of a sponsor/champion in software

projects 3 out of 5 respondents recognised this term in the context that has been identified in the literature analysis:

“(The Standish Group, in Procaccino et al, 2002) maintain that a project needs a committed sponsor or champion throughout. This sponsor should participate in the decision making process and encourage the same commitment from other stakeholders.” (p. 48)

The fourth respondent recognised the term sponsor in the economical sense, i.e. a financial provider. All five respondents, irrespective of interpretation, valued the presence of a sponsor.

The concept of the sponsor adopting a superior role is addressed by R1, R4 and R5. R1 explained that the sponsor assisted the project team with customer contact. R1 implied that the project team may experience difficulty with this aspect of project work and therefore the sponsor fulfilled a very necessary function. R5 explained that the term sponsor was used for a member of a steer group whose chief function was to support the project manager in certain issues. Whereas R1 and R5 addressed specifics in the sponsor’s role; R4 encapsulates the issue of superiority by considering the holisticity of the project. R4 maintains that the sponsor better sees continuity in the project which would imply that the sponsor adopts a position from which he/she can overlook the project.

Lessons learned from the past mistakes (Post-mortem analysis of a project)

When asked for their opinions concerning lessons learned from past mistakes all respondents were of the opinion that this was an important aspect sometimes overlooked in projects.

R1 explains that too little time is dedicated to this aspect of the project. The fact that resources may not be available and the fact that this phase may not have been planned are given by R1 as plausible reasons for this deficiency: I believe that too little time is dedicated too this […] all the money is gone, no resources are left, one hasn’t planned for analysis and feedback. R1 points out however that this aspect is partially incorporated into the development process in use at R1s company: [..] this is partially built into the process we use. After each iterative stage we have an evaluation where everyone has the opportunity to give their thoughts about good and bad aspects of that particular stage.

R2 was of a similar opinion, placing emphasis on the fact that people are very tired at the end of the project: It is a deficiency in our projects and that is a shame plus the fact that when everything is done no-one has the energy to go through all that.

The response obtained from R3 was slightly different. R3 emphasises the importance of keeping this phase at the right level. R3 acknowledges the relevance of this phase but at the same time maintains that it should not be too long as no one would read it. It’s important to keep it at the right level. It’s a difficult balance. A report must be written but at the most 10 pages A4. People will read it then.

R4 considers the fact that when the project actually has been completed everyone involved in the project has at that stage been reallocated to a new project. R4 highlights that if a technical development project stretches over a long period of times to complete then no-one will remember what happened in the early stages of the project: […] it would be wonderful if it could be realised but when one has come so far that the project actually is complete and an evaluation is possible, everyone at that stage is gone and the project doesn’t exist. […] besides, if it is a technical development project which stretches over a long period of time then no-one is going to remember what happened 2 years ago, 2 months ago or even 2 weeks ago as so much happens all the time.

R5 advises that if projects were not evaluated upon completion then mistakes and successes could not be capitalised upon in future projects: If we didn’t do this then we wouldn’t learn from mistakes or successes. By studying how the project has been run many things can be learnt. (R5)


The concept of a post-mortem analysis was fervently acknowledged by all respondents. Both R1 and R2 maintained that this aspect was a regrettable deficiency in the projects these managers have led. R4 was of the opinion that such an analysis is usually hard to achieve. According to R4, when the project has reached that stage when it actually is complete project members have inevitably been reassigned.

Furthermore, R4 informs that if the project has spanned a long period of time it is unlikely that people will remember events that occurred early on in the project. R5 offers a concise motivation for the contributions of a post-mortem analysis by ascertaining that if such an analysis was not conducted then lessons would not be learnt.


R2 maintains that communication between the stakeholders is a very important aspect to be considered in software projects. According to R2 this is also difficult to get right:

Communication, we have noticed, is a very important to create a common vision of the goal (R2)

When asked how communications could be improved R2 answered that specifications were used during meetings and that the stakeholders spoke until a common vision was reached: Specifications. One has meetings where different groups within the project meet and go through these specifications. We speak until we are certain that we have a common vision. (R2)

R3 also values the presence of good communications. R3 observes that it is important that the customer is engaged from the beginning and is able to communicate his/her vision of the goal.

Communication is important. It is important that the customer is engaged from the beginning, is interested and communicates his/her vision of the goal. If the customer can successfully do that then we have both a correctly defined goal and a close communication. R3 continues explaining the problems which can arise if good communication is not established between stakeholders:

[…] there is a lesser risk that one falls into the-dare I ring and ask- trap. A dangerous trap to fall into because one chooses not to ring and ask about things they are unsure about. One makes a decision, the risk is great that the decision is wrong and the consequences are expensive.

R5 is of the opinion that good communication constitutes a key for project success: This is one of the keys to project success. Partly that good relation exists and that one has close contact and clear lines of communication.


Three out of five respondents recognised the value of good communications. R5 even maintained that good communications constituted a key to project success. R2 advised that good communications are hard to achieve and that it was important to achieve a common vision for the project. By acknowledging the importance of a common vision R2 suggests a coupling back to the goal of the project or project objective. This affiliation would be endorsed by R3 who stresses the importance of an engaged customer and the ability of this customer to be able to effectively communicate his/her vision of the goal.

Software measurement

Software measurement is a term which encompasses aspects such as product size, lines of code, man hours etc. None of the respondents recognised this term in itself but recognised the individual components the term applied to. When asked how much time should be dedicated to these aspects R1 explained that, depending on the projects size, two people working full time for 2-3 days was to be expected. R1 stressed the importance of establishing a cross section of viewpoints regarding these aspects: Depending on the size of the project one should dedicate 2-3 days, and that’s two people working full time. After that we may have a 5-10 man forum where we don’t go so deep. It’s extremely important that one obtains varied points of view

on this, extremely important.

When asked whether carelessness when estimating lines of code, man hours etc could affect the success of the project R1 maintained that it could. In R1’s opinion this was because by carefully estimating such aspects and involving the people who ultimately will work on the project a common vision can be created. R1 maintains that much is earned by involving the team in these estimations. In addition to a common vision the team can establish which parts are difficult, which parts are easier, which parts should be completed first etc. the team also have a chance to discuss the product.

R2 explains that the products main functions are established first then an estimate is made for how many man hours would be required to create these functions. R2 emphasises how important it is when giving estimates of time:

extremely important. Often time is something which is underestimated. I have, on several occasions, witnessed that competence is required when estimating time.Especially when giving a price tag. (R2) R3 observes that these aspects are influenced by the competence of the team: it is important that these aspects are considered […] I am project manager for a number of people and we are going to develop a software product. If this is their first project then these aspects are really important. If this is their 150 th project then they are going to require completely different guidance. (R3) R4 recognised components such as lines of code, man hours etc. R4 informed that this information was used to estimate the project.


The term software measurement was new to all respondents. The respondents did, however, recognise the individual components the term referred to: lines of code (LOC), man hours, scheduled time etc.Varied points of view were gathered when discussing software measurement. Three of the five respondents acknowledged the importance of the individual components (LOC, man hours and scheduled time). R1 stressed te importance of establishing varied points of view with regard to these components whereas R3 advised that although aspects such as (LOC) were important there was a direct affiliation to the competence of the team. R3 means that if the project team is inexperienced then aspects such as LOC are important. If the team is experienced then such aspects are not so important. R2 focused primarily on the time components of software measurement: man hours, scheduled time etc. R2 considered these aspects to be extremely important and often underestimated.

Quality control

Routines for quality control include features such as: design reviews, code inspections testing etc. When asked if the same degree of thoroughness was required with these features as was required with software measurement R1 replied that this should be but was not the present case. R1 informed that design reviews and code inspections were implemented automatically. R1 cautions for over ambition when working with features for quality control. “design reviews, code inspections and such are usually implemented automatically. One should not be over ambitious with these things. It’s a fine balance but MOOSE (a development process) allows that quality checks can be omitted if the team is in agreement.” (R1) R2 explains that his company have ambitions to be thorough with quality procedures. R2 informs that lack of time or money causes such things to be overlooked:“we are aware of these things, testing and such. We have ambitions to be thorough with these things but when time, perhaps even money is lacking such things go by the wayside. I believe that everyone is in agreement that these things, testing and such, are good things.” (R3)

R3 informs that quality procedures belong to the process. R3 considers such aspects to be directly attributable to the complexity of the product and the competence of the team. “These things belong to the process. They have to be there. Once again the total competence of the team is valid here. That and the complexity of the product.”(R3)R4 relates the issue of quality control to the size of the project and the lifespan of the product:“they are important, especially if the project has been going on a while. If the project is short and the product has a short lifespan then quality checks are not as important as something which is expected to last a while and will probably be updated.” (R4) R5 advises that routines for quality control have to exist before the product can be delivered. We must have routines before we deliver. We have routines both before and after delivery. (R5)


When asked for their opinions on quality control and components such as: design reviews, code inspections etc, all respondents recognised the relevance of such features. There were, however, varying degrees of enthusiasm from the respondents when considering quality control. Both R1 and R3 advised that quality checks belonged to the process and therefore were implemented automatically. R3 was particularly enthusiastic about this part of the process maintaining that quality checks had to be there. R1, although acknowledging the importance of such checks, cautioned for over ambition maintaining that quality checks can be omitted if the team is in agreement. In these comments R1 would appear to suggest that one can be over thorough with quality control. This sentiment would be challenged by R5 who suggests that quality checks may be demanded by the customer. R4 established a correlation between quality control and the lifespan of the product by informing that quality checks were vital for a product which is expected to last a while and may be updated. If the product was only expected to last a while then these checks were not as important.

2 The software development process

Information related to the theme the development process will now be presented.Use of a methodology All respondents recognised, to varying degrees, the value of a methodology when developing software. R1 considered a methodology to be affiliated to professionalism and necessary to guarantee aspects vital to the customer. R1 points out interestingly enough that the method does not guarantee the result: when you take on work you need to have a certain professionalism. You need, for example, to be able to promise that this and this will be delivered in 6 months and will cost X. You need to be able to guarantee certain things. Of course the methodology does not guarantee a result. (R1) 62 R2 as methods were relatively “heavy” to follow judgement should be used when considering their use. R2 thought that, in principle, methods should be used. in principle I believe so, of course one needs to use judgement as methods are quite heavy. A lot of time goes to following them exactly. One should use judgement depending on the size of the project. (R2) R3s response was simple and to the point:

They are very important. We rely on the method. (R3) R4 explains that a method is useful if the same thing is to be repeated. When building a smaller product R4 feels that a method may not necessarily be required. If something is going to be reproduced then it is good to have a method. When developing a smaller product one can just get on with it. Make sure you write everything down because in a couple of months you won’t know what you have.(R4) R4 maintains however that methods have their place in larger projects: “[…]One can accomplish good things without a method, but when you come up to volume then you need a method otherwise you’ll have chaos” (R4) R5 is of the opinion that use of a methodology implies a common working practice.R5 informs that use of a methodology better enables the transfer of systems developers between projects. I believe that it is good to use a methodology because you create a common working practice […] it should be easier to move system developers between projects if one follows a methodology. (R5)


All respondents were of the opinion that use of a methodology had its place in software development. Three of the five respondents were particularly enthusiastic about this aspect. R1 affiliated use of a methodology to professionalism and suggested that use of a methodology may guarantee aspects vital to the customer’s peace of mind. R3 offered a particularly concise response by ascertaining that the everything rested on the method.R5, in addition to R1 and R3, heavily endorsed the use of a methodology maintaining that a methodology enabled a common working practice. R2 informed that in principle a methodology could be used in software development but cautions that methodologies are time consuming if they are to be adhered to. R2 advises therefore that judgement should be used when considering the use of a methodology. R4 affiliated use of a methodology to project size informing that when one comes up to volume then a method will be required to avoid chaos

CASE tools

The respondents were not thoroughly familiar with the term CASE-tools. This term had to be explained. However, once this had been done the respondents were able to answer. When asked if these tools were necessary for the success of the project R1 maintained that the advantage with using the same tool was homogeneity: 63 the problem is, if you take them away then everyone is going to use their own way. The advantage with everyone using the same notation is that it looks the same and it is quick. There are a lot of strengths in having the same tool. (R1) R2 explained that his company have developed a development environment where automatic code is generated for certain functions. When asked if this tool was necessary to the success of software projects R2 felt that quality would suffer and cost would rise if this tool was not available. it would be more expensive and the quality would suffer. Standard functions, for example a table which utilises a user dialogue, can automatically be generated with code we can guarantee with the help of these tools. (R2)


Two respondents gave favourable opinions regarding the use of CASE-tools. R2 emphasised aspects such as cost and quality, maintaining that such aspects would suffer if CASE-tools were not used. R1 explained that use of such tools implied certain strengths, i.e. speed in the process due to the fact that everyone was using a standard tool.

3 Estimation and scheduling

A presentation of the information concerning scheduling in software projects will now be given. Milestones and regular reports R1 considers realistic deadlines were important even if they were not always achieved. R1 informs that deadlines imply that resources can be gathered for the purpose of achieving a common goal: They are important irrespective of weather you meet them or not they have filled the function of gathering resources for the common goal. (R1) R2 informs that in the beginning one may have a tendency to rush into things. Milestones, according to R2, provide stability in the sense that one can go back and see what needs to be completed before the next phase is commenced: At the start of the project one rushes in. It may be necessary to halt the process and go back to see what we said in the beginning. Then we see what needs to be completed before we go further. (R2) R2 advised that it was important to get the team members to respect deadlines. R2  informs that it is important therefore that deadlines are realistic. R2  informs that the project can succeed if some deadlines are missed along the way but this is harder: Important! One must try to get the team members to respect the deadlines, which means that they must be realistic. The project can succeed if some deadlines are missed along the way but this will be harder. (R2) R3 maintained that milestones or checkpoints were essential in order to confirm the status of the project with the customer. R3 advises that these checkpoints are relevant when progressing to the next stage of the project It’s these checkpoints where we agree that we can go further. We confirm the projects status with the sponsor and the customer. (R3) 64 R4 informs that milestones are important but that adhering to them may not always be realistic:[…] these milestones are defined in the beginning and then they should be adhered to no matter what happens in the project. This is not always realistic. User requirements, or other prerequisites, may change. (R4) R5 informs that milestones constitute the only way to clarify how something can be achieved and followed up within a specific timeframe. They are important. It’s the only way to clarify what needs to be accomplished and followed up within a specific timeframe. (R5)


When asked for opinions regarding the relevance of milestones in software projects all five respondents fervently acknowledged the relevance of milestoning and realistic deadlines. R1 implies that deadlines fill the purpose of gathering resources for the purpose of achieving a common goal. R1 does not focus on meeting the deadline but instead emphasises the concentration of effort anchored to a specific timeframe. R5 encapsulated the essence of milestoning by ascertaining that this was the only way by which to clarify what needs to be done within a certain timeframe R3 enforced the importance of monitoring the project. Milestones or checkpoints according to R3 constitute those points in time when the project progresses from one stage to the next. The status is confirmed with the customer and progression to the next stage is authorised. Confirming the status with the customer would imply that the process must have been monitored in order to ensure that all phases encompassed by the milestone have been achieved. R2 offers further support to the relevance of milestones and the monitoring of progress. R2 explains that at the start of the project the tendency may be to rush in. There may come a point where the process has to be stopped so an evaluation can take place to see what needs to be completed before the next phase commences. R2 advises that missing deadlines may, but not necessarily, compromise the success of the project. R2 further identifies the importance of realistic deadlines by ascertaining that it is essential for team members to respect the deadlines that have been established. According to R2 this can only be established if the deadlines are realistic. R4 explains that deadlines are established at project start and should consequently be adhered to. According to R4 this is unrealistic as user requirements or other prerequisites may change. Predicting the occurrence of such events is not easy but by allowing for them then perhaps more realistic deadlines could be generated. A further reference to scheduled time can be found in the responses obtained when the respondents were asked for their personal opinions on those factors that constituted software project success. Three respondents maintained that delivery within  estimated time constituted a success factor. No specific questions were asked related to software project estimation. However, when asked for personal opinions as to what constituted software project success three out of five respondents ascertained that delivery within budget was a factor for success. This can only be interpreted as implying that realistic estimation is extremely important 65

4 Development personnel

Information related to the development process will now be presented Individual competence of the team members When asked for opinions concerning the importance of team members R1 gave a decisive answer: I believe it is very important but I believe that the work climate and job satisfaction are more important.(R1) R2 was keen to point out that this was very much dependant on the type of competence in question. […] it depends what competence we mean here. In some technological areas there are many people to choose between. In other, smaller, areas everything hangs on 2-3 people. Naturally it’s important to get those people into the project. (R2) R3 incorporates a similar line of reasoning to R2s. R3 adds that it is important with a breadth of competences in the team. R3 highlights that a passion for the task may even be more valuable. It’s really important to have a breadth of competence in the development team. It’s no use having 10 people who are great at assembler programming. On the other hand I might be interested in one. Often it’s more important with an interest for the task than the necessary knowledge. To have passion for what we are going to build.(R3) R4 informs that technical competence is insufficient: If we set up a team for a 2 week job someone might say: this person can develop software, he/she can write code. It’s not enough. If we are to do something in such a short space of time then it needs to be exactly the right person […] it has to do with how one is as a person so there are several types of competence. (R4) R5 considers competence to be a prerequisite for working in project form. R5 advises that when a project team is put together the intention is to acquire the people who have the best skills for the task in hand:

One of the reasons we work in project form is that when we receive a job we try and put together a team from different departments and units. Naturally we try and acquire those with the best skills for that type of project, under the assumption that they are available. (R5)


When considering the competence of individual team member’s three respondents claimed that identifying individuals with specific skills was important for the project. R2 explains that in some technological areas a multitude of people can be chosen between. In other areas everything hangs on 2-3 people. R3 means that it is important to involve such people. R5 would definitely agree by firmly establishing that one obviously tries to acquire the people with the best skills for the task at hand. R3 informs that building a team where 10 people are competent in, for example, a specific programming language is not desirable. R3 explains that one person with that particular competence is, on the other hand, very desirable. 66

R4 is keen to inform that technical competence is insufficient when working in projects which do not last long. R4 maintains that when a project is put  together for a two week job then one needs exactly the right person. R4 would imply that the personal qualities of a team member may be more important in this context than his/her ability to perform a specific task. Build the right team from the beginning R1 was uncertain as to whether it was necessary to build the right development team from the beginning. When asked, however, if the development team could be built successively throughout the course of the project R1 felt that to a degree this was possible. I think this is possible to a degree. For example you might want to add a verifications specialist or a protocol specialist at later stages in the project. (R1)

R1 indicates, however that moving people from projects may be inadvisable: I believe that people should not be moved in projects if the move cannot be motivated. You should not move people for economical reasons. (R1) R2 felt that it was certainly an advantage to have the correct development team   from the beginning of the project Of course it is better when everyone has the history from the beginning. Its easier that way. (R2) R2 continues, warning that when new members are added information inevitably gets lost when bringing that person up to speed: When a new member arrives one obviously shares all the available information but something always gets lost in this transfer. (R2) R3 is of a similar opinion to R2: If you are successful building the right team from the beginning then that is an advantage. (R3) The social aspects of team building are addressed by R3 who observes that this can inevitably affect the output of the team if this process needs to be repeated for new members: In the beginning everyone gets to know each other, everything is positive and it feels good […] in the situation of a new person coming in the induction phase starts over[…] if you keep adding people you become fully occupied with the social aspects and you end up with no output. (R3) According to R4 in an ideal situation the right team can be built in the beginning but this is not often the case. R4 advises that team members must inevitably apply team members successively throughout the course of the project You are forced to add members successively. That’s the way it is. The dream is that you can get the people with the right competence from the start and that everyone gets on and no one leaves. It doesn’t happen. (R4) R5 informs that building the right team from the beginning may be difficult as the ultimate goal and scope of the project may well not be fully defined. R5 suggests that events occur during the project which results in personnel being added to the team. 67  At the start of the project the scope and the goal may not be well defined. Things happen during a project which results in people being added. (R5)


Two of the respondents considered the building of the right software team at the start of the project as being advantageous. R3 explains that at the start of the project a certain social decorum takes place where everyone gets to know one another. If project members keep being added then this decorum needs to be repeated and as a consequence output is minimised. In contrast, two of the five respondents maintained that building the right team could only be accomplished by successively adding team members throughout the course of the project. R5 motivates this by explaining that at the start of the project the project goal may not be well defined. As the goal becomes better defined the addition of more people may be required.


People leaving the project does not necessarily imply negativity. R1 explained that this seemingly unattractive event could have advantages: It can be healthy for a project to adopt new people. Situations can arise where something may not be as good as it could be. One can then choose to exchange one of the people and try to make something good out of it. (R1) R2 is of the opinion that people leaving the project is undesirable but acknowledges that positive aspects can be drawn from this situation . It’s a disadvantage to lose an asset. I’ve experienced it and it was annoying. […] it can also have benefits to get someone new, someone who might question what we take for granted. (R2)


Attrition in itself is a negative feature. Indeed, as R2 explains, losing an asset is undesirable. However, both R1 and R2 advise that upon losing a person the project may acquire a new person. This new person may then be able to assess the problem situation from a different perspective and thus bring to light issues which may have, up till then, been invisible for the other team members. Allocation of roles When asked if the allocation of roles to team members could improve the motivation of the team R1 replied that it was important have an area of responsibility. Furthermore, R1 emphasises that this allocation of responsibility is important for the project to be able to progress beyond a certain stage: You should at least have an area of responsibility. […] is not always easy to come to a consensus in software development. There are many ways to solve a problem. You have to have a role which gives a person the right to say : this isn’t the best solution but we’ll take it because we have to go further. (R1) 68

R2 maintained that it was more important to establish what the individual should accomplish. However, R2 agreed that a clear description of roles was an important base: More importantly everyone should know what they should accomplish […] as a base it is important to have clear role allocation. (R2) R3 makes a correlation between role allocations and goals. When it’s clear what you have to do you do it. We’re back to goals but goals on a lower level, that my task is to complete this within this time. That’s my responsibility. (R3) R4 suggests that role allocation is important to establish certainty about what needs to be accomplished: […] if people don’t know what their role or task is then they don’t know what they should be doing and everything is uncertain. (R4) R4 advises that the nature of project work often implies that people need to change roles. According to R4 this can only be effectively accomplished if people know exactly what they should be doing: […] in a rapidly changing project roles can change. You need to be very thorough in making sure that people know what they should do. (R4) R5 informs that some form of role allocation is important but this shouldn’t be exaggerated as project members are often required to take on different roles: On the one hand I believe that some form of role allocation is important but on the other hand I feel that perhaps it’s a little exaggerated because in a project environment a team member is required to take on different roles. (R5)


The concept of role allocation was acknowledged by four out of five respondents. However, varying degrees of importance were attached to this concept. Both R4 and R5 advised that roles can change in a project and that one needs to be aware of this. R4 and R5 accept, however, that roles do have their place. R1 explains that an area of responsibility should, at the very least, be allocated. The establishment of areas of responsibility would be endorsed by R2 who advises that it is important for the team member to know what to accomplish


Giving the team members influence over that they are working with is considered by R1 to be very important: That is very important. When the project starts it may be that not everyone agrees with the project plan […] we discuss it and arrive at a decision where everyone has had input. (R1) R2 advises that freedom can be allocated but a boundary needs to be established for the actual design so that team members do not stray outside the limits for that boundary: It is important to establish a boundary and then allocate freedom within that boundary. (R2) 69 R4 maintains that the concept of ownership is different from individual to individual. Some team members want to have influence, others are not so interested. For some people it is very necessary, that they have influence. Others don’t care less. This is something that needs to be considered from project team to project team. (R4) R5 endorsed ownership: I believe it is important that they feel free, that they are allowed to be creative and make suggestions. I think that’s important. (R5)


Four respondents considered the concept of ownership to be important in software projects. R1 and R5 were particularly enthusiastic about this concept. R1 advised that it was important that the team member feels he/she has input. R5 would agree, ascertaining that the freedom to be creative and contribute with suggestions was an important aspect of project work. R2 and R4 were restrictive in their comments concerning ownership. R2, in line with R1 and R5, did acknowledge the relevance of ownership but maintained that it was important to establish a boundary within which creative freedom could be granted. R4 explained that ownership needed to be considered from project to project. According to R4 some people want to influence the design, others do not

5 The project manager

A presentation of the information concerning the project manager in software projects will now be given Qualities of the project manager When asked what qualities were essential for a project manager R1 laid particular emphasis on the project manager’s personal qualities: He should be communicative, seen and heard and relatively technical. Most important is that he is available and listens. (R1) R1 was not of the opinion that experience was not necessarily a prerequisite for managing projects. R1 advised that experience could even be a disadvantage. […] experience can be a disadvantage, one makes the same mistakes etc. I believe that experience is good but not completely necessary. (R1) R1 highlights that the project manger must be prepared to take responsibility, even when the project does not go as planned. The project manager should also encourage a positive working environment: It is very important to take responsibility […] when the project doesn’t go as planned the project manger has to explain for the executives why this is the case. The project manager drives the project. he should ensure a positive working environment. (R1) R2 advised that a project manager should be able to manage multiple tasks and display good judgement: I believe that it’s good to be able to manage multiple tasks, be concise with what is expected and identify discrepancies. (R2) 70 When asked if a project manager should be experienced R2 maintained that this may be necessary if the project was large. R3 regarded the project manger as the driving force for the project: The ability to create a positive atmosphere so that everyone is passionate for the task in hand. (R3) R3 considers experience to be an important quality when managing software projects: […] It’s very important […] software projects are typical examples of problematic situations, there are many pitfalls […] you need that experience. To manage software projects you must have worked with software. (R3) In R3s opinion the ability to make a decision was one of the project manager’s most important tasks: Decision making is one of the project managers most important tasks […] he has to make a decision, he can’t hide behind anyone. (R3) In R4s opinion a project manager must be prepared to take the blame for anything that may go wrong in the project. R4 highlights that it is always the project manager’s fault:

The project manager must be prepared to bear responsibility for everything. It is always the project manager’s fault, never the individual. (R4) R4, in line with R2, maintained that experience was more relevant when managing large projects. R4 considered personal qualities to be more important. R4 was of the opinion that decision making was a very important quality for a project manager. Additionally, R4 maintained that the project manger should have the ability to make the decision in that moment where the decision is required: Very important. You can’t stand there and ponder over something or say that you’ll get back to someone. It doesn’t work. (R4) R5 observes that a project manager needs to have leadership qualities. He needs to be able to handle both the user and his development team. R5 informs that experience is a good quality but there will always be a first project. R5 maintains that the  capacity to make decisions is a very desirable quality even if a bad decision is made. Even if one makes the wrong decision, a decision needs to be made. (R5)


When asked for their opinions on what constituted a good project manager qualities such as communicative, inspirative and prepared to take responsibility were forthcoming. The inspirative qualities of PMs were specifically addressed by two respondents, R1 and R3, who maintained that a PM should ensure a positive working environment. Three respondents recognised experience as a valid quality for project managers although only R3 maintained that experience was an essential quality for a project manager All respondents were convinced that the ability to make decisions was an essential quality for a project manager. This quality is captured effectively by R3 who states that the project manger has to make a decision; he can not hide behind anyone. 71 The project manager is authorised to run his/her project R1 considers that the project manager should have authority to manage the project within his/her area of responsibility. R2 was convinced that the project manager should be granted authority to manage his/her project R4 maintains that the project manager should have authority to manage his/her project and make any type of decision. If this is not possible then effective channels of communication should exist between the project manager and that person who does have that authority: Yes, or effective channels exist between the project manager and those that have that authority. It is more important that the project manager is authorised as running a project implies that many decisions need to be made. (R4)

R5 informs that because so many projects run at the same time giving project  managers full authority to run their projects is not desirable. R5 maintains that some kind of central coordination unit is required: On many occasions several projects run at the same time. Each project manager cannot be given full authority to run his project. There must be some kind of central coordination. (R5)


Three respondents were of the staunch opinion that the project manager should be granted authority to manage his/her own project. R5 felt, however, that this was not possible due to the fact that many projects ran at the same time. R5 maintained that some kind of central control was necessary in order to supervise all these projects that run at the same time

6 Customers and users

The information related to the theme customers and users will now be presented. User involvement in the whole development process All respondents acknowledged the importance of user involvement in the development process. There were, however, varying opinions with regard to the extent of this involvement. All respondents considered customer and user to be one and the same. When R1 was asked weather the user should be involved in the whole development process a correlation was made to specific type of project: “ I think that is good when a human computer interaction (HCI) project is being run. If we are building something the customer will never see then I don’t see any value in that.” (R1) R2 had a different opinion on the extent and validity of user involvement in the development process: “ I am convinced. Especially in the beginning so we can agree on what should be built. After that we can check periodically with the customer.” (R2) 72 when asked if the user can be omitted from certain phases of the process R3 pointed out that this often was the case. According to R3 there are phases in the project where user involvement actually becomes less attractive. “the customer can be omitted from certain phases[…] somewhere there is a boundary where it no longer is desirable to involve the customer because this will just cause problems. For the most part this is due to the fact that the customer lacks the necessary technical knowledge.” (R3) R3 does, however, acknowledge user involvement as being relevant: “the customer is definitely important. Take the process for example: how do you work? Do you really follow this process? The customer needs to be there and check this.” (R3)

R4 would agree with R3s first comments that the user can be omitted from certain phases. R4 acknowledges, however, that continuous not constant user involvement throughout the development process is necessary. […] there is a situation in the beginning when it is important to involve the user. After that we enter a phase where we try to “develop something” and may just require the user’s involvement now and then. It is not profitable to involve the user constantly during the process. On the other hand the user should be involved continuously. (R4) R5 is of the opinion that the user should be involved from beginning to end but not necessarily in every phase: Not the whole process because we engage ourselves in things the user won’t understand; technical stuff and so forth. The user should naturally be involved from beginning to end but perhaps not in all phases. (R5)


All respondents maintained that the user should be involved in the development process. The chief tone of all responses was that the user need not explicitly be involved in every phase as this may cause complications due to the user’s lack of technical knowledge. The user is knowledgeable and is authorised to make decisions R2 informs that someone on the customer side has to be authorised to make decisions. However, R2 is of the opinion that if the supplier is familiar with the environment where the system is to be implemented then this may not be such a major problem: Someone on the customer side, preferably a knowledgeable user, must be authorised to make a decision. Once again, if the supplier is familiar with the user’s workplace then this may not be a problem. (R2) R3 was of the opinion that such a user was an essential requirement for a project. R3 uses the term active customer: Another important point is that the project has an active customer. An active customer campaigns for a successful project. (R3) When asked whether an active customer/user should have certain competences R3 felt that the only competence required was the ability to explain advantages and disadvantages with different solutions: 73 […] it is a competence to be able to explain and point out advantages and disadvantages with different solutions. (R3)

R4 informs that if the user does not have this authority then effective channels of communication should be established between the user and that person who has this authority: If the user doesn’t have this authority then effective channels are required between the user and that person who has this authority in order to avoid unnecessary waiting time. (R4) R4 explains the consequences for the project if this aspect is neglected: […] the project plan and project goal can suffer severely. (R4) R5 claims that a user who is authorised to make decisions is an important asset for a project. According to R5 the project loses time if the user is not authorised to make decisions: It is extremely important to have users tied to the project who are authorised to make decisions […] you lose time if you have users that are not empowered to make decisions. (R5)


Four of the respondents maintained vigorously that a user who was authorised to make decisions was a very valuable asset to a project. The consequences for a project that lacks a user authorised to make decisions are neatly encapsulated by R4 who advises that the project plan and project goal can suffer severely if such a user is not involved in the development process.

7 Requirements

A presentation of the material concerning requirements in software projects will now  be given. Involvement of the user in the requirements elicitation (RE) process R1 offers a concise motivation for the involvement of users in the RE process: I believe that the user should be present when establishing requirements. It is these requirements which are interesting. (R1) R2 informs that the level of interest, engagement and the ability to provide opinions varies from user to user. R2 emphasises that one should always try and find an interested used that is willing to help. […] it depends on the user: their level of interest, engagement and points of view. you should always try to find an interested user who can help and provide opinions. (R2) R3s response was in line with R1s: It is the user who provides the real requirements. (R3) R4 acknowledges that user involvement is very positive but due to the fact that the user may not be able to express the requirements this involvement is not decisive for project success: 74 In most cases the user has a feeling for what he/she wants […] the presumptions for success are greater if the user is involved but not decisive. (R4) R5 considers user involvement in the RE process to be somewhat of a key to the whole process. R5 informs that if the user is not involved in this phase then much will be missed: We may miss a lot. We have to get the user to talk about what he wants and how it is supposed to look. It’s one of the keys to the whole process. (R5)


All respondents were enthusiastic about involving the user in the requirements process. R2 does, however, touch upon the issue that the user has to be motivated for this task. Changes in requirements R1 explained that by using use-cases (a specific notation associated with the Unified Modelling Language- UML) increases traceability when managing changes to requirements: We try to explain requirements with use-cases […] you have already done an analysis of which components are affected by that use case. You can trace back and see what needs to be changed. (R1) R2 maintained that changes were managed by saving old requirements documents. One could then see how these documents change over time: […] save old versions to see how they have changed over time. (R2) R3 explains that requirements should be firmly anchored. If changes are to be made the person that makes that decision should have a holistic impression of that he/she is going to change:

Ensure that the requirements are anchored […] this is important. It may occur to someone that this requirement cannot be realised, we’ll do this instead. The person who makes that decision may not have the complete picture in front of him/her. (R3) R3 warns of the consequences for the project if changes to requirements are not managed effectively: You verify the requirements with the customer. If you change something you get another product. When you verify later with the customer and discover that changes have been made it can be very expensive compared to what it would have been if you had managed the changes correctly. (R3) R4 enforces the necessity for a process when changes to requirements are made. Changes cannot be conferred verbally or changed continuously: You should have some kind of process for managing changes to requirements. You can’t have a situation where someone says change that 4 for a 2. You can neither have a situation where requirements are changed continuously. We must have a process which dictates that we have a review and then we can change the requirements. (R4) R4 explains the outcome if requirements are not managed effectively: 75 It’s not certain that you achieve what you intended. It may well be that you all of a sudden don’t know which requirements are valid. (R4)


Four out of five respondents were of the opinion that a process or procedure was necessary for managing changes in requirements. The explanations concerning this were varied and aspects such as verification and traceability were touched upon. The aspect of verification is clearly addressed by R3 who maintains that if changes are not managed effectively then the consequences can be expensive Establish complete or basic requirements from the beginning When asked if one should establish complete, detailed requirements or simply basic requirements from the beginning R1 advised that it was a real advantage to work with requirements on a higher level. You should work on a higher level. You shouldn’t look at the small details […] we want to have requirements structured on a high level, preferably as use cases. I believe it’s a real advantage if we can receive requirements structured on a higher level. (R1) R2 maintained that it was important to identify all the main functions in the beginning. According to R2 the level of detail can be evaluated in accordance with its associated function: I believe that all main functions should be established at the start […] one needs to evaluate exactly what we need in order to build a function. Those things we can wait with we don’t ask about. (R2) R3 explains that the level of detail concerning requirements is dependent on the task in hand:

If it’s a big project its dependant upon where you are in the project. the level of detail concerning requirements is much higher when we come down to those requirements the constructor needs. (R3) According to R4 there is no one way which is better, or more desirable than the other: You could say that one leads to the other. If you receive detailed requirements then you can always work backwards and establish the fundamental requirements or vice versa. (R4) R5 acknowledges that it is necessary to identify the fundamental functions in order to establish the scope of the project. R5 informs that details need to delved into almost at once in order not to miss anything. One needs to get the fundamental requirements in order to understand the scope […] pretty much straight away you need to delve into details. You need to do that in order not to miss anything. (R5)


When questioned on their opinions concerning the level of detail of requirements three respondents acknowledged that it was important to establish a higher level of requirements in the beginning. R1was of the opinion that establishing deeper levels of detail was unnecessary when working with software. R2 and R5 would seem to agree 76 stating that it is important to identify the main functions at the start of the project. R2 effectively justifies why details can be avoided by explaining that if you do not need it do not ask about it. Whereas R2 and R1 tended to dismiss the necessity of deeper levels of detail in requirements R5 advised that once the fundamental requirements had been established it was necessary to delve into details. According to R5 this was necessary in order not to miss anything.

User resistance

R2 maintains that each user is different. Some users know what they want early in the project whereas others do not realise this until after they have used the system. R2 informs that with users who know what they want the chance of building the wrong functions are minimal. R2 is of the opinion that it is harder to achieve a successful project without a committed user: Users are different: some know what they want early on in the project, others come to life after they have used the system a while. With the first sort the risk of building the wrong functions is minimised […] usually it’s harder to achieve a successful project without a committed user. (R2) R2 observes, however, that a committed, unknowledgeable user can be troublesome. R2 advises that if the system’s supplier is familiar with the environment where the system is to be implemented then it may be cheaper and more effective not to anchor everything with the user. R4 maintains that if the user does not collaborate then the project has to draw its own conclusions. R4 informs that this may not necessarily be negative as the user may not have a clear vision of what they want. If the user doesn’t collaborate and share his/her opinions then the project is forces to draw its own conclusions, what needs to done, what the requirements are. This isn’t always negative, especially if the customer doesn’t know what he/she wants. R4 suggests a solution for lack of user collaboration. R4 advises that the project can itself establish the requirements.

These can then be confirmed with the customer for review and approval. […] one way to solve this is for the project to establish the requirements etc. these can then be confirmed with the customer for review and approval. (R4) R5 was of the opinion that if the user is unable to dedicate sufficient time to the project then the success of the project will be threatened: If the user cannot dedicate that time which is necessary then the success of the project is definitely affected. (R5).


The concept of user resistance was recognised by two of the respondents as being potentially detrimental to project success. R2 informs quite   categorically that it usually is harder to achieve a successful project without a committed user: R5 was of the opinion that if the user did not dedicate enough time to the project then the success of the project will be threatened. R4 explained that if the user was not committed then the project would be forced to make its own conclusions. According 77 to R4 this was not necessarily disadvantageous as the user may not know what he/she wants.

8 Respondents opinions on what characterises a successful software project

A presentation of the material relating to the respondents own opinions regarding software project success will now be given. When asked for opinions regarding software project success R1 maintained that time and cost were the most important variables to consider: I am orientated towards the result. I think that if you have delivered within the allocated time and within budget then it’s a success. It’s that simple. (R1) R2 would agree, also considering time and cost to be the decisive variables pertaining to project success. Deliver in time and within the estimated price. (R2) R3 did not consider time and cost to be the most important aspects to consider. According to R3 customer satisfaction was the most important aspect to consider: […] a project can double its costs and go behind schedule but if the customer is satisfied then you’ve got a successful project. ( R3)

R4 informs that if the product is at all is used is an indicator for success. Furthermore, the product should be used for that for which it was intended and gives the customer the requested functionality. The product should be: used, used for that which it was intended and gives the customer the requested functionality. (R4) From the perspective of the project R4 ascertains that project success can be derived if it is possible to follow up if the goal has been reached, how the project’s economy has stood and if experiences have been recorded before the next project begins. R5 informs that delivering what the customer has requested constitutes success. Additionally, and in accordance with R1 and R2, R5 considers time and budget to be relevant variables when considering project success: To be able to deliver what the customer has requested within the timeframe and within the budget. (R5)


Three out of five respondents staunchly maintained that delivery within time and budget constituted factors for software project success. Customer satisfaction was a concept addressed by three of the respondents. R5 claims that delivering what the customer requested constitutes a success factor. R4 would agree, adding that the product should provide the customer with the requested functionality. R3 would appear to regard customer satisfaction as ultimately decisive for software project success.

9 Summary

A presentation has now been given for all material gathered throughout the course of this report. The first stages of the analytical process have also been presented together with the raw interview data. The author of this report feels that this approach lends 78 itself towards better continuity in the report and allows chapter 7 to better focus on a more specific analysis that covers the whole report.

Major Theme in Romeo and Juliet Essay

William Shakespeare uses several occasions and characters like Romeo and Juliet, competently to convey that like conquers absolutely everyone. All through the participate in Shakespeare properly displays how the enjoy of Romeo and Juliet overcomes a lot of issues in the enjoy. Romeo and Juliet hazard their families’ popularity and even their life, for appreciate which brings about the conflict in the play. This in the long run does result in the dying of the two fans but provides the people jointly in the close. This story demonstrates how enjoy triumphs above the terror of dying.

Romeo and Juliet are driven to love each other even however their households hate every single other. This results in conflict and a number of fatalities in the enjoy. Just after the social gathering in Act 1, Romeo goes to Juliet’s house to see her all over again later on getting warned that “If they do see thee they will murder thee. (2.2.70), but Romeo states “And but thou enjoy me, allow them locate me here. My existence had been much better finished by their hate…Than loss of life proroguèd, wanting of thy love…” (2.2.69) Romeo feels so a great deal really like for Juliet that he is ready to die for her and he even says that if Juliet does not adore him back again that he should die mainly because his existence would be meaningless. The topics of loss of life and brutality tie in with Romeo and Juliet, and they are continuously linked with enthusiasm, regardless of whether or not that vitality is really like or despise. The association among abhor, viciousness, and passing seems obviously obvious.

Appreciate is the major theme in Romeo and Juliet, but a concept that is tied in with really like is despise emotion can confused a person and essentially blind a individual from their steps. An instance of this would be when Tybalt needs to get rid of Romeo in Act 1 simply because he was wanting at Juliet. He describes Romeo as a “Slave… Arrive hither, coated with an antic face, to fleer and scorn at our solemnity?” (1.5.54) He tells his slave to carry him his sword to kill Romeo but Lord Capulet refuses for Tybalt to get rid of Romeo stating “Verona brags of him”(1.5.67) Lord Capulet is generally telling Tybalt to calm down and control himself mainly because he’s permitting his feelings management him. Tybalt dies later on and kills Mercutio which was foreshadowed in the stop of Act 1 due to the fact of his immaturity.

The unbelievable notion of affection can be identified in the way it is portrayed, or, all the extra precisely, the route depictions of it so reliably neglect to capture its sum. Now and yet again really like is portrayed in the phrases of faith, as in the fourteen strains when Romeo and Juliet at first satisfy. At other people it is depicted as a kind of enchantment: “Alike bewitchèd by the appeal of looks” (2.Prologue.6). Juliet, probably, most beautifully depicts her adoration for Romeo by declining to portray it: “But my true like is grown to this kind of excessive / I cannot sum up some of 50 percent my wealth” (3.1.33– 34). Appreciate, as it had been, opposes any solitary similitude due to the fact it is much too amazing to be so properly contained or comprehended. 

Jane Eyre’s Gothic Theme Essay

Jane Eyre is a common Victorian period literature masterpiece by Charlotte Bront. It was released in the yr 1847, under Charlottes pen title Currer Bell. The novel combines the passionate fairy tale of a damsel in distress with a common gothic theme that is seriously symbolized all over the novel. It tells a story of a woman who is battling to obtain and sustain her self-well worth in the rigid course construction. This at previous potential customers to her establishing independence and her willingness to voice her opinions in a modern society that advocates for submission in women (Bront 207). There are various components of the gothic topic in the novel.

The key Placing of the story is in an previous eerily castle or mansion. Thornfield is a good aged hall, relatively neglected of late a long time probably, but even now it is a respectable position nevertheless you know in wintertime time, a person feels dreary really by yourself, in the greatest quarters. I say by itself (Bront 182). Gothic themes are recognized for their preoccupation with dim and gloomy properties that provide to elicit thoughts of anxiety and uneasiness in the reader. It is constantly distinct on who the occupants of the dwelling are. There are top secret passages and rooms and perhaps outdated sections exactly where people today are forbidden from venturing into.

Villains perform a pivotal function in the Gothic themes. They generally take the sort of a male with autocratic, profitable, charming and sophisticated options. Mr. Rochester was a temperamental, married and manipulative gentleman who utilised mental tips to avert his secrets and techniques from leaking out. Nevertheless, he wanted to attain his goals, but his psychological conflicts prevented him. Despite his flawed individuality, Jane fell in enjoy with him. I experienced not supposed to really like him the reader understands I had wrought hard to extirpate from my soul the germs of enjoy there detected and now, at the initial renewed watch of him, they spontaneously revived, wonderful and powerful! He manufactured me appreciate him devoid of seeking at me. (Bront 221)

Literal artists use visions and nightmares to foretell and trace at events that are nonetheless to come about. They generate an air of mysteriousness, confusion and sublimity for the dread of the not known. This is displayed when Charlotte describes Janes reflection in the mirror. All seemed colder and darker in that visionary hollow than in reality: and the weird very little determine there gazing at me, with a white facial area and arms specking the gloom, and glittering eyes of dread going exactly where all else was nevertheless, had the result of a true spirit (Bront 21). Jane perceives herself as one thing unnatural, some thing she may perhaps flip into if she ongoing flirting with her dismal current.

Maybe the most important and eerily factor of supernatural action in the novel was when Jane read a bizarre and mysterious laugh. The giggle was recurring in its reduced, syllabic tone, and terminated in an odd murmur.(Bront 202). Janes paranoia and eagerness to discover a ghost in the attic is unsuccessful when she is knowledgeable by Mrs. Fairfax, the housekeeper that the laughter arrived from a servant dwelling in the third-floor of the household. Spectacular gatherings these kinds of as these are in the end disclosed to be a all-natural event by the artist.

A gothic tale is not comprehensive without having the literal artist evoking the feeling of suspense and dread. “It appeared, sir, a lady, tall and big, with thick and dark hair hanging lengthy down her back again. I know not what dress she had on: it was white and straight but irrespective of whether gown, sheet, or shroud, I are not able to notify.” (Bront, 540). Everything that align with the widespread happenings and explanations contributes to the mysterious ambiance and worry of the mysterious. This usually comes about when the figures sees only a glimpse of something, heightening the thoughts of anxiety.

Jane Eyre: Theme of the Supernatural Essay

Things of the supernatural arise normally during Jane Eyre. The gothic novel, prepared by Charlotte Bront, capabilities multiple occurrences of supernatural things all through the length of Janes journey via existence. Bront is capable to weave supernatural things these kinds of as the legend of Gytrash, the purple home, and the hearing of inexplicable voices into the plot, with these components having important impacts on both the figures and the occasions in the novel.

As Jane commences to make herself at ease at Thornfield, she seems to see a horse approaching in the distance. She begins to suspect that she is encountering Gytrash, a spirit that disguises itself as an animal, these kinds of as a horse, in get to startle belated travellers (Bront 133). When it is later on figured out that this was simply Rochester arriving dwelling, it is however a supernatural factor. Gytrash is a spirit, which is plainly supernatural. This interaction is major as it reveals the trauma of Gateshead still impacts Jane. Regardless of remaining away from these who traumatized her, Jane however faces the trauma, just in a different variety. Soon after going through harassment from those about her, Janes fears now are concentrated on the supernatural. The trauma Jane faced as a child could make her more succeptiable to believing in supernatural creatures, these kinds of as Gytrash. Jane has an active imagination, which permits for her to translate the childhood traumas she experienced endured into a concern of supernatural beings. This can be noticed as a coping system for Jane. She is equipped to switch her actual lifestyle abuse from her family and change her fears towards creatures that are not serious. Jane, being aware of that these creatures are not real in contrast to the mistreatment from her household customers, can consciously spot her fears into spirits and vampires as she appreciates they cannot actually harm her. Gytrash is just one case in point of Janes a lot of fears toward the supernatural in purchase to cope with her early childhood trauma.

When put in the red room as a punishment by Mrs. Reed, Jane encounters the supernatural as she encounters Mr. Reeds spirit (Bront 22). An face with a ghost is devoid of a doubt a supernatural component. Even with remaining defined as merely a light inside of the place, the spirit of Mr. Reed nevertheless affects Jane and her existence. The trauma of getting positioned in the crimson room turned as well substantially for Jane to consider, ensuing in her suffering from hysteria. Jane at some point faints from all the pressure she ordeals, highlighting just how traumatic this occasion really was. Residing in a residence where you are unwanted and treated badly for numerous years adopted by getting forced into the room wherever your uncle died is almost nothing but cruel and can significantly traumatize a particular person for existence, permit alone a youthful boy or girl. Events like these alter a persons everyday living and can impact not only their state of mind, but also their character and alternatives. With Jane being the most important character of the novel and becoming traumatized from this, the crimson place seriously impacts the plot of the tale.

As Jane starts to ponder no matter if she ought to marry St. John or not, she hears a familiar voice in the length. The voice of Rochester is calling out for Jane, yelling in which are you! (Bront 485). Even with Rochester currently being nowhere in close proximity to Jane, Jane can evidently hear Rochester exclaiming into the night time. Hearing the voice of a man or woman nowhere close to is evidently supernatural. Rochester afterwards reveals that he also heard Janes voice responding to him. This highlights how sturdy the link and romance in between Jane and Rochester genuinely is. Their emotions to one another are solid more than enough to come to be supernatural, as it is the only clarification for each currently being able to hear their companions voice from an extremely hard length. Hearing Rochesters voice also permitted for Jane to acknowledge that she does not want to marry St. John, in spite of his constant makes an attempt at persuasion. Hearing the voice of Rochester at these kinds of a pivotal second in her lifetime has permitted for Jane to see that she must return to Thornfield and rekindle her connection with Rochester. Without having the supernatural incidence of hearing kinds voice from miles away, Jane would most likely have married St. John even with her true feelings in the direction of him. Bront does not make clear this supernatural occasion, contrary to each and every other supernatural incidence in the novel. Accomplishing so enables for the reader to see that Rochester and Jane ended up truly intended for one one more.

Bront utilizes the basic elements of a gothic novel to her gain, as they impact the plot of the novel. Weaved throughout Jane Eyre, supernatural elements these kinds of as Gytrash, the crimson place, and inexplicable voices are utilised. These factors are utilized to realize the intention of impacting each the figures and gatherings in the course of the novel.

Harrison Bergeron Theme of Competition Essay

Harrison Bergeron was published to give the reader some kind of notion as to what it would be like if there was no competitiveness in the globe. The major character is 14, tall, handsome, solid, athletic, good, and above average in each and every way conceivable. The creator uses humor and irony to depict a relatively terrible tale of a dystopian society the place, all people today had been genuinely and totally designed equal in every single component conceivable underneath the law of the land. The govt produced certain that no a single could be smarter, prettier, stronger, or in anyway much better than the subsequent man or woman. It is not only a tale of governing administration handle but also a tale about social boundaries and conforming to social norms in this manufactured up modern society.

Levels of competition is in our nature as individuals. There is constantly anyone out there that is far better, smarter, much better, and so on that we are attempting to get ahead of. In this limited story a female named Diana Moon Glampers who was the handicapper common was expected to occur up with suggestions to make confident that no 1 had an unfair advantage about any one else. If another person was additional than normal in their intelligence, like the primary character in this brief tale, they had been essential to wear an earpiece 20-four hours a day that transmitted horrible noises into their ears in twenty 2nd intervals to blast out the views. Anyone in this culture was necessary to don sacks with a specific amount of direct balls in them based on their measurement, strength and other aspects identified by the handicapper basic, to weigh them down so that they could not transfer faster than other people.

Although unrealistic, this dystopian society attracts parallels to the world we dwell in currently. Every person usually competing to see who has the most effective task, the finest residence, the best vehicle, and so on. In every little thing we do we are competing from or siblings, friends, and the rest of the planet for some sort of gratification. All little ones get a trophy for getting on a sports activities group just for displaying up for methods and games, just so that they do not feel inferior to the little ones that are athletically inclined or the youngsters who perform harder and place in far more time than the many others to make themselves far better.

The author employs excessive irony all through the shorter tale to illustrate just how absurd daily life was in this created up environment. All Tv set/radio announcers had some type of speech impediment, in some cases so intense that they couldn’t make the announcements that they had been intended to make. For example when the ballerina decided to browse the announcement about dwell television set the narrator explained She experienced to apologize at the moment for her voice, which was a extremely unfair voice for a girl to use. Her voice was a heat, luminous, timeless melody. Excuse me- she stated and commenced all over again building her voice entirely uncompetitive.

The improvement of engineering is a significant concept in this composing due to the fact of the use of all the handicapping equipment. Every person in this modern society had to use a bag chained all around their neck with a selected selection of lead balls so no a single would be more powerful or more quickly than any individual else. For every ball you took out of your bag it was $2000 and 2 yrs in jail. If you experienced extra than common intelligence you were to wear a psychological handicap which played piercing noises in your ears so that you were not able to believe plainly. If you could see better than every person else, you would have to wear eyeglasses to impair your eyesight. And if you did not glimpse regular, you would have to dress in a mask so that no one particular felt threatened by your splendor. The additional previously mentioned common you appeared, the uglier the mask you have been manufactured to put on. The major character, Harrison, had to put on major headphones that included his ears, glasses that impaired his eyesight as nicely as providing him debilitating migraines. He was produced to carry a few hundred pounds of scrap metal on his overall body and, mainly because of his fantastic looks, was usually made to dress in a pink ball on his nose 24 hrs a day and to maintain his eyebrows shaved.

Forgiveness and Compassion Theme in the Sunflower: on the Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness Essay

Really should criminals included in mass crimes be forgiven? This is the tricky problem with diverse solutions that several ponder. Simon Wiesenthal investigates this issue together with other authors in the The Sunflower. Simon was in a Nazi focus camp in the course of Environment War 2. Just one working day all through his imprisonment, he was sent to take out waste from a German military clinic, wherever he was then identified as above to the bedside of a soldier. The SS soldier, Karl, was mortally wounded and was dying. The soldier asked for Simon, simply because he essential anyone of the Jewish religion to confess to. Karl questioned for forgiveness from Simon when he confessed and repented his evil doings of murdering a mass amount of individuals by burning a developing and taking pictures at any person who tried out to escape. Whilst Simon listened to Karl’s confession, he was battling with his head the make a difference of forgiveness. Following Karl’s confession, Simon did not give Karl an solution if he forgave him, instead, Simon walked out silently. From that day forward, Simon presses the issue of forgiveness. Even though some argue that we must strive for compassion and comprehending to forgive, some others imagine that we should not forgive, since to forgive you have to ignore. I can fully grasp the two viewpoints. I feel that forgiveness is a own final decision and is up to the personal and situations. By not forgiving, it will make certain that the similar crimes will not be repeated, due to the fact perpetrators will not acquire edge of forgiveness and will learn from their steps. By forgiving, the actions of the perpetrator will not switch the target into bitterness and the reminiscences will be everlasting notes to not repeat the same crimes, for the reason that victims can use their memories as understanding and let go. Some might argue that we should exhibit compassion and forgive criminals of mass crime, such as the crimes committed by the Nazis in the course of the Holocaust. The act of compassion is exhibiting pity for other people while knowing that they are absolutely dependable for their actions. We all have an innate capacity to clearly show compassion and understanding which empowers us to enable go of self-righteous inner thoughts of resentment to forgive. Dith Pran states in The Sunflower that, The critical to forgiveness is knowledge (Pran 232). Pran indicates that in buy for us to forgive, we need to realize. Understanding the situation and conscience of the perpetrator allows just one to be liberated from the unfavorable inner thoughts that can oppress one which permits 1 to forgive. Showing compassion or forgiving does not reprimand one’s actions, in its place, it brings consciousness. With consciousness and new comprehending, one particular will uncover therapeutic, the capacity to forgive, and a excellent toughness of compassion. While arguing that we need to forgive, Matthieu Ricard in The Sunflower states that, The idea of a secure and autonomous self is, from the Buddhist stage of perspective, itself the resource of interior poisons this kind of as hatred, obsession, pleasure, and jealousy, for it divides us from other individuals and stops us from remaining additional compassionate (Ricard 235). Ricard emphases that not forgiving will allow for unfavorable beliefs to manifest in us, which prevents us from remaining compassionate and forgiving.

When we forgive, we grow to be really compassionate about the soreness of people who have inflicted suffering. Ricard also states that legitimate compassion has to settle for all factors and anyone, even the righteous and the guilty, and the good friend and the enemy (Ricard 235). Ricard is saying that we should really display compassion and forgiveness for everybody, so that everybody and almost everything has the option to be refined from suffering and suffering to great. Forgiveness is a deep and particular system, but with compassion, forgiveness can be available to anyone. Numerous individuals argue that we should really not forgive perpetrators of mass crimes. Many say that to forgive, you should neglect all the wrongdoings manufactured. This excuses and dismisses the crimes, and the struggling built by the perpreptor, which is unacceptable. Sven Alkalaj claims in The Sunflower that forgetting crimes is even worse than forgiving, for the reason that forgetting belittles the humanity that vanished in the atrocities (Alkalaj 102). Alkalaj suggests that by forgetting the injustices, this sort of as the types that the Jewish folks been given, it would disparage the sufferings and trauma that one particular has beared. It is tricky to visualize that any one would be capable of forgiving the suffering and inhumanity endured by the victims of the Nazis. Moshe Bejski statements in The Sunflower that, These types of an act of mercy would have been a type of betrayal and repudiation of the memory of innocent victims who were unjustly murdered, amongst them, the associates of his family (Bejski 115). Bejski conveys that showing pity for the criminals associated is not only impertinent to the victims and their family members but it would bring about us to neglect the killings and tortures committed. We are not able to forgive if the reminiscences of the atrocity proceeds to haunt and enslave the victims. Bejski also states, The survivors have been sentenced to bear their soreness and unhappiness to the grave. Devoid of forgetting there can be no forgiving (Bejski 116). Bejski is stating we need to not forgive, due to the fact survivors are supplied a everyday living sentence of trauma and agony that can not be rehabilitated or healed. The crimes carried out will remain in the victims’, and their cherished ones’ minds permanently.

These viewpoints offer enough evidence on no matter if to grant forgiveness. Some say that we should forgive to show compassion and knowledge. Although the other facet recognizes that we shouldn’t forgive, simply because we would have to discard all sufferings. I can acknowledge both sides of the argument and believe that forgiveness is up to the specific and how they truly feel.

While, a component of me argues that we should present compassion and forgive criminals of mass crimes, a component of me imagine we should really not. Perpetrators who were forgiven have a probability of exploiting and abusing what was granted to them and not finding out from their faults. Therefore that would dismiss the atrocity, for the reason that there is no genuine consequence. In The Sunflower Robert McAfee Brown factors out that, If we forgive, it will be a sign to these in the long run that they can act devoid of anxiety of punishment, and that the universe has a moral escape valve labeled ‘forgiveness’ that permits evil not only to endure but to prosper (Brown 121). Some others will need to know that if one particular commits a crime, there will be outcomes. Punishment for crimes will set an case in point for some others not to commit crimes. If we make it possible for criminals to escape punishment, it will be an injustice for the victims. The victims of perpetrators would have to undergo with the trauma, when the perpetrators are granted to shift on. In the case for the Nazis, quite a few of them were being not brought to justice and continued living their life, when 17 million persons, such as 6 million Jews, lost theirs. Moshe Bejski states that the amount of Nazi criminals being brought to justice is decreasing, which depart thousands of Germans involved in committing genocide and crimes to return to their tranquil, peaceful homes and life without having emotion regret or a troubled conscience (Bejski 116). Bejski is highlighting how we really should not forgive criminals who have dedicated mass crimes, because they do not are entitled to forgiveness. Perpetrators present no regret all through and right after committing heinous crimes, for that reason it would be difficult to exhibit compassion and grant them forgiveness. Primo Levi states in The Sunflower that, When an act of violence or an offense has been committed it is for good irreparable (Levi 191). Levi displays that when this kind of destruction has been performed, it cannot be undone. The steps manufactured by perpetrators can’t be repaired or overlooked and for that purpose, we ought to not grant forgiveness to criminals of mass crimes. While, some say that to forgive you will have to fail to remember, I argue that we should forgive, but no fail to remember. Criminals and victims must remember the steps done to make sure that crimes and atrocities do not reoccur. By forgiving, we are permitting go of the anger and hatred that holds us down. By remembering, we are creating sure the wrongdoing doesn’t manifest once more.

In The Sunflower Mary Gordon states that, Forgiveness can, of class, be superior for the two sides, but forgetting virtually in no way is, initial mainly because it is a variety of denial, and next simply because only a recognition of guilt by equally sides can start to stop repetition of the exact heinous deed (Gordon 152). Gordon emphasizes that forgiveness is great for us, but we really should under no circumstances overlook, since it is a variety of denial and we should make a long term notice of the penitence from both sides to reduce the very same damaging steps from going on again. Nothing can alter the memory the victim retains inside of their minds, for the reason that the criminal offense has now been finished so the greatest matter to do is discover from that memory and forgive. In The Sunflower Matthew Fox states that, 1 should forgive”but not out of altruism but out of the need to be cost-free to get on with one’s life”but we ought not forget…Simon did not forget…His tale stops our forgetting (148). Fox highlights how we ought to forgive, but not overlook so that our tales, just like Simon’s, can be realized from and reminders for other folks not to allow for the same issues to occur. Remembering is vital, for the reason that it will allow us to have the past expertise in knowing what to do, so that issues aren’t repeated. Robert McAfee Brown suggests that the phrase under no circumstances fail to remember is a distinct lesson and if we do forget there will be a time wherever worst atrocities will come about in opposition to everyone by ones who want to destroy energy (Brown 121). Brown is saying that we have to recall crimes since there may well be a period of time in the foreseeable future where worst monstrosities will occur. If a worst monstrocity is in the performs in the long term, we’ll have our recollections and others’ tales to enable overcome it. Forgetting is not great for us, as recollections are who we are. Recollections are a way of going ahead and granting forgiveness.

Also, forgiveness is anything we really should all strive for to shift forward. We must forgive to expel all the hatred and bitterness that we keep with us. By holding on to the hatred, resentment, and bitterness, we are only hurting ourselves. You can see forgiveness as a thing to profit by yourself rather than the perpetrator. Forgiveness lets perpetrators know that their actions were being hateful, but you really do not carry the hatred for them so you can far better oneself. Forgiveness allows a person to define themselves rather than make it possible for the perpetrator to outline them. In The Sunflower Harold S. Kushner recalls a dialogue with a lady were being he states, I’m asking you to forgive for the reason that he doesn’t are worthy of the electricity to stay in your head and transform you into a bitter, offended girl (Kushner 185). Kushner is saying that no one particular justifies the capability to flip you into some thing evil. Anger and bitterness from not forgiving puts heavy weights on us and keep us back. Ricard states that, For the target, forgiveness is a way of reworking his have grief, resentment, or hatred into very good (Ricard 236). Ricard shows that forgiveness is a variety of transformation, it can change a person from anger and despise into very good and happiness. We shouldn’t allow grudges and hatred outline us or produce new pain. Forgiving can be a way for 1 to cope with their trauma, simply because it helps the victims transfer on. Kushner specific how forgiveness represents allowing go of grievance and the function of sufferer (186). Kushner implies that we really should forgive to not only permit go of resentment, but to also let go of defining ourselves as the victim. Victims will always be suffers of crimes committed versus them, but they really do not have to let that ascertain them or their potential.

Granting forgiveness relieves the heaviness of the earlier and offers us the opportunity to transfer toward to greatness.To sum up, numerous folks have unique opinions on no matter if to grant forgiveness to people who have committed mass crimes. Forgiveness is a personalized and deep option, for that reason there are no suitable or wrong solutions to granting forgiveness. Some may perhaps say that we should purpose for compassion and knowledge to generally grant forgiveness for absolutely everyone, including all those who have commited mass crimes. Other folks will say that we need to never forgive perpetrators of mass crimes, for the reason that they really do not ought to have it and we will neglect their wrongdoings. I fully grasp each viewpoints and argue for both sides. By not forgiving, perpetrators won’t abuse the electrical power of forgiveness and will understand from their actions. This is important, mainly because this will make certain that the similar crimes won’t be repeated in the long term. By forgiving, victims will permit go of the resentment and hatred, but will not overlook the injustice and sufferings inflicted. This is essential, because a single need to not let the actions of perpetrators turn them into bitterness and must enable the reminiscences to be preserved so crimes don’t repeat by themselves. Forgiveness could be circumstantial, but in the conclude, it is up to the individuals’ conclusions on whether to forgive.

Financial Analysis for Wonderland Confectionaries Theme Park Finance Essay Essay

Wonderland Confectionaries Inc. owns a successful chain of Restaurants and the company is considering diversifying its activities by investing in theme park business by constructing a theme park.

This report analyses the Wonderland’s investment in the theme park to diversify its current business. Based on the information available from the market research undertaken by Wonderland and the investigation done on the closest theme park competitor, major investment appraisal methods were used to evaluate the above said investment. Recommendations are given based on the findings from the investment appraisal methods. Furthermore, investment appraisal method used in this analysis is compared with other major investment appraisal methods. In addition to that, financial and non-financial issues that management of Wonderland need to be aware of and suggestions on how to manage these issues are discussed. Further, a brief outline of the use of real options in project appraisal is given.


Wonderland Confectionaries Inc. owns a successful chain of restaurants and the company is contemplating to diversify its business activities by investing in theme park business. In order to undertake this diversification process, the company is considering constructing a theme park, which would have a mixture of family and adventurous activities.

This report aims to analyse the Wonderland’s investment in the theme park. Based on the information available from the market research undertaken by the company and the investigation done on a closest theme park competitor (Alice Limited), major investment appraisal methods will be used to evaluate the above said investment. Recommendations will be given based on the conclusions drawn from the investment appraisal methods used in this analysis. Furthermore, investment appraisal method used in this analysis will be compared with other major investment appraisal methods. In addition to that, financial and non-financial issues that management of Wonderland need to be aware of and suggestions on how to manage these issues will be discussed. Further, a brief outline of the use of real options in project appraisal will be given.


In order to calculate Net Present Value (NPV), Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) needs to be calculated by using project specific approach as shown below. Main reason behind this is because WACC of the new project will represent the most accurate measure of cost of capital for the new project, which will be used as discount factor to calculate NPV. Further, Wonderland’s funds can be viewed as a pool of resources. Company will withdraw money from this pool of funds to invest in the theme park project and add to the pool as new finance is raised or profits are retained. In this case, it is most appropriate to use an average cost of capital as the discount rate (BPP Learning, 2009, p.334).

3.1 Calculation of Project Specific WACC (Theme Park)

In order to calculate project specific WACC, 5 steps will be followed as shown below:

Step 1: Identify Pure Play Company; a company in the desired industry is identified to use their beta and relevant information. This is required to allow an insight into the risk of the industry as measured by the pure play company’s data.

In this case, the pure play company is ALICE LIMITED operating in Theme park industry.

Step 2: De-Gear; pure play company identified has a beta, which is an equity beta that is inclusive of debt.

They may very well have a different gearing level to the company concerned (pure play company; ALICE LIMITED), and effects of debt (gearing) need to be removed from their equity beta (De-Gearing) in order to obtain a debt free beta known as Asset Beta.

Asset Beta = Equity Beta x Equity

Equity + Debt (1-tax)


Equity Beta of Alice Ltd = 1.50

Equity of Alice = 500,000,000+700,000,000 = £ 1,200,000,000

Debt of Alice Ltd = £ 570,000,000

Corporate Tax = 35%

Asset Beta = 1.50 x 1,200,000,000

1,200,000,000 + 570,000,000 (1- 0.35)

Asset Beta = 1.146

Step 3: Re-Gear; at this stage the new asset beta will be taken to introduce it to see the effects of debt of the diversifying company (re-gearing). This can be done as follows:

Equity Beta

= Asset Beta x Equity + Debt (1-tax)



Asset Beta = 1.146

Equity of Wonderland = gearing is estimated to be 80% of equity = 100,000,000 x 5 x 80% = £ 400,000,000

Debt of Wonderland = gearing is estimated to be 20% of debt = 100,000,000 x 5 x 80% = £ 100,000,000

Corporate Tax = 35

Equity Beta = 1.146 x 400,000,000 + 100,000,000 (1 – 0.35)


Equity Beta = 1.332

Step 4: CAPM; at this step, new cost of equity of Wonderland Confectionary Inc. is calculated based on the new beta, which is reflective of the risk that equity investors will now have to face. This can be seen below:

Ke = Rf + B (Rm-Rf)


Ke = Cost of Equity

Rf = Risk Free Rate (3.5%)

B = Beta (1.332)

Rm = Expected Market Return (12%)

Ke = 0.035 + 1.332 (0.12 – 0.035)

Ke = 0.1483 (14.83%)

Step 5: WACC; It is best practice to use the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) method in appraising any investment. Tabular approach will be used to calculate WACC as shown below in the table – 1:

Table 1: Calculation of WACC

Capital Component

Market Value of Capital Component (V)

Cost of Capital Component (K)

Value multiplied by cost of capital component (VK)









Total (Sum)



1 Kd BD = i (1 – t) = 0.08 (1 – 0.35) = 0.052 = 5.20%

Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) = A¢Ë†‘ VK

A¢Ë†‘ V

WACC = 64,500,860


WACC = 0.1290 (12.90%)

Weighted Average Cost of Capital of 12.90% will be used as a discount factor to calculate Net Present Value.

3.2 Calculation of Net Present Value (NPV)

The following major assumptions have been made in working out the NPV for the theme park project:

This evaluation will ignore the market research cost of £ 400,000 as it is a sunk cost.

Leap years will be ignored in this analysis.

Insurance is required at the start of the project. As a result, out of £ 3,000,000 insurance costs, £ 2,000,000 per year is due directly to the theme park project.

There will be no inflation on advertising costs.

Advertising savings will be considered as cash inflows.

Monetary analysis of future cash flows will be used because of different inflation rates as follows:

(a). Revenue to rise by 6% from current on a compound basis.

(b). Insurance costs to increase in line with consumer price, i.e. 6% per annum compounded annually.

(c). Labour cost will be increased by 7% each year on compounding basis

(d). Operating costs to increase by 5% per year.

Theme park will be operated 7 days a week for 365 days a year and will be maintained during the night. Further, the following estimates have been made:

(a). Park will attract an average of 20,000 visitors per day (for at least 5 years) and 70% of the visitors are forecast to be children and rest being adults.

(b). Price of admission will be taken as £ 25 per adult and £ 15 per child.

(c). Average visitor will spend £ 10 on food and drinks.

Taking into account all the above major assumptions, total revenue per year is calculated in the following table – 2 below:

Table 2: Revenue Per Year








Number of visitors per day




Number of visitors per year




Admission Fee (@ £ 25 adults & £ 15 child)




Food & Drinks (£ 10 per visitor)




Revenue per year (Admission and Food + Drinks)




From the above table it can be seen that theme park project will generate revenue of £ 204,400,000 per year. However, Wonderland Confectionaries Inc. expect it to rise by 6% from current on a compound bases as shown in the following table – 3 below:

Table 3: Net Trading Revenue Calculation


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5


Revenue (6% inflation rate) 1






Total Revenue Per Year






Operating Costs

Insurance 2






Operating Costs 3






Labour Costs 4






Total Operating Costs Per Year












1 Revenue (Year – 1) = £ 204,400,000 x (1.06)1 = £ 216,664,000; 2 Insurance (Year – 1) = £ 2,000,000 x (1.06)1 = (£ 2,120,000);

3 Operating Costs (Year – 1) = £ 17,000,000 x (1.05)(1-1) = £ 17,000,000; 4 Labour Costs (Year – 1) = £ 35,000,000 x (1.07)1 = (£ 35,450,000)

Tax payable can be calculated from the above net trading revenue for each year at a rate of 35% as shown below in the table – 4:

Table 4: Tax Payable Calculation


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5


Tax Payable 1






1 Tax Payable (Year – 1) = £ 160,094,000 x 0.35 = £ 56,032,900

Out of the whole investment, £ 300 million will attract a capital allowance on straight-line basis as shown in the following table – 5:

Table 5: Capital Allowance Calculation


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5


Tax Relief 1






1 Tax Relief (Year – 1) = £ 300,000,000 / 5 x 0.35 = £ 21,000,000

Theme park would cost a total of £ 500 million and could be constructed working after 1 year of investment. Half of the £ 500 million would be payable immediately and half in one year’s time without the effect of inflation due to a signed agreement. This is show in the table – 6 below:

Table 6: Investment Calculation


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5





In addition to the above, working capital of £ 60 million will be required from the beginning of the project and is expected to increase yearly in line with inflation factor of the revenue which is 6%. This can be seen from the table – 7 below:

Table 7: Calculation of the Working Capital Re-capture


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5


Year – 6


Working Capital







Working Capital Re-capture


Non-current asset has an after tax realisable value between £ 100 million and £ 200 million after five years of the project. As a result, an average of £ 150 million will be taken as residual value as show in the table – 8 below:

Table 8: Calculation of Residual Value


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5


Year – 6


Residual Value


Due to dual use of existing advertising campaigns by company on its restaurants, theme park will save £ 3 million per year in advertising expenses as shown below in the table – 9:

Table 9: Savings on Advertising Expenses


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5


Inflow of Advertising Savings






With the help of all the above information, Net Present Value of the project can be calculated as shown below in the table – 10:

Table 10: Calculation of Net Present Value


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5


Year – 6


Net Trading Revenue






Tax Payable






Capital Allowance (Tax Relief)









Working Capital







Working Capital Re-capture


Residual Value


Advertising Savings






Cash Flow








Discount Factor @ 12.90%1








Present Value 2










1 Discount Factor is taken from the WACC amount calculated above which is 12.90%; DCF (Year – 1) = 1.000 / 1.1290 = 0.886

2 Present Value (Year – 1) = (£ 125,538,900) x 0.866 = (£ 111,194,774)

3 Net Present Value is sum of all the present values for 6 years which is £ 57,197,569

From the above table – 10, it can be seen that theme park project has a positive net present value of £57,197,569 and as such Wonderland Confectionaries Inc. should accept the project. Positive NPV means that the project will increase the wealth of the company by the amount of the NPV at the current cost of capital. In other words, positive NPV means, if the theme park project is undertaken by Wonderland, it will offer a higher return than the return required by the company to provide satisfactory return to its sources of finance, which in turn means that the company’s value will be increased and the project will contribute to shareholders wealth maximisation (BPP Learning, 2009, p.148). However, it is recommended for Wonderland to have a closer examination of the sales projections done for the project.

NPV decision could be further supported by calculating the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) for the project. To calculate IRR, the following technique is used (deriving cost of redeemable debt technique):

Columnar Approach.

Identify the cash flows.

Discount at two rates (Negative NPV = Divide 1st discount rate by 2 and Positive NPV = Multiply 1st discount rate by 2).

Use the IRR formula (Entonu, 2010).

Table 11: Columnar Approach to Calculate Internal Rate of Return


Year – 0


Year – 1


Year – 2


Year – 3


Year – 4


Year – 5


Year – 6


Cash Flows








DCF @ 12.90%








Present Value








Net Present Value


DCF @ 25.80%








Present Value








Net Present Value


Note: NPV at DCF (Discount Factor) @ 12.90% = £ 57,197,569; when NPV is positive, that means DCF used to calculate NPV is too low. As a result DCF should be multiplied by 2 (i.e. 12.90 x 2 = 25.80%) to get a negative NPV [NPV @ 25.80% DCF = (£ 95,872,625)].

To calculate IRR, the following formula is used:

Internal Rate of Return (IRR) = LR + NPV (+) x (HR – LR)

NPV (+) – NPV (-)


LR = Lower Discount Rate

HR = Higher Discount Rate

NPV (+) = NPV at lower discount rate & NPV (-) = NPV at lower discount rate

IRR = 0.129 + 57,197,569 x (0.258 – 0.129)

(57,197,569+ 95,872,625)

IRR = 0.1772

IRR of 0.1772 (17.72%) is greater than the current weighted average cost of capital of Wonderland, which is at 9%, as such IRR agrees with NPV decision to proceed with the project.

3.3 Evaluation of Net Present Value method compared to other major methods used

Net Present Value (NPV) is the difference between an investment’s (theme park) market value and its costs. In other words, NPV is a measure of how much value is created or added today to Wonderland Company by undertaking the theme park investment (Ross et al., 2008, p. 232). NPV appraisal method is the best method for the financial analysis of theme park project is for the following reasons (LSBF, 2009, p.34):

(a). Theme park project with a positive NPV increases the wealth of the Wonderland Company and consequently increases the shareholder’s wealth.

(b). Unlike ROCE and payback method, NPV takes into account the time value of money (a dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow) and therefore the opportunity cost of capital.

(c). Discount rate can be adjusted to take account of different level of risk inherent in different projects. In other words, higher discount rates can be set for riskier projects.

(d). Better than payback and accounting rate of return method because NPV considers the cash flows over the whole life of the project rather than profit.

(e). Superior to return on capital employed method because it focuses on relevant future cash flows.

(f). Unlike internal rate of return, NPV method does not suffer the problem of multiple rates of return.


There are number of financial and non-financial issues that the management of Wonderland needs to be aware as follow:

(a). Financial Issues

It is essential for Wonderland to include only incremental cash flows during project appraisal, which means cash flows that are dependent on the projects implementation (Arnold, 2005, pp. 82).

It is important for Wonderland to include all opportunity costs and incidental effects in their investment appraisal (Arnold, 2005, pp. 83).

Wonderland should ignore sunk costs such as market research cost of £ 400,000, as these are not part of the theme park investment project. Market research cost is already incurred whether or not decision to construct the theme park goes ahead and is there for not incremental (Arnold, 2005, pp. 84).

It is fundamental that Wonderland management to include only incremental costs during project appraisal. This becomes an important issues when it comes to overhead costs such as labour, insurance and operating costs, etc, which are not directly related to any one part of the company or one project. To access the viability of the theme park project, only incremental expenses that would be incurred by going ahead with the project should be included as other general overhead costs will be incurred regardless of whether project takes place or not (Arnold, 2005, pp. 84).

Even though interest on bank loan to be borrowed by Wonderland to invest in the theme park project does represent a cash outflow, this element should not be included in the cash flow calculations. The main reason is that, it will lead to double counting, as the opportunity cost of capital used to discount the cash flows already incorporates a cost of these funds (Arnold, 2005, pp. 85).

Before Wonderland commits to invest in the theme park project, it is vital to ensure funding for the project is available. Further, identifying the right finance option for the particular project is essential from the different varieties of financing options available (Business link, 2010).

Wonderland should consider potential risk of the theme park project. This could be done with the help of assessment of all the risks involved in the project such as delays, underlying assumptions not being reliable, sales forecast gone wrong, etc. Further, they could use sensitivity analysis to predict the impact these potential risks will have on the project (Business link, 2010).

(b). Non- Financial Issues

It is important for Wonderland to see how theme park project fits with the existing business of the company. Further, they should consider how this project could contribute to overall strategic objective of the company (Business link, 2010).

Green Issues: It is important for Wonderland to consider the environmental impact that might be cause because of theme park project. It is vital for Wonderland to use most advance technologies to limit the damages caused to the environment because of the huge project. The main reason is that, companies who do not investment in green activities are considered now as irresponsible by the public who will in turn become customers of the theme park project.

Motivation of staffs: The effect on the staff is a crucial consideration to be made when investing in new projects. Arnold (2005, p. 76) states that “staffs enthusiasm and commitment will be central importance of the success of new projects”. It is important for Wonderland to find ways to improve staff morale, making it easier to recruit and retain employees (Business link, 2010).

Customer satisfaction: Its important for Wonderland to find ways to satisfy the prospective customers of the theme park project by conducting market surveys, market observation and market experiment, etc (Arnold, 2005, pp. 76).

Government regulations: It is vital that Wonderland keep up to date with the government regulations and they should meet the requirements of current and future legislations (Business link, 2010).

Competitors: Wonderland should consider actions of their major competitors such as Alice Ltd before making the investment decision (Business link, 2010).

Trends: They should consider the future trends before making the investment decision to see the potentials in the theme park project. Further, it is important for Wonderland to anticipate and deal with future threats such as projecting intellectual property rights against potential competitors (Business link, 2010).

It should be noted that most of the above non-financial issues could be assessed with the help of post audit techniques where by company checks on the progress of theme park project by conducting post audits shortly after the projects have begun to operate. “This will allow Wonderland to indentify problems that need fixing, check the accuracy of forecasts and suggest questions that should have been asked before the project was undertaken” (Brealey and Myers, 2003, pp. 313-314).


A real option is “the right but not the obligation to undertake some business decisions; typically the option to make, abandon, expand, sell a capital investment” (Kodukula and Papudesu, 2006, pp. 53-64). If Wonderland decided to investment in the theme park project, it should be noted that there are many options available for them through out the life of the project to make strategic changes as follows:

(a). Abandonment: This is option where by Wonderland can cease the project during its life if it is not viable for them to continue the project due to several reasons such as changes to demand, economy, etc. Due to changes in circumstances, Wonderland can decide to abandon the theme park project in order to terminate loss-making projects (Brealey and Myers, 2003, p. 625).

(b). Expansion: Depending on the success of the theme park project, Wonderland can decide to expand its theme park project to gain more market share in this industry (Arnold, 2005, p. 562). If there is potential for growth opportunities in the future, the option to expand can provide significant value to the company (Kodukula and Papudesu, 2006, p. 110).

(c). Flexibility: During the life of the theme park project, Wonderland will have the option to change inputs and output of the theme park projects for example, changes in suppliers or different pricing methods, discounts, etc in order to generate more profit from that project to the company (Brealey and Myers, 2003, pp. 630-631).

(d). Selling: Option where by company decides to sell the whole project for several reasons such as loss making projects or company received an opportunity to sell project at profit if they decides to abandon its theme park project, etc.

(e). Timing: Even though theme park project is giving a positive NPV does not mean that Wonderland should go ahead with the project today. Company has the option to wait if they can delay the investment decision where creating a trade of between cash flow today and cash flow in the future. Further, if they decided to wait, they could make a more informed and in the long run more value creating decision (Arnold, 2005, p. 563).

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Development of the Theme by Margaret Atwood Essay

Margaret Atwood tells the story of a handmaid identified as Offred dwelling in the Republic of Gilead, a totalitarian and theocratic condition that has replaced the United States of The usa, in her novel, The Handmaid’s Tale. In the theocratic Republic of Gilead, serious conservative, spiritual ideology is followed a alternative to societal problems. Medical doctors who performed abortions are hanged at the Wall exterior what employed to be Harvard College because abortion is a criminal offense. Girls are banned from possessing funds or proudly owning residence to guarantee their dependence on adult men. And based on the biblical precedent of Rachel and Leah, the place fertile servants can carry on adulterous interactions to allow infertile women of all ages to have young children, handmaids are assigned to bear the little ones of elite couples that have difficulty conceiving simply because of the dangerously minimal reproduction costs. Furthermore, Offred is assigned to bear a boy or girl for her Commander, Fred Waterford, and his wife, Serena Pleasure. In the theocratic state, women are almost nothing a lot more than their fertility. Atwood develops her concept about femininity in the Republic of Gilead by means of the use of figurative language, tone, and imagery.

The notion of a  woman’s eggs arrives up regularly in The Handmaid’s Tale, as it reminds us that they’re portion of a woman’s reproductive cycle. Offred generally has eggs for breakfast to make her have healthy eggs. A person day at breakfast, Offred thinks to herself that [looking] at the egg presents [her] intense satisfaction, adding that, Pleasure is an egg… If [she has] an egg, what more can [she] want? (Atwood 110). In her head, there is very little else that she can want simply because owning an egg symbolizes her becoming fertile. One more illustration of figurative language in The Handmaid’s Tale is with the comparison of women of all ages and flowers. Bouquets are typically considered symbols of magnificence or fertility, each defining femininity in the novel. In the novel, flowers are a reminder that many gals absence fertility. The older wives in the novel dangle onto their elegance and fertility by decorating by themselves in flowers or tending gardens. Oddly, Serena Joy is bizarrely pleasured by mutilating flowers. Serena Joy’s mutilating of bouquets is observed by Offred as an assault on their fertility(Atwood 153). Maybe, the attack on the bouquets are assaults that she would like to make on Offred, the flower dwelling in her residence. With the women’s mind-set toward eggs and bouquets in the Republic of Gilead, Atwood develops the concept that females are nothing far more than their fertility in the theocratic point out.

One more way Atwood acquire the topic of femininity is by tone. For instance, in chapter forty one particular, Offred suggests that she wishes [the] story… was about sunsets, birds, rainstorms, or snow (Atwood 267) but she can not simply because she suggests factors for how they are, displaying her dispassionate and factual tone. With the narrator’s tone, the audience realizes that all through the ebook, Offred’s lifestyle revolves all-around her fertility for the reason that that is all she is in that theocratic condition. We, as the audience, understand that she can’t convey to the tale in a different way simply because that’s what she appreciates and what she knows is that she lives in an uncivilized state obsessed with her fertility. By working with tone it showcases that that girls are only staying utilized for their fertility and aren’t ready to do anything us or nearly anything about it.

And finally, Atwood develops the theme by imagery. In Gilead, Offred’s energy is her fertility because that is all ladies are”their fertility. She’s just a childbearing vessel and Atwood illustrates a clear picture when Offred, Serena Joy, and Fred Waterford have The Ceremony, a hugely ritualized sexual act undergone to conceive little ones. In The Ceremony, Offred lies involving Serena Joy’s legs with her head on Serena’s belly, each totally clothed. Offred describes that [Serena’s] pubic bone [is] under the base of [her] cranium and that [Serena’s] thighs are on possibly side of [her] as Offred’s arms are elevated to hold arms with Serena (Atwood 93-94). The situation the narrator is in signifies that she and Serena Pleasure are just one getting (Atwood 94), Offred performing as the fertile uterus of Serena Pleasure. Through The Ceremony, as Offred is obtaining intercourse with Fred, Serena grips Offred’s palms as if she’s the a single having intercourse. This further illustrates that ladies in Gilead are practically nothing much more than their fertility. With Atwood using imagery it aids men and women see just how the women have been treated, and how the fertility of a females were being becoming utilised. 

In the Republic of Gilead, gals are very little a lot more than fertile, childbearing vessels and the author develops that thought by utilizing figurative language, tone, and imagery. We see in The Handmaid’s Tale that the females have most of their liberty taken away and their only worth to modern society is their fertility. They aren’t supposed to use their minds and are forbidden from reading through, performing outdoors of their residences, and investing dollars. Individuals who are fertile like Offred develop into infant-earning equipment and dwell lives revolving close to their fertility. Other then that the women’s  have no independence by any means and aren’t allowed to do everything that will get their intellect to believe.

Central Theme of the Enlightenment Essay

The central topic of the Enlightenment and what manufactured it possibly revolutionary was the plan of development. Human society was not preset by custom or divine command but could be adjusted, and improved, by human action guided by purpose. which can be located in the textbook recognized as Methods of the Globe: A Transient World Heritage with Resources, Western Kentucky College Edition, Volume Two.

The Atlantic Enlightenment was a time in history which was remembered for encouraging individuality, non-regular spiritual practices, and motive. In the textbook Strategies of the World: A Quick World Historical past with Resources, Western Kentucky University Edition, Volume Two, Robert W. Strayer and Eric W. Nelson explained this groundbreaking movement as placing into motion the corruption of set up faith. This period evoked individualism by inspiring a want for freedom as nicely as a development of sensible contemplating.

The individuality facets of the Enlightenment period struck just about every human being otherwise. For example, in the most important resource Kartini, Letter to a Dutch Mate, the creator, Raden Adjeng Kartini, tells about the experiences of a youthful, Indian lady escalating up in the Islam tradition. She describes the unfair traditions forced upon youthful Muslim girls, which she discovered to be morally demeaning. This uprising of individuality permitted her to ponder leaving her religion for a likelihood to become a free-pondering person.

Nonetheless, in Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture’s, Letters to the Director of France (1797) the author is inquiring for the French governing administration to not re-build slavery, as L’Ouverture led a riot to close slavery just in advance of listening to this exercise could possibly be re-instated. L’Ouverture rebelled against a very long-practiced tradition to let individuals turn out to be no cost-dwelling folks. Raden Adjeng Kartini and Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture would agree upon the thrust for alter and rebelling towards century-old techniques. Sim??n de Bol?­var, the author of Concept to the Congress of Angostura (1819) writes about the want for the American colonies to establish an independent federal government aside from the European legislation. In this document, they far too felt the battle of getting personal liberty.

The enlightened persons shared a motivation to open up-mindedness which is expressed in Strategies of the Environment: A Temporary International Historical past with Resources, Western Kentucky University Edition, Volume Two. Through this time, individuals started to create the frame of mind of wanting exterior of their regular boundaries.

As observed in Raden Adjeng Kartini’s function, she expressed the emotion of remaining locked in a box and slash off from all conversation with the outdoors world she thought that this was unfair to women and she longed to stay a a lot more equal way of living without judgment from the religiously standard elders and relentless followers of the lifestyle. Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture, who wrote, Letters to the Directors of France also seriously promoted and designed great strides to a much more equivalent society. Both equally these authors believed the enlightenment period fostered huge variations for equality within the after slim-minded lifestyle.

With a more open up thoughts and a much less strictly regular lifestyle came a better will need for self-educated awareness of the environment close to them. In the textbook, Ways of the Earth: A Transient International Background with Resources, Western Kentucky College Edition, Volume Two, Robert W. Strayer and Eric W. Nelson proclaim, Enlightenment thinkers shared the perception in the electricity of understanding to renovate the human society. Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture experienced the awareness to know that slaves have been much more than just slaves, they were prisoners and hostages.

He was contemplating outside of what the common sights were at the time. Just like Francois, Sim??n de Bol?­var believed in different ways from the regular people today in his doc recognized as, Message to the Congress of Angostura (1819). Bol?­var preferred to be separate from the place that had finish regulate more than them when every person was much too fearful of speaking out against the Europeans, who gave them everyday living.
In these a few Enlightenment paperwork, Sim??n de Bol?­var’s Message to the Congress of Angostura (1819), Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture’s Letters to the Administrators of France, and Raden Adjeng Kartini’s Letter to a Dutch Buddy, they have comparable basic ideas but a large range of examples and tales.

These a few paperwork all demonstrate fantastic proof of advertising individuality, non-standard religious tactics, and cause. Raden Adjeng Kartini’s work talks about constricting regular cultural beliefs, she greatest exemplifies the component of straying absent from standard spiritual techniques. Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture’s doc ideal represents the period of cause by creating a considered of equality in the society. In Sim??n de Bol?­var’s creating, he shows an individualistic mindset by working to a new self-sustaining federal government for the American colonies and not relying on European authority. Although these tales are distinct from every other they symbolize the overall standard strategies and themes of the Enlightenment period of time.

On top of that, it is mentioned in Techniques of the Planet: A Quick Global Record with Sources, Western Kentucky College Version, Quantity Two, that enlightenment, a phrase that has occur to outline the eighteenth century in European background. The Enlightenment period influenced substantially of the European inhabitants which include Sim??n de Bol?­var, Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture, and Raden Adjeng Kartini. Robert W. Strayer and Eric W. Nelson claimed, Have the braveness to use your have understanding’ is, as a result, the motto of the enlightenment. This groundbreaking period of time of time was the all round concept of the electric power of understanding and breaking social norms.

Song of Solomon Theme Essay Essay

Song of Solomon Theme Essay

Toni Morrison is an award winning American author who is acknowledged for her assessment of African American lives. Morrison grew up in the Midwest in a spouse and children that possessed an intensive love of and appreciation for black tradition (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica). African American stories, folktales and music were a huge component of her childhood. Morrison went to higher education at Howard College and Cornell College and later went on to teach at Princeton University. Her robust like for African American culture led her to create quite a few novels these types of as The Bluest Eye, Sula, and her most noteworthy get the job done, Music of Solomon. Tune of Solomon is a coming of age novel that focuses on the life of Milkman Lifeless.

The novel begins out in the 1930s in Michigan wherever the protagonist is born. Milkman is a na??ve child who leaves his relatives behind mainly because he thinks he is better than them and wants to be an upperclassman. All over the novel, numerous themes these kinds of as secrecy, abandonment, and id are mentioned. But the most distinguished theme applied in the novel is the theme of flight. Throughout the novel, Toni Morrison makes use of the concept of flight to illustrate the release from earth into the border less freedom of dying. The novel begins off in February of 1931 where an coverage agent, Robert Smith, leaves a be aware declaring that he crops to fly from Mercy Clinic to the other aspect of Lake Top-quality (Morrison 3). The coverage agent wishes to fly from Mercy Clinic to Lake Exceptional due to the fact it represents the flight from the south to the north that several African Us residents took for the duration of the time period of time the novel is set in. Through the 1930s, African Us citizens migrated from the south to north mainly because they have been pushed from their households by unsatisfactory economic possibilities and severe segregation legal guidelines (Good Migration). All through this time in The us, racism was declining in the north whilst the south was as racist as it had ever been. Robert Smith’s soar off the making symbolizes the thought of getting chances. Smith jumping off the making shows his endeavor of striving to flee the grasps of racism and his only way of escape. Smith suggests he would like to take offand fly away on my possess wings for the reason that he thinks that taking flight will free him from reality and duties. Despite the fact that flight may have favourable connotations, escape suggests leaving at the rear of pain for those around you. Equivalent to Solomon, who still left his entire family members powering when he departed on his flight, Smith is leaving at the rear of individuals who had been close to him. Robert Smith’s suicide also signifies the liberty that death has to present. Smith took flight and meant to go to flexibility which he got mainly because he died. He felt trapped on earth and wished to be free, but in the restraints of society, the only way to be no cost was to enable loss of life liberate him.

Morrison also reinforces the concept of flight with Pilate Lifeless. Pilate is Milkman’s father’s sister which would make her his aunt. She also his trainer and spiritual information. Pilate is ready to both fly and nonetheless keep on being on earth. Pilate is the intelligent character in the novel who understands all elements of flight. For illustration, she states to Milkman in portion 1, You just just can’t fly on off and go away a entire body (Morrison 203). Though she suggests this literally referring to her father’s human body, she also implies it metaphorically. Pilate suggests that when 1 dies, they have to choose their soul with them as well. She means that when somebody will take flight, they do not basically resolve their complications but just just take them with themselves. Committing suicide in the implies to free of charge oneself does not direct to liberty but just will take their challenges into the afterlife. Pilate has managed to generate her have metaphorical wings and has enabled herself to fly though still getting on the ground. Pilate serves as a prime instance of what a man or woman need to be like. Unlike Milkman, she embraces her family members and her previous by sitting down with One particular foot pointed east and a person pointed west (Morison 128) which demonstrates the east and west as African American. Pilate is a chief to Milkman and who he wants to be but does not know. She is an entrepreneur who took herself from not getting a place to slumber to obtaining her have household and loved ones. From the day she was born, she created herself all by herself to come to be what she is. As opposed to her brother Macon Lifeless, Pilate did not take any handouts from Ruth or any individual else, but created her prosperity with difficult get the job done. Pilate is the pilot to Milkman’s flight for the reason that she shows him how a individual should choose flight with out killing on their own. She reveals him that to be a successful man or woman in everyday living just one ought to study his or her earlier and embrace their environment.

And finally, there is the flight of Milkman. During the novel, Milkman goals of having flight. Milkman normally imagines himself taking flight and is in love with airplanes. Nonetheless, during this time, only white folks took genuine flights as in flying in literal airplanes. This demonstrates the disconnect between the two races and cultures and the inequality hole concerning the two. This hole illustrates the luxurious that white men and women had during this time. It also reveals the want of Milkman to be an upperclassman. By taking flight, Milkman thinks he will be in a position to be a prosperous man or woman. Yet another case in point of Milkman’s flight is when he and guitar come across a peacock on prime of a building. As the chicken flies down, Milkman thinks that it is a he. Guitar corrects him by stating He. That’s a he. The male is the only 1 got that tail complete of jewellery (Morrison 179). As the peacock flies down, it does not fly quite effortlessly to which Guitar claims Too significantly tail. All that jewelry weights it down. Like vanity. Cannot no person fly with all that shit. Wanna fly, you obtained to give up the shit that weighs you down (Morrison 180). This peacock signifies all the men in the novel. For instance, Milkman needs to be flashy and show off his wealth. He purchases a new car or truck when his automobile breaks down. The peacock demonstrates the readers and to Milkman that materialistic items do not help a person to consider flight in lifetime. Adult males feel that results comes with a extravagant way of life, but in reality it truly will come by living a humble daily life that Pilate has flawlessly exampled. The hen also reveals that gals are underappreciated through the novel. Guitar signifies that the male peacocks are the ones that have jewellery on on their own when girls do not. In the course of the novel all the women of all ages have taken flight while no male has. This displays that guys look down on girls and do not choose them significantly.

In summary, Toni Morrison’s Tune of Solomon inquiries both the visitors and the figures in the novel to request them selves what is the real truth. Though she does not response this right in the e book, she implies that flight is not always a lousy reaction to struggles in existence. This is illustrated in Pilate mainly because it demonstrates how she has come to be a smart individual and capable to deal with her problems. It also displays in Robert Smith who leaves driving his useless human body and practically nothing else. All in all, flight is prosperous when it leaves driving mourning persons like Pilate left at the rear of Macon Lifeless. It is unsuccessful when lifeless bodies are left at the rear of.

Operates Cited

  1. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclope Toni Morrison.
  2. Encyclop?dia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 14 Feb. 2018,
  3. com Staff members, Excellent, A&E Television Networks, 2010, past/great-migration.
  4. Morrison, Toni.Music of Solomon. Vintage Publications, 2004

Reflection on a Theme Raised by Langston Hughes Theme for English B. Essay

Langston Hughes’ Theme for English B is a poem that paints the impression of a 20 yr old African American college student who is having difficulties to figure out specified points about his life as a result of a course assignment. The teacher had previously asked the class to commit the time right after college that night to compose self-motivated poems, and which were being to be offered in course the pursuing working day. The speaker employs this opportunity to generate about himself. He having said that struggles a wonderful deal trying to total the assignment. Initially, he is not sure about the persona he is to believe in the poem. He is break up between adopting the personage of a mainstream English student, disregarding his have race in the process, or stick to the serious getting he is, current a poem portraying his genuine lifestyle and heritage. From the construction of the poem consequently, one concept that is apparent is the wrestle with own identification. Struggle for truth of the matter is also evident from the poem and complements the topic of wrestle with private identification.

At the beginning of the poem, the instructor is seen directing the students to go house and commit the time in advance of the next working day to do the job on an assignment. He is also noticed urging them to make sure that their assignments appear from within just their hearts, this way, they will ensure that the work is accurate. It nonetheless does not choose very long for the speaker to commence doubting his teacher’s sentiments. Just the future stanza following the opening stanza, doubt commences to kick in. The speaker miracles no matter whether the teacher’s recommendations match him as properly now that he is the only one particular of his kind from his class. He suggests, I surprise if it is that very simple? (Hughes l. 1). He even advances to reveal to the audience some of the characteristics that set him aside from the rest of the pupils in his class, and it is not the simple fact that he is the only college student of colour from his course. On top rated of staying the only African American student, he also reveals that he is the only coloured university student from his class that lives in Harlem.

The battle with individual id carries on into the 3rd stanza of the poem, only that this time round, the speaker seeks some ease and comfort from those attributes that he know that are conventional to him, and to the relaxation of the learners from his course. He says, I like to take in, rest, drink, and be in love/ I like to function, study, master, and comprehend daily life (Hughes l. 21-22). The speaker at this level expresses to his audience that he truly believes he even now possesses a good deal in popular with the other learners even although at the starting, he experienced singed himself out of the competition. In so carrying out, the readers are alerted to Hughes’ characteristics as a persona heading through a lot of dilemma trying to set up who he really is and how perfectly he fits into his culture. He holds that even nevertheless he is of an African American heritage, he believes that his ancestry does not define him as a particular person. In addition, he also believes that the reality that he is the only African American from his course and from Harlem, this does not make him any significantly less important that the rest of his classmates (Hughes l.25-26 and l. 17-18 respectively).

Regardless of all the dissimilarities amongst him and his classmates, the speaker appears to value the simple fact they are all People in america sharing some frequent likes as well as functions. At the conclude of the poem, the speaker appears to be to be last but not least in peace with his personality. He urges that the dissimilarity involving him and the relaxation of his classmates can be employed to their benefit, rather of applying it to damage just about every other. He suggests the racial distinction can be recruited to inspire finding out, and expansion of equally variety and boost of expertise.

Hughes applied a special style to produce this poem. A style that would make his poem simple to understand and relate with. Another thing that Hughes has to be accorded some credit history for is his inimitable means to specific how exactly he feels in just a page of writing. A website page is under no circumstances likely to be much too tough or also unexciting to browse. This also positively contributes to the attractiveness of his poem. Hughes 1st attracts the awareness of his audience by like the introductory stanza, describing the function and recommendations of the poem in advance of continuing to the 1st stanza. Thereafter, his poem, stanza just after stanza, is loaded with details that a reader can interpret and relate to their possess lives. Even nevertheless the stanzas are fairly quick, they get the work performed. This is a fantastic illustration of how a lot effects just a several text can leave if integrated in thoroughly and very carefully structured sentences. Hughes also efficiently deploys feelings in his poem to provoke his viewers and also draw their awareness. As I was studying this poem, it is humorous how I from time to time shifted the tonality of my voice, sped up some stanzas attempting to create emphasis and how a situations I was drawn to fell like he felt.

I discover Concept for English B really relevant to myself and quite a few other faculty students specifically people who are hoping to confirm how to relate with colleagues in college and in usual daily life. When it is appropriate to allude that one’s race can have substantial results on how they relate with many others, specially when just one hails from 1 of the minority groups, it is not the only issue that impacts relations. Becares and Priest (1-3) verified that in fact ethnicity can bear influences on non-tutorial fields, for example, relations, as effectively as academic sectors. Nonetheless, other things such as one’s area of start and exactly where and how one particular was brought up can also hamper interactions and own identity. Choose for case in point someone born and elevated in a small, secluded, suburban town who only will get to satisfy a various group of people in college. Such like a university student is most likely to come across interactions and acceptance amid the other pupils reasonably tough even however some instances, this is constantly just in their mindsets. These types of a student, could possibly assume that he or she most likely possesses an uncomfortable accent, has awful feeling of type or is not cultured. Receding again to their individual convenience zones is normally the best and greatest solution for such pupils. The very same can be mentioned about persons hoping to relate with all those they are not accustomed to in normal life. People are constantly rapid to observe the dissimilarities as a substitute of initial appreciating the shared properties. Each the college or university college student and the individual suffering from tough situations relating in usual existence will promptly rate them selves out of the competition for healthier associations due to wrestle with id or truth of the matter.

Advancing the arguments higher than, Langston Hughes’ Topic for English B is also pertinent to several qualified set ups. Just take for illustration a staff members circumstance at a manufacturing corporation. Just one is probable to locate by themselves surrounded by diverse types of persons. Some of the workers members might seem to be like they have currently created it in life, other people pursuing several investment decision possibilities, and some may appear like they have produced no development at all. Also, some of the colleagues may perhaps be getting passions that do not charm to you and some of their rights might rightfully fascinate you. In limited, no just one else at the workstation is exactly like a different. How bad this has an effect on one particular in person depends on who they are, and how they enable the variances get into their heads. Nevertheless, truth is, most people today are normally afflicted by the dissimilarities between by themselves and colleagues, especially when they feel to be earning comparatively minimal progress. This effect can be manifested in terms of work general performance, perspective and enthusiasm (Odhong and Omolo 158-9). On the other hand, this need to always be scenario. No person else is like us, and will hardly ever be like us. As people hence, we are ideal served by embracing the desirable variances concerning us and all those close to us, and performing whichever we have to do to be exactly where our hearts motivation. We should really never at a single issue allow our dissimilarities be the bring about of our downfall.


Langston Hughes’ Concept for English B has a huge array of applicability. This is mostly from the reality that the voice of the poem is inspirational. In the poem, the speaker transitions from an African American pupil who struggles with his identity and the truth of the matter into the same African American student, but this time spherical, one who appreciates the actuality that he is only exclusive in phrases of ancestry and nothing at all a lot more. He is at peace with his circumstance and only focuses on the positive factor of his lifetime. As talked over just before, Topic for English B is applicable to several peer situations and even interactions outside the classroom. Lifetime is hardly ever as crucial as most of us may perhaps love to perspective it. All it entails is the will to learn from every other. A person need to by no means with out explanation, isolate on their own from their peers due to the fact of the variances involving them. Rather, make investments on the similarities concerning you and your colleagues to create environments wherever studying and expertise sharing will take put.

The Theme and Message of “Tuesday’s with Morrie” Essay

This passage in the memoir Tuesdays with Morrie shows Morries views on a subject matter he is passionate on. The matter that later on develops into a concept is that absolutely everyone ought to think in their personal values relatively than well-known morals. Morrie has a dislike for social networking owing to it remaining an absence of reassurance. Morrie states And you have to be potent plenty of to say if the tradition does not work, really do not get it. Produce Your own. Most folks cannot do it.'(Albom 42). This is demonstrated by Morrie since in advance of he was unwell , he had his have values such as dancing, and looking at. Morrie also feels that if we dwell off of our personal values we can stay greater lives.A different vital perception that Morrie posses is the relevance of supplying and obtaining appreciation. The concept and or concept this passage is providing is that it is better to be arranged to die due to the fact it can help you to consider whole gain of each individual instant. In the memoir it states that way you can truly be much more associated in your daily life while you are living'(Albom 81). If we are well prepared to die, we stay our lives with no regret. Figuring out that at a selected issue in your life you are heading to die, can help us to seize each individual moment we can.

This is supported by the passage by exhibiting what Buddhist do day-to-day. They inquire them selves Am I ready? Am I carrying out all I want to do? Am I staying the individual I want to be?'(Albom 82). This shows it is important to are living just about every working day like it is your past mainly because you really do not know when dying is approaching. This is figured out by means of Morrie and observing what transpired to him can come about to anybody.Morrie believes that certain men and women imagine enjoy tends to make them way too affectionate. Adore is the only rational act”(Albom 52) is what Morrie recites in declaring. Next in the memoir we see that Morrie believes this simply because of the absence of affection that was in his everyday living as he grew up. His mom passed away when he was really young and his father commonly fast paced with operate not staying able to recognize him more. Eva showed Morrie the requirement in like when she appeared in the memoir. Due to this Morrie recognized how significant giving and acquiring like actually is and emphasized as a topic all through the novel.

The concept and or message this passage is providing is that it’s greater to be organized to die due to the fact it can help you to just take entire gain of each moment. In the memoir it states that way you can in fact be extra included in your lifetime whilst you’re living'(Albom 81). If we are geared up to die , we dwell our life with no regret. Recognizing that at a certain level in your existence you are likely to die, allows us to seize each and every instant we can. This is supported by the passage by exhibiting what Buddhist do day-to-day. They check with on their own Am I ready? Am I performing all I will need to do? Am I currently being the human being I want to be?'(Albom 82). This demonstrates it is important to live every working day like it is your very last for the reason that you don’t know when loss of life is approaching. This is realized by means of Morrie and viewing what occurred to him can transpire to anyone.

The Marriage Theme in “Trifles” Essay

In the drama perpetuated in Trifles by Susan Glaspell, there will come the sad story of Mr. John Wright, who was strangled to dying applying a rope when he was in mattress. His wife Mrs. Wright was also current for the duration of the incident but hardly ever bothered to wake up to see what was happening. This play was to start with performed in 1916. By way of this essay, the writer is trying to depict the difficulties and issues that girls go by in marriage. The descriptions produced on Mrs. Wright permits us to conclude that she was not joyful in her marriage with Mr. Wright. The night time when Mr., John Wright fulfilled his dying, his spouse under no circumstances woke up nor bothered to test on him, this act signifies that appreciate is no for a longer period in existence concerning the two. The question is who might have killed Mr. John Wright? Investigations are being carried out, that is the purpose as for why Mrs. Wright sent Mrs. Peters who is a newcomer in the town and is married to the Sheriff, together with Mrs. Hales who helps Mrs. Peters with the investigations and is good at advising her. They are sent to the farmhouse to get some items for Mrs. Wright as nicely (Leki & Carson p.83). The conversations of the themes, characterization, and symbolism in the textual content are stipulated below.

In this participate in, various figures have been produced. Differently, many others have been made from their steps and other people from the views of the other characters. Mrs. Hales for occasion, as a result of her initiatives of answering back to the County Attorney with We get in touch with it-knot it Mr. Henderson is portrayed as remaining bold and confident. She even identified as the County Attorney by his title Mr. Henderson even with the truth that he is a lot more potent than her.

Moreover, Mrs. Hales has also been portrayed as currently being a feminist and considerate she defends the gals dignity, this is apparent in the next statement I would despise to have males coming into my kitchen snooping close to and criticizing..(Schilb & Clifford, p.744). Also, she is also intense and clever in that she is the 1 that advices Mrs. Peter. In numerous situations, for instance, she suggests superior loosen your points Mrs. Peters you will under no circumstances feel them when you go outp.746. As a result from this assertion, she is observed as being brave.

Ladies are found as saviors of themselves, in that, if they really don’t enable themselves in the hands of males they will conclusion up dying of depression and unhappiness. That is the motive as to why Mrs. Wright owned a hen, the chicken acted like her companion, and when her husband died, she also killed the bird, and because of the love and affection she had, she buried the hen in a excellent box. Mrs. Hales is also depicted as a hardworking as properly as a clean up girl she arranges the pans less than the sinks which the attorney experienced shoved them out…, Mrs. Hales is also portrayed as remaining observable she notices that Mrs. Peters was anxious and right away inquires with Mrs. Peters what could possibly have activated Mrs. Wright to be anxious like the way Mrs. Peters was nervous, Hales preferred to make a basic assumption relating to the nervousness of Mrs. Wright as she was sewing. Mrs. Hales is also depicted as staying resentful in her tone this is evident in the following .. I really do not know as there’s just about anything weird our using up our time with minor items even though we are ready for them to get the proof (Schilb &Clifford p.746).

Mrs. Peters, on the other hand, have been made in another way she is a attorney by career and is in demand of this case. So, this alone portrays her as staying acquired and clever. From the way she speaks and the tone, she utilizes her character can is developed. For occasion In her apologetic tone she was conversing with Mrs. Hales. of course they have received terrible important matters on their minds…p.746 Equally Mrs. Hales & Mrs. Peters are depicted as becoming hardworking and smart they are equally in a mission of acquiring who specifically killed Mr. Wright and they are making use of any smaller proof that they get to support them in their investigation. The dead chicken that was discovered lifeless is one particular of the minor proof they will use in their case (Juliana Gitzen, p.34).

From Mrs. Hale’s description, Mrs. Peters is portrayed as sweet and very but also timid and fluttery. By means of flashback, when Mrs. Peter’s remembers how her kitten was killed by a boy In front of her and could not do something, this built her keep in mind the sad times, she loved her kitten when she was a child, and therefore she is depicted as loving and caring.

In addition to other people, such as Mr. Henderson. Their figures have been produced by way of the views of some others. In Mr. Peters viewpoint, the County Legal professional is depicted as an terrible person and is mostly sarcastic in speech. Mrs. Peters suggests that if Mr. Henderson is provided a prospect to communicate with Mrs. Wright, he’ll make entertaining of her for not waking up when her partner was getting strangled. From his assertion to Mrs. Peters, it can also be deduced that he is a incredibly sarcastic gentleman, he takes advantage of sarcasm to provide out the authenticity of a textual content No, peters, it is all distinct besides a cause for carrying out it. But you know juries when it comes to women he also tells Mrs. Hales in a sarcastic tone thatyou and Mrs. Wright had been neighbors I think you ought to be buddies as well. His tone was sarcastic. What’s more, he is portrayed as remaining inquisitive and extra eager on observing, he observes that no 1 entered the home, he does not think in superstition or ghosts when Mrs. Peter talks of the ghost cat (Schilb & Clifford, p.744). Regardless of remaining sarcastic, Mr. Henderson is also a hardworking man.

On the other hand, Sheriff, remaining 1 of the extra figures. Is depicted as staying inquisitive, he wants to know what happened to Mr. Wright, and what was Mrs. Wright undertaking when the incident happened?

Mr. Hales is also depicted as remaining obedient he went outdoors and waited for sheriff and Mr. Henderson to end their dialogue. Sheriff phone calls Mr. Henderson to the other area to talk about troubles that had been non-public with an excuse for going to see the home windows. Therefore, sheriff is portrayed as getting secretive.

The argument can be mentioned that the killing of Mr. John Wright might have been finished by Mrs. Wright or not. Mrs. Wright was no more time intrigued in adore and relationship. For her to be the to start with suspect she was identified sitting on your own in the residence when Sheriff and the other individuals arrived, there were no signs of anyone obtaining come into the home. Like the strangled chicken.

Other literary units that have been utilised in this participate in are irony and symbolism which have even further been illustrated it is ironical for Mrs. Wright to deny getting viewed any person tie a rope on Mr. John Wright’s neck and strangle him to demise as they sleep jointly in the exact same mattress. She even more refuses possessing completed the act of suppressing killing him (Schilb &Clifford, p.744)

Symbolism has also been portrayed by the lifeless chicken, which was also strung on the neck, the very same way Mr. John Wright was strangled to death on the neck. Thus, whoever killed the hen is also included at the conclusion of Mr. John Wright.

The central theme of this drama is the plight of females in marriage has been portrayed by Mrs. Wright. Just before she acquired married to Mr. Wright, she was a happy girl who employed to sing in a church choir. Soon after she bought married to Mr. Wright, her husband limited her from singing, and he never ever cared for her joy. The contentment she as soon as experienced turned to loneliness and grief. She was the initially suspect in her husband’s loss of life.

This drama was published at the time when the culture necessary it most, in the up to date living many marriages are slipping aside owing to raise divorces and unfaithfulness among the the partners. Therefore it aids portrays what goes powering the scene in the relationship lifetime.

The Theme of Patriotism in “Persepolis” Essay

Persepolis is an prolonged description of the historic circumstances during Marjane’s lifestyle. Marjane experienced a patriotic enthusiasm for her state Iran. When she was a young female, there was a cultural revolution in Iran. Pupils (such as Marjane) were being forced to had been a veil in the course of school. Marjane didn’t pretty comprehend the reasoning driving this and assumed she need to have her possess option in faith. Numerous have been teetering this thought of the cultural revolution. Inevitably, the French non-spiritual faculty she attended is halted and the sexes are schooled separately. Expanding up, Marjane and God have quite a few conversations, and she is established on staying a prophet when she grows up. All through this graphic novel, Marjane generally exemplifies a spirit of patriotism, boldness, independence, appreciate, and individual considered. Her pure, childlike coronary heart wants the two equality and an elimination of suffering. When she expresses her intention of turning into a prophet, Marjane is mocked, but her mother and father support her and are unalarmed by her wishes. Just after she hears her mom and dad involved about the fire that killed 400 people at a nearby theater, Mr. Satrapi decides to make clear the situations of the Revolution to her. Through this tale, Marjane learns that her grandfather was a prince prior to Reza Shah’s increase of electricity, which would excite any little one. Her grandfather became a communist and was imprisoned. While in prison, her grandfather was tormented by heading into cells overflowing with h2o, which Marjane has a tough time processing. In the course of her grandmother’s check out, she clarifies to Marjane the poverty and hardships they confronted during her husband’s imprisonment.

The Satrapis’ maid Mehri was given into their care as a kid. Marjane and Mehri grew into a sisterly bond. Mehri falls in love with the boy future doorway and has Marjane compose her enjoy letters due to the fact she did not know how to generate. After Mr. Satrapi discovers this really like link, he talks to the boy and tells him Mehri is a maid. Then, the boy is no for a longer time fascinated. In this time, social lessons are not put together. This in the beginning upsets Marjane appreciably. She considered her father to be a excellent man and felt his steps ended up unjust and unloving. Therefore, she and Mehri go to marches, which aggravates her moms and dads considering the fact that the marches had been formidable.

As Shah’s rule worsens, a lot of eliminate their life. Shah travels to the United States and eventually relinquishes his rule. The formerly imprisoned Siamak and Mohsen check out the Satrapi loved ones and demonstrate their experiences in prison. Shortly soon after, Marjane discovers that even her Uncle Anoosh was held captive. Even so, her Uncle Anoosh was recognized as valiant for his position in government to hinder the electric power of Shah, which in the long run declared independence from his brutal rule. Regrettably, Anoosh is later on arrested and killed for a untrue accusation about remaining a Russian spy. Because of to this celebration, Marjane absolutely rejects God and her need to be a prophet. All-around this time, the Iran-Iraq War starts off.

From this event, her existence looks to spiral into a earth of agony and shattered expectations. Marjane’s hopes of touring to the U.S. are squandered when the Americans are coerced out of Iran. Individuals of religious authority shut educational institutions to make alterations, which also harms Marjane’s hopes. She’s even assaulted mainly because her veil isn’t on. The war only worsens, and her friend Mali comes to are living with her as a result of it. Murdered little ones, bombing raids, deaths of tens of millions, and the loss of life of her hopeless Uncle Taher become more than enough hardships for Marjane to develop into a rebel. After her parents’ return from Turkey, Marjane gets to be westernized and is virtually arrested but let off without arrest. One day, her community was bombed, and her neighbor’s household was wrecked. She even seen her friend’s arm protruding from the debris. Soon after all these disastrous occasions, her dad and mom make the government selection to ship her to Austria for her safety. She spends the previous night with her beloved grandmother and heads to the airport the future working day. When she turns back to see her mothers and fathers from afar, her mom experienced fainted. However, she hoped to see her moms and dads yet again one particular day.

The Theme of Sin and Guilt in the Minister’s Black Veil Essay

In Hawthorne’s The Minister’s Black Veil, each individual single individual does sin but only the folks who are actually God-fearing and self-confident accept and pay back the outcomes of their individual actions. In some, predicaments, when anyone does have up to their sin and endure the self-control for it, as an alternative of staying forgiven the society around will dislike them. Back again then, the Puritans approved their minister’s to be the holiest folks. If a minister functions odd then they are suspected of executing one thing shameful or unholy, the group will then resent him. In The Minister’s Black Veil, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Reverend Hooper’s separation represented as a result of the black veil, shows how absolutely everyone surrounding him was judgmental, insensitive, and hypocritical.

The Minister’s Black Veil is a symbolic of the private sins that we bury and isolate ourselves from the kinds we really like the most. In donning the veil minister Hooper demonstrates the loneliness that most people goes as a result of when they are tied up by their very own sins. He has understood that everyone typically can be uncovered in the shade of their personal veil. By Hooper wearing this veil across his facial area is only exhibiting the dark facet of folks and the accuracy of human existence and character.

Minister Hooper remaining the dim veil on due to the fact he has found that key sin is a veil that can never ever disappear from anyone right until the day of their loss of life. In a estimate from the story Mr. Hooper states, There is an hour to appear, when all of us shall cast aside our veils. Take it not amiss, beloved good friend, if I wear this piece of crepe till then. By declaring this Mr. Hooper symbolizes the feeling despite the fact that human beings are residing on the earth a veil shows their face. Hooper manufactured a pledge to himself and built a existence challenge of performing as a mirror to the people all over him. The veil are unable to be rose until eventually the liberty of real truth can be seen.

When Mr. Hooper puts the black veil on, he is no for a longer period Mr. Hooper, he is a person that every person is scared of. His marriage in between him and Elizabeth is ruined since of his hesitation to remove the black veil. Elizabeth simply cannot take the truth that Hooper should go the relaxation of his lifestyle with no showing his face. Soon after his very first sermon, he did not go to previous squire Saunders to bless the foodstuff, in which he did every Sunday.

As Minister Hooper is dying in direction of the end of the story, he is by himself and suggests gentlemen avoided me, and women of all ages revealed no pity and little ones screamed and fled for my black veil? What but the secret which it obscurely typifies has manufactured this piece of crape so dreadful? When the mate exhibits his inmost heart to his buddy, the lover to his most effective-beloved when person does not vainly shrink from the eye of his Creator, loathsomely treasuring up the mystery of his sin, ”then deem me a monster for the image beneath which I have lived and die. I search close to me, and, lo! on each visage a black veil!”. The Minister factors out how all the townspeople have treated him so small, overlooking their own sins and shelling out attention to his. But it seems as if they hardly ever definitely understood, or apologized, their habits, as the tale closes with the terrible assumed that the minister’s experience is nonetheless laying powering the veil, even in demise.

The minister they experienced at the time wanted for happiness and aid has turn into an unsightly, baffling stranger that no a single can realize. The believers really feel as although Minister Hooper can grasp their souls and see all the flaws and sins hidden in them. As claimed in the tale, Every member of the congregation, the most harmless lady, and the gentleman of most hardened breast felt as if the preacher experienced crept upon them, behind his awful veil, and uncovered their hoarded iniquity of deed or believed. For the reason that of his pledge, the minister is involuntarily forced into a lifestyle of loneliness, usually lacking achievement and pleasure. The eyes are the window to your soul, while not currently being equipped to see Mr. Hooper’s eye, the believers grow to be nervous and bothersome. The eyes make it offered for many others to found out your emotion and thoughts. Mr. Hooper makes a hard loneliness that would make it preposterous for men and women to accept him.

The system is like a shell, the eyes are an open up way to the actual you. From the initial working day of the veil heading onto the minister’s facial area everyone’s feelings transformed about him. He gets a trouble, distant and feared. Mr. Hooper hadn’t improved at all. He is the identical sir with the smirk decorating his facial area. The only detail he did was increase a easy cloth across his confront and the minster they experienced as soon as realized is a stranger in their eyes.

The Theme of Gender and Sexuality in the House on Mango Street Essay

The Household on Mango Avenue, a fictional novel composed by Sandra Cisneros in 2009, requires spot in a inadequate town in Mexico. Esperanza, the narrator and the most important character of this novel feels insecure about herself and feels like she doesnt belong in her community. The guide reveals how Esperanza has grown all over the year. Esperanza maturing from a younger self-mindful lady to a strong self-sufficient women. As Esperanza learns new factors, she notices the girls and girls in her town are anxious about their natural beauty extra than daily life alone. In their lifestyle the women of all ages the place taught that you need to fulfill a gentleman with your beauty and that looks are the amount just one precedence.Esperanza would like to improve the perspective that women have about themselves.

Esperanza, is a youthful Latina lady that feels like she doesnt belong in society, but though she is in Mango Avenue acknowledges the women and boys are living in different worlds. Esperanza only has Nenny to socialize with, but is far too youthful to be pals with her and is far more of a obligation than a friend. Sometime I will have a best buddy all my possess. One I can explain to my strategies to. 1 who will have an understanding of my jokes with no me obtaining to make clear them. Right until then I am a crimson balloon, a balloon tied to an anchor (Sandra 9). Esperanza describes herself as a red balloon, a balloon tied to an anchor, since she stands out from everyone else in her community, but is also in isolation from society. Till one day she finally fulfills two girls named, Rachel and Lucy, she can lastly phone mates.

As Esperanza encounters new issues as she arrives throughout Mango Street she seems to be at the variety of girls that sit at their windows. She looked out the window her total life, the way so lots of ladies sit their sadness on an elbow. I wonder if she made the best with what she obtained or was she sorry since she couldnt be all the issues she needed to be. Esperanza, I have inherited her name, but I dont want to inherit her location by the window (Sandra 11). Esperanzar’s grandmother was the 1st girls that was trust beside a window. Esperanza is familiar with she doesnt want to be in the exact same condition other women of all ages have set them selves into. The girls sitting down in their windows give Esperanza an understating of how womenr’s selections outcome their foreseeable future. Esperanza comes to know that she doesnt want to place herself in a place of in which sher’s searching out the window viewing other ladies reside there lives, when not residing hers.

Esperanza encounters that Mango Road is a male dominated culture and how the gals are remaining taken care of like next class citizens. In the movies there is always one particular with pink lips who is wonderful and cruel. She is the one who drives the males ridiculous and laughs them all absent. Her energy is her have. She will not give it absent (Sandra 89). The women believe that that currently being attractive is 1 of the womenr’s most effective weapon. Esperanza grows to recognize that ability doesnt not occur from natural beauty, but much more from independence and energy. Esperanza observes that ladies have issues deciding on among electricity or sexuality.

This story is to clearly show gals that there is so considerably extra in lifetime that magnificence. The beliefs that females have in the reserve is if they dont glimpse beautiful, the ladies wont have a guy. But Esperanza is various from the other ladies, she believes in independence has far more energy than beauty does.

A Theme of Loneliness in the Novell of Mice and Men Essay

“A man goes nuts if he ain’t got no person. Really don’t make any difference no distinction who the person is, long’s he’s with you. I tell ya a guy gets also lonely an’ he receives ill.” A major concept in Steinbeck’s novell Of Mice and Gentlemen is loneliness. The characters Crooks, Sweet and Curley’s spouse each and every go through from this despite the fact that the severity of their seclusion various.The aged swapper, Sweet was victimized by isolation as a result of two key components, one particular being his disability and the other remaining his age. For illustration, throughout the ebook we locate the farmhands out bucking the barley though Candy is left guiding to sweep and clean the ranch. He dropped his hand after having it caught in a piece of equipment and as a end result he is pressured to continue to be guiding. This getting a single of the significant elements that sales opportunities to his loneliness. Furthermore, Candy’s age adds to his sensation of uselessness. For the reason that he thinks that he is old he places himself in a state of thoughts that handicaps him much more than his missing hand at any time will. He appears down on himself as an old worthless person which is throwing away away his last few several years. Not only is it the way that many others believe of him but also the way he thinks of himself that forces him to locate solitude.

The most obvious circumstance of loneliness is Curley’s wife. No matter how tricky she tried using she could not in good shape in. For case in point, when she attempted several situations to communicate to George and Lenny she was possibly ignored or informed to go away. Because of her reputation for becoming a flirt none of the farmhands wanted to communicate to her. It was the danger of acquiring in issues with Curley that brought on lots of employees to keep away from her. In addition, simply because of Curley’s insecure thoughts he neglected her and compelled her to request interest in any case she could, even it meant flirting. She was overlooked by equally the farmhands and her personal partner and since of this she was remaining compelled into loneliness, the a person detail she fought so hard versus.Crooks is a black man that activities isolation in conditions of racism. For instance, he is compelled to stay by yourself in the barn. Due to the fact the setting of this reserve requires spot throughout the 1930’s discrimination sadly nonetheless existed. The farmhands feel that considering the fact that he is black he is not deserving of residing with the relaxation of them.

Additionally, his separation from other people results in his critical loneliness. He spends his nights studying and his times by itself in the barn working on the horses. His length from other individuals finally leads to his downfall. We find discrimination staying the major induce of this people loneliness. He is treated as an outcast and underling and is forced to come across friendship in the only point he can, the guides he reads.Loneliness is an inescapable fact of daily life that not even the strongest can avoid. All through the tale Of Mice and Men we explore the several resources of solitude, mostly becoming discrimination and prejudice. Crooks, Sweet, and Curley’s spouse all put up with from these info which leads them to their loneliness. As for the consequences we come across that the severity of each and every characters loneliness varied and that the eventual effects were straight relevant to the magnitude of their desolation.

Communication Theme in Hills Like White Elephants Essay

Ernest Hemingway`s writer of Hills Like White Elephants enables readers to to understand about the interaction among two men and women who equally have two different thoughts and decisions when it arrives to a condition that can transform their lives. The short tale is about two people today, a female title Jig and a male who doesnt have a so reader just get in touch with him gentleman.

An literary system that performs a function in this small tale is imagery all through the stories give the viewers a obvious knowledge of whatr’s going on. In the quick tale it states, the hills across the valley of the ebro prolonged and white on this aspect there was no shade and no trees and the station was between two strains of the rails in the sunshine it stopped at this junction for two minutes and went to madrid In other text Hemingway in comparison Jig and the gentleman final decision to two confuse individuals . Audience can visualize the Jig and the guy sitting down at the teach station wanting perplexed and annoyed about what they are going to do.

Whilst looking at the shorter tale, you can see that the phrase Like White Elephant happens a number of periods through the short story, which signify that it is important. One particular can also agree the shade white symbolize harmless. For that reason, white elephants, can be uses has a reference to a woman who is anticipating a child. The image of the word hill can also be a clue that Jig is pregnant due to the fact hills are round and when a man or woman is expecting their tummy is spherical.

The tale gets far more fascinated when the gentleman attempts persuading Jig to have an abortion. He tells Jig that he will be there for her no make any difference what and he will stay with her through the entire system. Jig will get pretty irritated and upset and come to be not interested in keeping a dialogue with the Male. In the shorter story it states Jig states , you should be sure to remember to please please be sure to you should make sure you stop conversing Jig works by using repetition to convey to the guy to quit speaking. Her tone sounded has if she was extremely irritated and disappointed with the guy. Hemingway works by using tone to make the reader comprehend the way Jig is experience with the scenario that she is going by means of. The two the male and the lady doesnt want to pay attention to just about every other point of check out or belief about the circumstance.

The guy life a carefree lifestyle he wants Jig to Have an abortion, so he can be cost-free and carry on is life type. In the small tale he instructed Jig itr’s the only matter thatr’s designed us unhappy not only is he attempting to make Jig feels undesirable he normally hoping to tell her that the child will bring unhappiness to the two of their lifer’s. the person is displaying that he is egocentric and irresponsible by exhibiting lack of help when it arrives to serving to jig if she was meant to retain the infant.

Over all the tale is a incredibly superior story to browse. Visitors have Viewers have careful read the story to have an understanding of what is getting position. The tale is loaded with a good deal of literary gadgets. Hills like A White Elephant also has a tale that equally jig and the male ought to pick involving lifestyle or loss of life. Jig needs to retain the baby, but the gentleman doesnt want as well.

Main Theme in Everyday Use Novel Essay

Alice Walker provides a repetitive matter in her function: the portrayal of concordance and in addition the contentions and battles inside of African-American culture. “Everyday Use” centers around an encounter in people today from the rustic Johnson family. This encounter which comes about when Dee and her boyfriend appear again to go to Dee’s mom and extra youthful sister Maggieis mainly an practical experience amongst two distinct translations to offer with, African American lifestyle. Narrator makes use of portrayal and imagery to feature the distinction involving these translations and at past to retain just one of them, demonstrating that society and legacy are elements of each day everyday living.

Begining of the story is to a excellent extent engaged with describing Mrs. Johnson, Dee’s mom and the story’s storyteller. All the far more specially, Mrs. Johnson’s dialect focuses to a certain link among herself and the physical ecosystem, she sits limited for Dee “in the yard that Maggie and I manufactured so spotless and wavy” . The yard, indeed, is “not only a yard. It resembles a broadened family put, as effectively as favorite place of her existence. Her portrayal of herself in like way demonstrates a recognition and solace with her atmosphere and with herself: she is “a large, great boned lady with uncomfortable, man-operating hands” at the conclusion of the working day, she understands the truth of her system and acknowledges it, notwithstanding getting solace (the two physical and mental) in the way that her “fat retains [her] sweltering in zero climate” . Mrs. Johnson is typically at residence with herself she acknowledges her identification, and as a result, Walker indicates, wherever she stays in connection to her way of life.

Mrs. Johnson’s girl Maggie is depicted as rather hideous and unattractive: the scars she bears on her entire body have in like manner scarred her spirit, and, subsequently, she is resigning, even unnerved. Mrs. Johnson concedes, in a cherishing way, that “like good appears to be like and hard cash, pace cruised her by” .She “lurches” as she peruses, even so plainly Mrs. Johnson thinks about her as a sweet unique, a minimal lady with whom she can sing melodies at chapel. In distinct, in any circumstance, Maggie is, related to her mother, at household in her conventions, and she respects the memory of her progenitors for occasion, she is the girl in the relatives who has figured out how to knit from her grandma.

The Narrators characters shows, and also their actual physical features, demonstrates their link to their way of everyday living. Mrs. Johnson, as stated, has “man-doing the job hands” and can “kill a hoard as cruelly as a man” obviously this element is supposed to display an unpleasant lifestyle, with extraordinary presentation to perform. Symbolic worth can similarly be found in Maggie’s pores and skin, her scars are actually the engravings on her system of the heartless voyage of lifestyle. Most evidently and in individual the blankets that Mrs. Johnson has assured to give Maggie when she weds are exceedingly representing, talking to the Johnsons’ Rituals. These Quilts were adopted by Grandma Dee and following that Major Dee. These figures in loved ones history who have been dissimilar to the current Dee, assumed duty in instructing their way of existence and legacy to their technology. The bedcovers on their own sneakers/signifies record, of items of dresses, shirts, and regalia, each and every one particular of which speaks to all those persons who fashioned the family’s way of life, its legacy, and its qualities.

Most importantly, these pieces of the earlier are not just portrayals in genuine they are not taken out from day by working day everyday living. This, essentially, is the vital difficulty of “Regular Use”: that the improvement and assist of its legacy are vital to each social gathering’s self-ID, nonetheless that moreover this treatment, so as to do well, to be authentic, need to be a piece of loved ones individuals’ utilization continually.

Theme of Isolation in William Faulkner’s a Rose for Emily Essay

Human interaction is an complete requirement for the perfectly remaining of a human. Even with the hurt that can be performed when a person is harm by one more, the deficiency of connection is deadly. A grotesque tale that follows pass up Emily Grierson in A rose for Emily by William Faulkner the place the author utilizes several instruments to dissect how intense isolation and abandonment might direct a person to these types of horrendous crimes these as necrophilia. In executing so, dying and a resistance to modern day thoughts turned one more normality in the tale which guide to the death of a woman’s humanity. All proof of how critical passion is the contentment of a particular person above all.

The hurt brought about to a person may perhaps be noticed in the public’s really judgmental,gossipy,and in some cases hypocritically mind-set about her and the incapability of a individual to develop any associations because of to the isolation. Emily Grierson is issue to the scrutiny of her whole city in a number of points of her existence. From the very starting at her funeral the town’s individuals gave way to a number of facets of their household which may clarify their society. The initial section of the tale disseminates that she is section of their oncemost pick road and now, her as soon as superior course household experienced become an eyesore among eyesores. This rift that Emily’s household had with the townspeople led to their perception that she was an obligation to the town. Like her residence and it is unwillingness to be up-to-date Emily soaks in her stubbornness by refusing to shell out her taxes. Demonstrating the absence of regard of authority for the new leaders of the city. She handled them with a cold and dry frame of mind that demanded respect and patience. Emily in no way cared for the new authorities of the city and even indicated her alienation and isolation when she for the promises confirmation of a human being that passed absent virtually ten many years beforehand. The next part divulges into her tense connection with the town. The city did not dare confront her about the taxes nor the about the odor coming from her household.A odor that serves as a foreshadow that there is anything rotting away in her household, so much so the they resolved to secretly distribute lime all close to her home. And however, inspite of all the indications, all the scrutinization, and observations they make of Miss Emily they ironically fall short to realise that she is deeply disturbed,criminally insane, and neglect the discovery of the murder right until 40 many years just after.As soon as once again proving that the drift she had with the town remained as deep and huge as just before the loss of life of her father. Even with their attempts to get close to her soon after the death of her father, her cold perspective and rejection of the cities pitty did practically nothing to much better her condition. Only sunk her even deeper into her loneliness, desperation, and insanity.

Her father became the trauma that set the foundation to her disturbed brain. The fact that her father was described as this looming determine that afraid absent any suitors spelled out why after he died she had retained his human body. Her instability was apparent when the only purpose she enable them take her father’s system absent was due to the actuality that they realized he died. Her obsession with demise showed how powerless, lonely, and indignant she felt to her father. She is a psychopath driven by her extraordinary desperation for revenge from her father and her bitterness to the outside globe. Indicating that this is what she needed till an outsider was let into Emily’s globe. This limited lived happiness was just that. Quick lived. Quickly their connection crumbled. Her incapacity to keep an actual relationship with a person is incredibly apparent and amplifies her loneliness and the results of her abandonment. He abandoned her, placing off a set off in her disturbed soul. When Homer her dashing beau that was typically noticed with emily all over the city following he came to the city and was the middle of awareness, altered her actuality it was as dangerous. This isn’t exaggerated when her habits is further analyzed. He gave her a dose of regular human interaction. Since of her past, she was deprived of this so when he took absent, that she sunk into her desperation she determined to hold his enterprise all to herself. Killing him was the only way she comprehended how to preserve that happiness permanently. Therefore , the deficiency of really like in her life set the foundation of her instability.

Emily’s household is a mirrored impression of herself with a bond that ages with her. From her beauty and prestige the property that stood proudly in the most “select street’ as did Emily’s attractiveness. Her purity with the many years morphed into a odor of decay. In the very same way Emily, when young and comprehensive of despair, has been pushed into insanity by the rotting of the outdated ways and the beginning of a present day era. At the very same time, her growing old in unison with the property and the servant grow to be component of her distorted perspective on what is love.A monster was becoming hidden in a rotting property. And that monster was Emily herself. She constitutes the stubbornness and refusal to alter. Insisting in the previous methods, in the old agreements, in an outdated home is the extremely description of her unawareness of the outside environment. This kind of challenging way of living is pushed by the miserable folks that know no diverse than their truth. Why would she alter her sights when all she has observed is a town managed by her oppressing father? This is vital evidence that men and women would somewhat wallow in their misery than to transform. With a father like hers and a lack of a mom figure there is no possibility she is in a position to be a practical grownup. Regardless of there being no rose manifested in the story, the title introduced it as the notion of enjoy. A rose that is dried up and conserved in the webpages of an previous reserve she is, in the similar method conserving Homer’s overall body in his wedding clothes inside of the closed off home of the property. As a youthful lady, suitors lined up and nonetheless she by no means was allowed the probability to accept the rose of love. This deep despair that she felt when she realized that there is no delighted ending , which caused her to drown in madness. The key element or lack of really like is the effects of human heat that she so desperately essential.

The caliber of her style in the eye of the city is significant, therefore Homer wasn’t superior adequate for her. Emily does not treatment about that she lets herself be noticed with him. She in fact stepped out of the property to enable anyone to ascertain the nature of their partnership. Her father was no more time all over to say anything about it. She for that brief amount of money of time was ready to absolutely free herself from her father’s oppression and experience what a ordinary particular person feels. This is detrimental to her capability to functionality as a standard man or woman. Household ought to be a great guidance technique when almost everything is likely mistaken, but for Emily, even that was not an option. Her two cousins from Alabama take a look at her and keep with Miss out on Emily to assure that her actions doesn’t violate their southern society’s rigorous code of propriety even though she and Homer are romantically concerned with one particular a different. They did not come all-around when her father died and ended up nowhere to be identified as she grew up and nonetheless the only factor they cared about was appearances. Loved ones is supposed to provide help when at household points aren’t right. Still, below they ended up missing familial really like towards Miss out on Emily. This proves that they possess equivalent attitudes as her father despite that they allowed this romance. She was indifferent to this, but the reality is that if she now skilled what correct affection was, then she would have recognised her family experienced none of that for her. This is genuinely saddening and her familys departure is unique than all of the other folks since she may possibly even have been relieved that they remaining. Her relatives noticed that she experienced no one particular and still determined to leave anyhow, this need to have been very little to her because all of the the other abandonments had potential risks aftermath. For instance her father’s demise direct to her isolation and unconventional conduct.The abandonment of Homer direct to his murder, but she was seemingly passive to her relatives desertion. So her troubles are thanks to her father’s rigid rule over her everyday living.

A monster isn’t born, it’s produced. In this disturbing short tale A Rose for Emily is the evidence that in purchase for a person to have a nutritious morality they will have to have some type of connection just about anything outside the house of a harmful home. Pass up Emily is not a purposeful human because she lived in compelled isolation all of her lifestyle. Inside of her residence she lived in serious despair and loneliness, gradually rotting absent without any type of human connection. The absence of passion turned lethal to her and whomever attempted to get near to her. From her authoritarian father, her dashing lover, and last but not least her sanity all rotted absent in her house. Extraordinary isolation and abandonment might direct a man or woman to these types of horrendous crimes these kinds of as necrophilia thanks to the actuality that likely without the need of human speak to for much too very long could basically break a heart.

Parable of the Sower: Theme of Weakness and Strength Essay

The parable of the sower has a extensive array of themes created. Between the themes that the creator has tried using to element in the operate is the theme of weak point and toughness. The novel integrates the two themes in a fashion that it is achievable to notify in the same way to a real world celebration. The themes are not uncomplicated as a person wound assume them to be. More importantly in a earth where by violence prevails (Gerhardsson 167). The Lauren’s group may well be considered as a weak team. However, the team has some toughness. For instance, a big variety of the ladies in the novel have the understanding on how to use a gun. These women include Zahra, Lauren, and Natividad. Additionally, the novel also present that the kids have hiding expertise, which is a noteworthy energy inhibited by the team. The crew is also powerful as they are in a position to choose on a improved way to get as a result of the police. They fail to current menace, a high-quality that tends to make it less complicated for them to move with out getting suspected by the law enforcement.

The author tries to show the topic of power by way of Lauren’s brother. The younger man (Keith) has the resolve to show his manhood by attempting to be aspect of a violent gun. On the other hand, his struggles would make him conclusion up remaining brutally murdered (Gerhardsson 180). Also the neighborhood partitions that appeared sturdy get breached main to the neighborhood remaining destroyed. Also, the concept is exhibited by means of Lauren, when she makes her selection to enterprise on the road (open up) which is a dangerous position to be in she receives the prospect to setting up the community, a circumstance that had been her lifetime-extended desire. Which is a dangerous position to be in she gets the option to setting up the community, a circumstance that experienced been her existence-very long aspiration.

Operates Cited

Gerhardsson, Birger. “The Parable of the Sower and its Interpretation.” New Testament Scientific studies? 14.2 (1968): 165-193.

Pay it Forward Theme in the Catholic Social Teaching Essay

In the movie Pay back It Forward, there are several good examples of superior morals that we could and need to use each individual day in our life. Much more specifically, there are a number of themes of Catholic Social teaching shown in the course of the movie. Although all of these are considerable, the most prominent concept can be claimed to be the Phone to Household, Group and Participation. When Mr. Simonet provides the class with a imprecise and open up finished assignment of producing the globe a improved place, Trevor, an attentive and motivated pupil, sees it as a challenge and a obligation that he is necessary to fill. He begins his search for a way that he can improve the world for the greater. This sparks the commencing of an astounding movement that this boy generates. Trevor starts to try encouraging individuals close to him. He varieties an idea that each individual in the globe ought to aid three people today, obligating each individual of these 3 individuals to assist an added 3 people. The notion sets grounds for a fast adoption by many persons, indicating that mass quantities of men and women would be getting assistance from others in one particular way or another. He provides a homeless gentleman into the house, only for his distraught mother to kick the man out. Afterwards she finds out that he only needed help in his lifestyle and was prepared to support many others in return. Trevor also attempts to assist out his good friend, Adam, who continually will get bullied and beat up by other youngsters at university. It is acts this sort of as this that genuinely alter other people’s lives, and also, ultimately, took Trevor’s lifestyle. When making an attempt to quit bullies from hurting Adam, just one of the bullies pulls out a knife and stabs Trevor, later killing him. This exhibits the complete commitment that Trevor had to his neighborhood. The motion ongoing on and started out to distribute more and far more, triggering individuals across the nation to be rewarded by random functions of kindness, and to spread these acts further more. Trevor certainly shown what it signifies to seek out the prevalent great and unmitigated properly-getting of anyone.