UCSB FR50 FR50 BX, Philosophy Essay

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Question A:

asks that you define 5 concepts, ideas, or practices by referring to specific secondary materials and/or primary sources or examples from the Western Enlightenment, which exemplify their intimate and/or collective uses, meanings, and importance.

Here is a list of ideas, concepts, or practices. Develop your definitions or descriptions for 5 of them, referring to the secondary and primary materials you read this quarter and the specific context of the Western Enlightenment. Write 200 words in average for each, for a total of around 1,000 words. [200 points, 40 for each]

Note that if you choose “emotion(s),” you will also deal with “passion(s),” as the former is the modern equivalent of the latter, but they will only count for one.

Autonomy

Emotion(s)

Empathy

Equality

Happiness

Human rights

Nature

Passion(s)

Religious pluralism

Sensibility

Slavery

Torture [as a supervised judicial procedure]

Requirement: In your overall examination, you are expected to refer to Lynn Hunt’s book, Inventing Human Rights; Graffigny’s novel (Letters from a Peruvian Woman, 1747-1752); Montesquieu’s or Voltaire’s plea for religious toleration; Gouges’s play (Black Slavery, 1784) and political declaration (“Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen,” 1791); and Condorcet’s political essay (“On the Admission to Women to the Rights of Citizenship,” 1790) in answering questions A and B.

Identify the two texts below (author, title of work, year) and write a 200-word comment for each, analyzing its meaning and main ideas (100 points, 50 points for each).

Text #1:
The mechanical happiness of the earliest years comes from being loved by one’s parents and welcomed by strangers. Happiness during the rest of one’s life comes from sensing the importance of our being in proportion to its becoming necessary to the happiness of another. […]. Friendship, that wise and kindly bond, should perhaps fulfill all our wishes, but it shares its affection without crime or scruple among several objects. Love, which gives and requires an exclusive preference, presents us with such an elevated, satisfying concept of our being that it alone is able to content the avid ambition for primacy that is born with us, an ambition that manifests itself in all ages, in all eras, in all states, and our natural taste for ownership then completes the process of inclining us toward love.

If possessing a piece of furniture, a jewel, or a parcel of land is one of the most pleasurable feelings we experience, what must that one be like ensuring us of the possession of a heart, a soul, a free, independent being giving itself voluntarily in exchange for the pleasure of possessing in us those same advantages!

Text #2:

Woman is born free and lives equal to man in her rights. Social distinctions can be based only on the common utility.
The purpose of any political association is the conservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of woman and man; these rights are liberty, property, security, and especially resistance to oppression.
The principle of all sovereignty rests essentially with the nation, which is nothing but the union of woman and man; no body and no individual can exercise any authority which does not come expressly from it [the nation].

*****

Requirement: In your overall examination, you are expected to refer to Lynn Hunt’s book, Inventing Human Rights; Graffigny’s novel (Letters from a Peruvian Woman, 1747-1752); Montesquieu’s or Voltaire’s plea for religious toleration; Gouges’s play (Black Slavery, 1784) and political declaration (“Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen,” 1791); and Condorcet’s political essay (“On the Admission to Women to the Rights of Citizenship,” 1790) in answering questions A and B.

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